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The several numbers of the NEWS for 1939 were mailed at the Post 
Office at Philadelphia, Pa., as follows: 

No. 1 January January 16, 1930 

2 February February 5 

" 3 March March 5 

" 4 April April 10 

" 5 May May 2 

" 6 June June 9 

" 7 July July 3 

" 8 October October 3 

9 November .November 7 

The date of mailing the December, 1930, number will be announced 
on the last page of the issue for January, 1931. 

JANUARY, 1930 


Vol. XLI No. 1 



Gunder North American Institutions Featuring Lepidoptera X ... 1 

Knull Agrilus fisheriana new name (Coleop.: Buprestidae) 3 

Knight An European Plant-bug CAdelphocoris lineolatus Goeze) found 

in Iowa (Hemip.: Miridae) 4 

Leussler Observations on Megathymus streckeri (Lepid.: Hesperiidae) 7 
Brower An Experiment in Marking Moths and Finding them Again 

(Lepid.; Noctuidae) 10 

Knull A New Species of Acmaeodera and One New Sub-species 

(Coleoptera, Buprestidae) 

Gunn A New Butterfly (Lepid.: Nymphalidae) 17 

Blatchley The Fixation of Types 

O'Byrne The Night Flight of Diurnal Butterflies (Lepid.) 

Pate A Preoccupied Name in the Oxybeline Wasps (Hym.: Sphe:idae) 20 

Entomological Literature 

Review Lubbock's Ants, Bees and Wasps 

Review Carpenter's Insects, their Structure and Life .......... 24 

Review Patton and Evans' Insects, Ticks, Mites and Venomous Animals 

of Medical and Veterinary Importance 

Obituary Thomas Nesmith Brown 29 


Logan Square 

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Act of October 3, 1917. authorixed January 15, iqai. 


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Plate I. 




VOL. XLI. JANUARY, 1930 No. 1 

North American Institutions featuring Lepidoptera. 

X. The Brooklyn Museum, Brooklyn, New York. 
Py J. D. G UNDER, Pasadena, California. 

(Plate I.) 

Xot long ago I asked Mr. George I*. Knglehardl of Brooklyn, 
N. Y., our American authority 011 the family Ae^eriidae (clear- 
wing moths), to give me some recent news about himsdf and 
also ahout the Museum with which he has been connected for 
so many years. This letter in reply will he of interest to Mr. 
Engleharclt's many good friends. 

Nov. 19, 1929. 

Am sorry for the unavoidable delay in answering your letter 
of late date. It just happens to he a very busy time for me at 
the Museum. 

Pending the completion of several tasks now in hand, I expect 
to retire from active service sometime this winter. This will 
terminate a continuous service of twenty-seven years with the 
Brooklyn Museum, but by no means will it conclude my personal 
interest in all matters pertaining to zoology and biology. On the 
contrary, I have been looking forward to the time when, relieved 
from the executive responsibilities as Curator of the Department 
of Natural Science, I may indulge more freely in serious re- 
search and particularly in such biological problems as call tor 
study and investigation in the field. 

Heretofore my duties at the Museum have left untouched 
hardly any subject connected with the natural and applied sci- 
ences. Consequently 1 have acquired a little knowledge about 
many things, but I do not claim to know a great dral about any 
one thing. Be that as it may, in retrospect I can vi-nali/.e activi- 
ties which will always remain a satisfaction and a joy. Th' 


have been opportunities for travel and exploration on this con- 
tinent, in the West Indies and in Central America, but above 
all I appreciate contacts with so many people, professional and 
novice, old and young, and the subsequent wide circle of endur- 
ing friendships in this country and abroad. 

The Brooklyn Museum, a public institution under charter of 
the City of New York, established in 1898 for the promotion 
of cultural interests, including fine arts, decorative arts, ethnol- 
ogy and natural sciences, for sometime has felt the difficult}, 
shared by all museums, of providing adequately for the devel- 
opment of so many departments. A recent action terminating 
research work in the natural sciences, left this department in 
the possession of notable study collections bereft of their sig- 
nificance and, without provision for their safety and upkeep, 
subject to deterioration or possible destruction. The approval 
of a recommendation for the transfer of research collections 
perishable in nature to institutions best equipped for their care 
and development has been a source of much satisfaction to me. 

The transfer of all our study collections of insects to the 
U. S. National Museum of Washington, D. C., supervised by 
Dr. Wm. Schaus and Mr. H. S. Barber, was completed during 
the summer. Included are the well known pioneer collections 
of lepidoptera of O. Neumoegen, E. L. Graef, George Hulst 
and others obtained by purchase or gift, as well as the very 
extensive collections in all orders secured on Museum expedi- 
tions by Jacob Doll 1 , Chas. Schaeffer and the writer. About 
1400 types are represented. Not included in this transfer are 
selections from all orders fully providing for purposes of exhi- 
bition and all materials pertaining to a so-called local collection 
with particular emphasis on the fauna of Long Island, but in 
general representative of New York state. 

Temporarily excluded also has been the family Aegeriidae, 
with numerous types, to facilitate my revision now in course of 
preparation. Combined with my own and only personal collection, 
comprising some 3,000 specimens, there will be lacking only 

1 Mr. Doll passed away on Feb. 10, 1929, at the ripe old age of eighty- 
two years. See Englehardt's "Chapters from the long life of a Butterfly 
Collector" in the Brooklyn Museum Quarterly, October, 1925. 


two or three of the 110 species so far listed fur North Amer- 
ica, while twenty or thirty mure will he added a> new. 

The transfer of such important collections to another insti- 
tution naturally has caused much discussion, tavorahle and 
otherwise. In the rapid growth of museums in this country 
there has been too much duplication of research collections and 
consequently a scattering of types, often inadequately and inac- 
cessibly housed. It is the consensus ,,f npiuion that this condi- 
tion should be adjusted through centralization, particularly ut 
the types. The appeal is made to institutions and individuals 

The Brooklyn Entomological Society 2 is the second oldest 
association of its kind in the country and has enjoyed the hos- 
pitality and the cooperation of the P.rouklyn Museum, as head- 
quarters and regular meeting place, since 1912. With an average 
attendance of twenty out of fifty active members, the meetings 
are still full of zest and interest and the affairs of the Society 
are progressing favorably. The official organs of the Society. 
the Bulletin and Eiitoiiiol<></ica Americana, are now entering 
their twenty-fifth and tenth volumes, respectively. The fol- 
lowing gentlemen have been serving as officers since 1920: 
President, William T. Davis; Secretary, Ernest L. Bell; Trea- 
surer, Geo. P. Englehardt; Editor, since 1919, J. R. cle la Torre- 

I hope this hurried resume will be of assistance to you and I 
wish I had more time to go into detail. 

Sincerely yours, 
GEO. P. EN<;LEHARDT, Curator, Department of Natural Sciences. 

Agrilus fisheriana new name (Coleop. : Buprestidae). 

Mr. \V. S. Fisher has called my attention to the fact that 
Dr. < >heiil>er^er had used the name .1,/riliis fislieri in Philip. 
four. Sci., vol. 25. no. 5. 1 ( >24, p. 591. I therefore propose the 
name /islicrimni instead of jislicri For tin- species described by 
me in Ent. News. vol. 40, p. 271, 1929. J. . KNULL, I'.ureau 
of Plant Industry. 1 larri-burg, Pennsylvania. 

'For an interesting and cnmprelu-iisi\v historj of 
Ann. Ent. Soc. Am., pp. 392-400, no. 2, vol. XXII, Sept., 1". 

an article by Mr. Enslclianlt mtitled, ''The 
Entomological Societies, past and -" 



An European Plant-bug (Adelphocoris lineolatus 
Goeze) found in Iowa (Hemip. : Miridae).* 

By HARRY H. KNIGHT, Ames, Iowa. 

While conducting a field trip with a class in general ento- 
mology, June 18, 1929, at Ames, Iowa, the writer took in his 
collecting net the first specimen of Adelphocoris lineolatus 
Goeze known from the United States. This species was pre- 
viously known from North America, but only from Cape 
Breton Island when the writer recorded it in 1922 (Can. Ent., 
liii, p. 287). It was indeed a great surprise to look into my 
collecting net and see this large plant bug running about for the 
first time, and to realize that I was actually collecting in Iowa. 
When this first specimen was safely bottled I proceeded to 
sweep the herbaceous vegetation along a fence row for a dis- 
tance of about forty feet. An examination of my net revealed two 
more specimens of Adelphocoris lineolatus Goeze, also one or 
more specimens of Miris dolabratus Linn., Stenotus binotatus 
Fab., Mcgaloccroea rccticornis Geoff., Capsus atcr Linn, and 
Trigonotylus ruficornis Geoff. A few minutes later, Capsus 
siinulans Stal was also taken, likewise two more specimens of 
lineolatus. This assortment of Palearctic species is rather re- 
markable I should say and can scarcely be duplicated from any 
other locality in North America. On June 22, I swept over 
the same ground without taking another specimen of lineo- 
latus Goeze. I thought the species must be rare and that it 
might be another year before additional specimens could be 
taken. However, one of my students, Mr. R. L. Preston, took 
two specimens on June 30, along a road near the Agronomy 
farm just south of Ames. On July 2, we made a special trip 
to this point to search for the unusual Mind. 1 soon began 
taking one or two specimens with each series of sweeps with 
the net. Within half an hour T found that most of the adults 
and many nymphs were to be found on alfalfa and sweet 
clover. Further collecting has shown that lineolatus is breed- 
ing in large numbers on both these plants, and nymphs are 

*Contribution from the Department of Zoology and Entomology, 
Iowa State College. 


rare if not absent on other plants. During July the bug has 
been found in such large numbers on alfalfa and sweet clover 
that it suggests the possibility of becoming a pest on these 

important plants. I will take this occasion to propose the 
common name "Alfalfa plant-bug" for Jilclpliocoris lincnlatiis 

In F.urope A. liitcolatiis Goeze has been reported as found 
on Chcnopodinni, '/'rifolhini, Lci/nininosm', I' mhcUifcrac, Rr\n- 
giuin, (.\tnlitii.\\ Suk'ia, llnphorbia, and L'alluna. Fallen (1807) 
described our bug as new under the name Ly</ncits clicnopodii, 
indicating what he took to be the host plant. As yet we have 
not found ii breeding on Chenopodium in Iowa. 

The question ot when and where . Idelphocoris liiicolatits 
( ioe/c was introduced into Iowa is a point which will become 
of more interest as time passes and the bug is found in ad- 
joining states. Mr. R. L. Preston is making a survey of its 
distribution while working on the life history of the species 
and will report his results at some future time. Just now it 
seems rather likely that the point of introduction was at Ames 
or i)es M oines, with Ames mure nearly the center of distri- 
bution as found by Mr. Preston. Mow long it has taken this 
insect to attain its present abundance and distribution is a 
question of interest to us. \o specimens were taken in l''-S, 
vet the writer and -evcral students did fully as much collecting 
in this area last summer. I Hiring July, many specimens of 
lincoldtus have been taken about electric lights on the campus; 
also we have found it very abundant in fields of alfalfa and 
sweet clover. The species lias certainly increased greatly in 
numbers since 1 last summer, or we most certainly would ha\e 
found it then. A guess is not worth much but I would suggest 
that the species must have gotten its start from three to live 
years .ago. Mr. Preston has taken specimens over an area ot 
about 75 mill's from south to north with Ames about the center 
of distribution. 

Should this insect develop into a pest on alfalfa, as it gives 
some promise, it will become of wide interest and concern. In 
any case it represents the introduction and spread of an exotic 


species, and as a biological problem, will interest many students 
of entomology. No doubt the species was imported into Iowa 
in the egg stage, which could easily happen if parts of the host 
plant were used as packing in some shipment of material from 
Europe. Just what materials have been shipped into our area 
is a matter we hope to investigate as opportunity permits. 

It is hoped this notice may stimulate collectors in the states 
bordering Iowa and that some may sweep alfalfa and sweet 
clover during the next two or three years and report the occur- 
rence and spread of Adelphocoris lineolatus Goeze. 

As an aid for recognition of the species the following gen- 
eral description is given : 

$ . Length 8 mm., width 2.8 mm. General coloration pale 
yellowish with a tinge of brown and dusky ; scutellum with 
two fine, longitudinal fuscous marks on middle, corium usually 
with a triangular fuscous area on apical half, cuneus pale, 
membrane fuscous. Antennae yellowish to brown, apical half 
darker and usually reddish brown. Legs yellowish, femora 
with many black dots, anterior aspect with two rows of some- 
what larger spots ; tibial spines black, without distinct spots 
at base. Clothed with simple, pale yellowish pubescence, but 
black on the legs. 

Head: width 1.36 mm., vertex .42 mm. Antennae: segment 
I, length .98 mm.; II, 2.87 mm.; Ill, 2.2 mm.; IV, 1.3 mm. 
Pronotum : length 1.3 mm., width at base 2.25 mm. 

9 . Length 7.5 mm., width 2.9 mm. More robust than the 
male and usually somewhat paler in color, but otherwise very 
similar in form and coloration. 

Nymph, fifth instar. Length 5.5 mm., width 2.4 mm. Head : 
width 1.17 mm., vertex .52 mm. Antennae: segment I, length 
.73 mm. ; II, 2.3 mm. ; III, 2 mm., IV, .85 mm. Color uniform- 
ly yellowish green, third and fourth antennal segments reddish 
brown, tips of wing pads becoming fuscous. Legs uniformly 
pale yellowish and marked with black spots as in the adult. 
Dorsum and legs set with short stiff black hairs ; antennae 
clothed with black pubescence. 

Size slightly larger than .Idclphocoris rapid us Say, but easily 
distinguished by the paler color. The general habits and actions 
of lincolu/ its Goeze are very similar to our native species, but 
it runs about in the net even more swiftly than rapid us Say. 


Observations on Megathymus streckeri 
(Lepid.: Hesperiidae). 

J'y \\. A. LEUSSLER, < hnaha, Nebraska. 

hi the sand hills of Nebraska where llic yucca flourishes, there 
is found a race of Mct/utliyiuits strcckcri which appears to be 
intermediate between slrcckcri Skinner and strcckcri.-tc.rnna B. 
K Mel). 

This race, however, as shown in a series of specimens from 
this locality, is so extremely variable in all its characters that 
I do not deem it advisable to propose a name for it. 

('oinparrd with streckeri-streckeri, and speaking generally, 
both males and females average somewhat larger and lack the 
light-brown shading of the discal area of the under surface of 
the secondaries. The males have the spots on the upper side 
of primaries noticeably larger, and on the under side both 
larger and better defined. The white spots on the under side 
of secondaries are less pronounced, and the dark blotches found 
in streckeri-streckeri when the spots are reduced, are almost 
entirely obsolete. In the females a prominent band of from 
4 to u spots on the upper surface of the secondaries constitutes 
the chief difference. On the under surface of the secondaries 
this sex has the spots more yellowish than in streckeri-streckeri. 

Judging from the original description of race tc.rana and 
the figure of the female type, the Nebraska race is pretty clo-i- 
to tc.vanu, but as a rule the following differences can be noted: 
It averages larger in both sexes, although some individuals are 
quite as small as 'he types of that race; the spots mi under 
surface of secondaries are more pronounced and in the female 
are yellowish; the spots on upper surface are not as d< 
orange yellow as in tc.vniui. and in the female the band ot spots 
on upper surface of secondaries is better developed, although 
occasional small specimens appear which have the spots no 
better developed than tc.vuini. As stated above, there is a 
great deal of variation in Nebraska specimens. This variation 
is in the si/e of the insects; in the shape and size f spots J in 


the number and color of spots. Some of the males match up 
pretty well with streckeri-streckeri, some of the females with 
streckeri-texana and some with an unnamed female supposedly 
from northern Texas which B. & McD. have suggested may he 
intermediate between streckeri-streckeri and streckeri-texana. 
It is my opinion that the Nebraska race is exactly that, i. c., 
intermediate between the two named races, and that it is very 

The insect flies in the sand hills from about the 5th of June 
until the latter part of that month. The males have a habit of 
settling on last year's flower stalks of the yucca plant with the 
forewings folded together and the hindwings in a horizontal 
position. In this posture they greatly resemble old dry seed 
pods of the yucca and are hard to detect. They are wary and 
hard to approach. When alarmed their flight is swift and they 
usually fly over the top of a hill and are lost to view. Their 
principal flight is from 9 in the morning until 3 in the after- 
noon. The females appear about a week later than the males. 
They are less active, sitting for the most part at the base of 
yucca plants with wings tightly folded. After the females 
appear the males become very active. They circle about in 
swift flight, in overlapping circles or fly zigzag fashion, fre- 
quently dropping back and seeming to explore the same ground 
over and over again. 

Oslar has stated that the female of strcckeri is crepuscular 
and that oviposition occurs from sunset until well into the 
night. My own observation does not bear out this statement. 
At least not as regards the strcckeri of the sand hills. The 
females were observed to be ovipositing in the afternoon in 
brightest sunshine. Their flight at this time is quite slow and 
they seem so occupied with their purpose that it is not difficult 
to approach them. Soon after 4 o'clock both sexes become 
inactive, seeking resting places in the sparse grass or on the 
bare sand where they are hard to see. When flushed up they 
fly some distance and again settle as before. This they repeat 


as often as they are flushed up. On the evening of one da\ 
when the insects had been on the wing in numbers. I made it 
a point to visit their haunts from 6 o'clock until dark and could 
not find a single individual although other butterflies ( Xntlwlis 
iolc, Euptou'ta claitditt and I'icris f>rot<> <//'<v ) \vcrc observed, as 
well as Noctuid moths and beetles. 

When ovipositing, the females, if not disturbed, lly from 
plant to plant, frequently resting to deposit an egg. The egg 
is deposited on either upper or under side of the yucca leaf 
about midway between the bast' and tip. The egg is smooth, 
bluish green in color, somewhat whitish at the crown. It is 
flattened and measures 4 mm. in circumference and 2 mm. in 
height. An egg secured immediately after it was deposited 
on June 14, hatched out June 2(i. The larva was 5 mm. in 
length, pale salmon pink in color with large black head and 
black on first segment back of the head. It ate the tender part 
of a yucca leaf and formed a cylindrical case in which it con- 
cealed itself. ( )n June 2^. it apparently had passed through 
its first moult, as it was considerably longer, lighter in color 
and the head was smaller in proportion. \Yhen u days old 
the larva gave evidence of its burrowing habit by boring into 
the cork of the bottle in which it was kept. When extricated 
and given the thick part of a fresh yucca leaf it burrowed into 
the fleshy part of the leaf and ate its \va\ along the inside of 
the leaf, making a channel barely larger in diameter than the 
thickness of the larva itself. When resting, the larva does not 
remain at the- end of this channel but draws hack some dis- 
tance. On July l.\ it was - ; [ inch long, dirty-white in color 
with dark head and dark spot on first segment. < )ii that date 
I placed the young larva on a yucca plant in the open, when it 
entered the leaf from the under side, made its way. over a period 
of several days, to the main stalk and is apparently making its 
way downward into the root. At the point where tin- stalk 
meets the ground line the larva left a hole in which it will pre- 
sumably pupate next May. 


An Experiment in Marking Moths and Finding them 
Again (Lepid.: Noctuidae). 

By ALTBURN E. BROWER, Willarcl, Missouri 
(Map, Plate II.) 

The spread of species, the migration of flocks, and the rec- 
ords of individuals outside the usual range of the species have 
all been the subject of many scientific papers. The migratory 
swarms of Alabama argilhtcca, the cutworm moths, and other 
pests have received much attention from economic entomolo- 
gists, But I have been unable to find any empirical data regard- 
ing the movement of marked individuals of the moths. The 
chances of ever again finding a marked moth are so small that 
nothing positive seems to have been ascertained regarding the 
movements of the individuals. In some sections, however, the 
genus Catocala seems to offer a chance for positive data as to 
the movements of individuals. Large in size, showy in color, 
single-brooded, of many species and forms, and in some locali- 
ties found by day resting low-down on tree trunks, they offer 
a combination of characteristics which lend themselves to such 
an investigation. 

In 1927 plans were made to mark some Catocalas and at- 
tempt to find them again, but the first requisite to finding them 
on tree trunks a stretch of hot, dry w 7 eather during the height 
of the Catocala season was absent. Again in 1928, weather 
conditions were unsatisfactory. In 1929 the happy combination 
of numbers of Catocalas with a severe drouth in the height of 
the Catocala season resulted in the following work. 

The locality (seven miles northeast of Willarcl, Missouri) is 
in the Ozark Mountains in southwest Missouri, at an elevation 
of about 1050-1340 feet. The timbered hills bordering the 
higher lands are the best Catocala country. The area selected, 
about 1x1^2 miles, has been my favorite collecting ground for 
the last fourteen years. The area contains four separated hol- 
lows, each a good collecting ground, separated by ridges and 
unfavorable hollows. In each of these hollows, except Long 
Hollow, the area occupied by the moths during hot, dry weather 
is compact enough so that it can be covered in a half-day. 


Lacquers were found to he most satisfactory for marking 
the moths, as a non-flowing, quick-drying material is needed. 
Thick oil colors were satisfactory. With enamels, the scales 
had to he partially removed. ( )rdinary paint was unsatisfactory. 
Fine, short-bristled enamel hrushes proved best, and all coloring 
materials needed hrushing in, especially on some fresh moths. 

A different color was used in each hollow. Bright green, 
white, red and purple were used, with yellow for some of the 
last moths. In each locality, on the first half day, the right 
fore-wing was marked, the next time the left wing, then hoth 
wings were similarly marked, and lastly the wings were marked 
differently. By using two colors many comhinations would he- 
easy. Each individual of a species or form received a different 
mark or combination of marks. Each insect as taken was given 
a consecutive number in a note-book, a sketch was made of the 
marked wing or wings, and the location of the tree on which it 
was captured was recorded. 

The cyanide jar (sodium cyanide) was used to stupefy the 
insects. A few were netted, but they were rubbed in the net 
and struggled so violently while being marked that considerable 
injury resulted, and none of them was ever found again. The 
original plan, to mark them as they rested on trees, was also 
abandoned, except for occasional specimens. The scales shed 
off coloring materials so readily that great difficult}- was found 
in getting on any color, and the frightened moth had to be fol- 
lowed to see what, if any, mark had resulted.' which could not 
always be done. With the cvanide jar. the moth could be 
turned out as perfect in appearance as before being caught, and 
any marking (which should not be too heavy) brushed into 
the scales. The sketch of the wing and marks could lie- accurate- 
ly made, and, if the moth were turned out as S<H>H as the strug- 
gles ceased, it would often be crawling up on a tree by the time 
the data had been re-corded. Time and a-ain individuals which 
had been marked were- observe-d again he-tore work was disci in 
tinned in that hollow. As soon as t!u-\ recovered I'mm tin- 
effects ol the gas, the-v took the- normal head-down pnsiimn 
low-down on the- tree- trunk^, and it the-y wen- llu>he-d later, 
behaved normally in every way so far as I could see-. 



Han., '30 

































" : 









































Ilia . 





























Normani .... 















































































































Palaeogama . . 










































































IGSps. SVara... 










1 1 









"These numbers refer to the areas where marking work was carried on upon that date. 

The decrease in numbers of marked insects toward the end of the work is partly due to unfavorable weather- 
but it is largely due to the fact that the time was devoted to searching for Catocalas marked instead of marking more- 


Plate 11. 



So many factors, such as li/ards, squirrels, other insects, 
direct sunlight, wind-swayed vegetation and thunder storms 
cause the moths to change their position that they are not greatly 
frightened by their capture and marking. The number of times 
some individuals were found is proof that they do not desert the 
locality. Usually, marked individuals were recognized before 
being disturbed, and that was the end always sought. 

The period when the work was carried on, July 24 to August 
6, is the height of the Catocala season. The first six days were 
an unbroken stretch of hot, dry, and calm days. Light, hot 
winds blew from the west some days, and then the moths were 
most abundant, especially females. IVginning the night of July 
29, local showers and cool winds at times resulted in disturbing 
meteorological conditions which continued to the end, the work 
terminating with a rain the night of August 5. Xo rain fell 
in the area except very light showers July 30 and August 3. 
August 4 was clear and bright, but with a cool east wind scarce- 
ly a Catocala could be found. The table shows the effects of 
the unsettled weather. 


ILIA, marked July 25, in Main Hollow. Found July 30, 50 

yards east.* 
ILIA, marked July 27, in Xorth Hollow. Found August 3, 70 

yards southwest. 
NEOGAMA, marked July 24, in Main Hollow. Found July 28, 

125 yards southwest. 
XKOCA.MA, marked July 2(> in Long Hollow. Found July 28, 1 

mile south of west. 
NEOGAMA, marked July 26, in Long Hollow. Found August 1, 

25 yards north. 
NEOGAMA, marked July J7, in Xorth Hollow. Found August 

3, 7 yards west. 
NEO<;.\M.\, marked July 2 ( l in Long Hollow. Found August 

3, 1 mile north of west. 
NEOGAMA, marked July 29, in Long Hollow. Found August 

1, 125 yards southeast. 

*Part of the distances were paced, the others are estimates made on 
the ground. 


NEOGAMA, marked August 1, in Long Hollow. Found August 

3, 175 yards south. 
AMIGA, marked July 26, in Long Hollow. Found August 3, 45 

yards east. 
AMIGA form NERISSA, marked July 26, in Long Hollow. Found 

August 1, 330 yards northwest. 
AMIGA form NERISSA, marked July 27, in North Hollow. Found 

July 28, 25 yards southwest. 
AMIGA, marked August 1, in Long Hollow. Found August 3, 

100 yards east. 
EPIONE, marked July 24, in Main Hollow. Found July 25, in 

the same place. 
INNUBENS, marked July 24, in South Hollow. Found July 25. 

15 yards east and July 26, 78 yards west. 
INNUBENS, marked July 24, in Main Hollow. Found July 25, 

INNUBENS, marked July 25, in South Hollow. Found July 26, 

330 yards east, and July 29, 360 yards east. 
INNUBENS, marked July 27, in Long Hollow. Found July 29, 

10 yards west. 
INNUBENS, marked July 29, in Long Hollow. Found August 

1, 35 yards northeast. 
INNUBENS, marked July 29, in Long Hollow. Found August 

1, 235 yards northwest. 
LACRYMOSA, marked July 26, in Long Hollow. Found August 

1, 90 yards northeast. 
LACRYMOSA, marked July 29, in Long Hollow. Found August 

1, 25 yards west. 
LACRYMOSA, marked August 1, in Long Hollow. Found August 

3, 220 yards southeast. 
PALAEOGAMA, marked July 26, in Long Hollow. Found July 

29, 80 yards southwest. 
PALAEOGAMA, marked July 26, in Long Hollow. Found August 

3, 40 yards northwest. 

PALAEOGAMA, marked August 1, in Long Hollow. Found Au- 
gust 3, 40 yards south. 
RESIDUA, marked July 24, in Main Hollow. Found July 25, 

100 yards northeast and July 30. where marked. 


RESIDUA, marked July 26, in Long Hollow. Found July 27, 

25 yards southeast, July _"', X5 yards southeast and August 

3, where marked. 
RKSIDTA, marked July 26, in I -on-' Hollow. Found August 1, 

43 yards southeast. 
VIDUA, marked July 25. in South Hollow. Found July 29, 60 

yards southeast. 

(To be continued) 


This map shows the section where the moths were marked. 
Unless otherwise indicated, the region is all timbered. The 
farm lands are stippled, and the cut-over land is obliquely 
shaded. The numbers and names of the four areas or hollows 
(enclosed by solid lines), where actual marking work was 
carried on. are used as column headings in the tabulation of 
moths marked and in the list of returns. Thus the area in 
which every moth was marked is given. Some of the places 
labeled on the map are unmentioned in the text, these and many 
more served as a basis for note-book entries of the exact place 
where every moth was marked or was found again on some 
later date. 

A New Species of Acmaeodera and One New Sub- 
species (Coleoptera, Buprestidae). 

By J. N. KNULL, Pennsylvania Bureau of Plant Industry. 


Acmaeodera pinalorum new species. 

Form and size of *lcimico<lcra t/uttifcni Lee., color dark 
bronze, elytra bluish black, each elytron with eleven irregular 
yellow spots (paratype with twelve spots which is probably a 
variable character). Head densely strongly punctured, front 
with Ion- white pubescence-, antennae serrate, beginning with 
the lit'th joint. 

Pronotum wider than long, widest in front of middle; front 
narrower than base, convex, sides hmadK rounded from base to 
apex, side margins not visible from above, surface densely 
coarsely punctured, punctures coarser and continent at sides, 
a short stiff hair arising from each puncture. Flytra at ba-e 
as wide as base of pronotum. slightly wider back of base, sides 
sinuate on apical third, broadly rounded toward apices, side 


margins serrate on apical half, surface with striae more evident 
on apical third, punctures of striae coarse, intervals each with 
a single series of fine punctures, each puncture with a short 
stiff hair. 

Beneath densely coarsely punctured, puhescence short, pro- 
sternum produced in front into a broadly emarginate lobe which 
is rounded at ends, edge of last ventral turned down forming 
an apical plate, no trace of subapical plate. Length 8 mm., 
width 2.5 mm. 

Described from two specimens labeled base of Final Moun- 
tains, ARIZONA, July, altitude 4,000 feet, Duncan and Parker, 
collectors. T\pc in writer's collection, paratype in the collection 
of Mr. D. K. Duncan who kindly allowed me to retain the 

This species would fall in group Acmaeodera Lobatae.* 
Professor Fall kindly examined both insects herein described. 

Acmaeodera gibbula gila new subspecies. 

Size and form of Acmaeodera gibbula Lee., color of body, 
head and pronotum bronze, elytra dark blue, entire insect void 
of yellow markings. Head densely coarsely punctured, thickly 
clothed with long white pubescence, antennae serrate beginning 
with fifth joint. 

Pronotum twice as wide as long, sides regularly arcuately 
narrowed from base to apex, impressions moderately deep, side 
margins not visible from above, surface closely punctate, clothed 
with long white pubescence. Elytra at base as wide as base of 
pronotum, slightly wider just back of base, sides sinuate, then 
nearly parallel to back of middle, strongly rounded to apices, 
side margins strongly serrate back of middle, surface with striae 
more evident on apical third, second, third and fifth intervals 
more convex toward base, punctures coarser toward sides, very 
small in center toward base ; intervals each with single series 
of fine punctures, a short stiff hair arising from each puncture. 

Beneath densely punctured, legs and ventral surface with 
long white pubescence, prosternum produced in front into a 
subrectangular lobe which is truncate in front ; last ventral 
with a thin broad apical plate which gives the appearance of a 
double margin. Length 9.5 mm., width 3.5 mm. 

Described from a specimen in the collection of the writer 
labeled Gila River Valley, San Carlos, ARIZONA, August, D. K. 
Duncan collector. 

*H. C. Fall Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc., V. 7, P. 35, 1899. 


A New Butterfly (Lepid.: Nymphalidae). 

By NORMAN R. GUXN, 1951 Yosemite Road. I'.crkclev, Calif. 

Melitaea palla (Bdv). Ah. hemifusa nov. 

Upper surfaces: Primaries Typical as in male palla (Hclv). 
Secondaries Submarginal and next two adjoining rows <it" 
spots arc- completely fused together. The hasal area of secon- 
daries is completely ohscured by hlack. except for one elon- 
gated spot which does not varv from typical /> ,://</. Marginal 
row ol spots same as in [<ala hill separated from fused area bv 
a narrow hlack hand. 

Under surfaces: I'riinaries Yellow area reduced and fu-ed 
at apex. Black markings reduced. Sccoinlarics Marginal 
row of spots normal hut 1 (ordered on inner side hy a distinct 
hlack line. Submarginal and adjoining two rows fused with 
yellow. The third marginal row of spots is not completely oh- 
scured and is reduced as it near.s inner margin of secondaries. 
Basal area ohscured hv red except for one \el1ow spot. This 
fusion of yellow is similar to that of ah. ahnonna (Wrighl ) of 
Melitaea hoffmani (Behr). 

Classification: Ah. Hemi fusion. Secondaries well fused. 
primaries normal. 

Data: Holotype male. Expanse 35 mm. Cazadero, Sonoma 
County, California. May 18. 1929 (G. K. Bohart, Collector), 
llolotype in the Bohart collection at Berkeley, California. 

Life History:.' Prohahly same as in palla. Refer to Coin- 
stock's "Butterflies of California" for information. 

The Fixation of Types. 

By \Y. S. BLA ICHLF.V, Indianapolis, Indiana. 
"The type specimen in biology is that individual of animal 
or plant, 01 m part of one, from which the description of a 
species has been prepared and upon which a specific name ha- 
been based. It is the actual object which serves as the type 
of a species in /.oology or botany. Type -pcameiis have a par 
ticular part and lii^h value in descriptive zoolog) and botany, 
conijiaralile to that of the actual object which is taken a> the 
authoritative standard in any sy-tem of \\ei^hts. measures, or 
coinage. \\'hen available for examination they take precedence 
over any published description or figure and are conrlusive 
evidence in cases of doubtful or disputed spirilic identity." 


Accepting the above as a full and, in my opinion, an excellent 
definition of a type, the question arises as to who best knows 
what that type is. Is it the author of the species who has used 
a certain individual specimen as most typical of the form which 
he has described and who has placed aside that individual and 
labeled it with the name he has given it and the word "type" ; 
or is it some other human who has never seen the author's true 
and only labeled type, but who, impressed perhaps by the im- 
portance of his own superior knowledge of the particular group 
to which the species in question belongs, "fixes" and designates 
a specimen in another collection as the type of the species in 
question ? 

In the past it has been my custom, when describing what I 
consider a new species, to select a certain typical individual 
specimen and to attach to it a red label "type." I have not 
always designated as part of the description this particular spec- 
imen as the "holotype" as I expected in time to prepare a single 
paper in which I would designate or fix the holotypes of all 
the species I have described. 2 

On pages 625 and 626 of the Orthoptcra of Northeastern 
America, I described as new two species of camel crickets, 
Ccuthophilus davisi and Ceuthophilus rchcbi, from specimens 
furnished me by W. T. Davis, of Staten Island, New York. 
I picked out the most typical example of each, labeled it with 
a red label "type" and placed on the pin also the name which 
I had given it. I retained these types in my collection and re- 
turned part of the other specimens to Mr. Davis. In the Florida 
Entomologist, XIII, 1929, pp. 18 and 19, Mr. T. H. Hubbell 
has made rchcbi a synonym of dai'isi and has designated or 
"fixed" a certain specimen of each in the Davis collection as a 
"lectoholotype." Now I do not know, nor do I care, what the 
ruling of the Entomological Code is in such a case as this. I 
hold that it is an unjust and unreasonable procedure for the 
following reasons: (a), The author of the species is still living 
and has in his own collection the original holotype labeled as 
such; (b), The examples so labeled in the Davis collection may 
or may not be part of the cotypes which I examined and re- 

1 Century Dictionary, Vol VIII, p. 6562. The Italics are mine. 

2 This paper is now completed and ready for the press. 


turned to Mr. Davis as such, as he had numerous other ex 
amples of the same specie; (r). In similar procedures a person 
fixing a type, without seeing the one labeled as such 1>y tin- 
original author, may even designate an example of a different 
species or a different genus from the one originally described 
under that name. Had I died without labeling a specimen in 
my collection as "type" then, and then alone, would Mr. llub- 
bell be justified in his action, and not even then until he had 
carefully compared the specimen so designated with those in 
my collection under that name. 

The designating of a single specimen by the author as the 
"type" and the term "holotype" used therefor are both recent 
but very useful practices. According to llenshaw. Dr. J. L. 
Leconte named as new species 4734 forms of Coleoptera and, 
according to Calvert. Dr. G. H. Horn named 15SJ. In very 
few instances did either of these authors designate a holotypc. 
Maj. T. L. Casey named probably eight or ten thousand species 
and it was not his practice to name holotypes in connection 
with his descriptions. H. C. Fall has named approximately 
1200 and it is only in his later writings that he designates holo- 
types in the notes following his descriptions. If other author- 
were to follow Mr. Hubbell and designate lectoholotypes of 
numerous species described by these authors but outside of 
their original collections, there would be a veritable hod 
podge of nomenclatorial confusion. The action of Mr. Hub- 
bell, whatever the Kntomological ('ode may hold, is. in my 
opinion, much like the heirs meeting and attempting to divide 
a man's property who is on his death bed but yet alive: or like 
a Governor appointing a man to till an office while his prede- 
cessor, though expected to die, is yet living and still holding 
the office. 

In conclusion I will say that the holotypc of t'cnlln>phi!ns 
ilttrisi is a male, labeled "Staten Island, X. V.. Aug., I'M/". Coll. 
by \Y. T. Davis" and that of (.'cutliaplrilnx rclichi is a male 
labeled "Yaphank, X. Y., Aug. 2<>. 1916 ' oil. by W. T. Davis. 
Both are in the collection of \Y. S. I'.latchley, and not in that 
of YV. T. Davis, and they will be "fixed" as holotypcs. not lec- 
toholotypes, in the paper above mentioned \\bicb will soon he- 


The Night Flight of Diurnal Butterflies (Lepid.). 

Butterflies are day-flying creatures, while most moths fly by 
night. There are exceptions, however, and it is a well-known 
fact that a few certain species of moths normally fly by day, 
but the meagre records of night flights of butterflies indicate 
that this is an abnormal or unusual condition. 

Scudcler deals with this topic in a chapter, entitled "Butter- 
flies at Night",* in which he says that butterflies fly by day 
and generally by the brightest day and in tbe clearest weather, 
yet some groups love the forest gloom; a few favor twilight, 
and the exceptions to the general rule are those which fly by 
night. He then lists the following instances of this unusual 
condition : 

Eugonui j-album, the Compton tortoise, hundreds of which 
had flown to a light-house lantern on the Island of Nantucket. 

Chlorippc ccltis, which is reported by Miss Murtfeldt as 
entering an open window at 10 o'clock one August evening. 

Anosia plexippus, recorded by Merriam in large swarms that 
flew against and obscured the light of a light-house on Lake 

Anosia plexippus, ] r aucssa atalanta, V. cardui, V . huntci'a, 
Euvanessa antiopa, Cyaniris psendargiolus and Euphocadcs Iroi- 
lus, recorded by Mr. Henry Edwards. 

These seem to be the only records up to the time of Scucl- 
der's publication. I hereby append my own notes, in the hope 
of arousing students to make further observations on this inter- 
esting behavior; they all refer to one spot in St. Louis, Mis- 
souri, and the time is Central Standard. 

Phyciodcs tlwros Dru. May 17, 1929. Flying around light 
at 11 p.m. 

Pholisora hayJnirstii Edw. June 11, 1929. Active at 9:15 p.m. 

Epargyrcus titynts Eabr. June 7, 1929. Found on floor, 
dead, in artificially lighted room. 

Papilio troilus L. July, 1929. Male observed flying around 
indoor 200-watt light after 1 1 p.m. 

The study of periodicity in insects is now coming to the fore, 
and data of this kind are of value in solving problems, not only 
on when insects become active, but also why they become active 
at certain periods in each cycle of twenty-four hours. 

HAROLD O'BYRNE, Webster Groves, Missouri. 

A Preoccupied Name in the Oxybeline Wasps 
(Hyrn. : Sphecidae). 

Oxybelus taprobanensis nom. nov. 

O. \-ybclus ccyloniciis Cameron, Ann. <!v Mag. Nat. Hist. 1900, 
V: 40; nee Oxybelus ccylonicus Cameron, Mem. & Proc. Man- 
chester Lit. & Phil. Soc: 1897, XLI :79. V. S. L. PATE. 

*In his Frail Children of the Air. 

List of the Titles of Periodicals and Serials Referred to by 

Numbers in Entomological Literature 

in Entomological News. 

1. Transactions of The American Entomological Society. Philadelphia. 

2. Entomologische Blatter, red. v. H. Eckstein etc. Berlin. 

3. Annals of the Carnegie Museum. Pittsburgh, Pa. 

4. Canadian Entomologist. London, ( anada. 

5. Pysche, A Journal of Entomology. Boston, Mass. 

6. Journal of the New York Entomological Society. New York. 

7. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. Columbus, Ohio. 

8. Entomologists' Monthly Magazine. London. 

9. The Entomologist. London. 

10. Proceedings of the Ent. Soc. of Washington. Washington, D. C. 

11. Deutsche entomologische Zeitschrift. Berlin. 

12. Journal of Economic Entomology, Geneva, N. Y. 

13. Journal of Entomology and Zoology. Claremont, Cal. 

14. Entomologische Zeitschrift. Frankfurt a. M., Germany. 

15. Natural History. American Museum of Natural History. New York. 

16. American Journal of Science. New Haven, Conn. 

17. Entomologische Rundschau. Stuttgart, Germany. 

IX. Internationale entomologische Zeitschrift. Guben, Germany. 

I' 1 . Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society. Brooklyn, N. Y. 

20. Societas entomologica. Stuttgart, Germany. 

21. The Entomologists' Record and Journal of Variation. London. 

22. Bulletin of Entomological Research. London. 

23. Bollettino del I.aboratorio di Zoologia generate e agraria della 

R. Scnola superiorc d'Agricultura in Portici. Italy. 

24. Annales de la societe entomologique de France. Paris. 

25. Bulletin de la societe entomologiiiue de France. Paris. 

26. Entomologischer An/cigor, hersg. Adolf Hoffmann. Wien, Austria. 

27. Bolletino della Socicta Entomologica. Gcnovu, Italy. 

JX Ent. Tidskrift ulgifen af Ent. Foreningen i Stockholm. Sweden. 

2 ( >. Animal Report of the Ent. Society of Ontario. Toronto, Canada. 

30. The Maine Naturalist. Thornaston. Maine. 

31. Nature. London. 

32. Boletim do Miiscu Nacional do Rio de Janicro. Brazil. 

33. Bull, et Annales de la Societe entomologique de Belgique. Bruxelles. 

34. Zoologischer Anzeiger, hrsg. v. 1C. Korschelt. Leipzig. 

35. The Annals of Applied Biology. Cambridge, England. 

36. Transactions of t'i<' Entomological Society of London. England. 

37. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society. Honolulu. 

38. Bull, of the Southern California Academy of Sciences. Los Angeles. 

39. The Florida Entomologist. Gainesville, Fla. 

40. American Museum Novitatcs. New York. 

41. Mitteilungen der schweiz. ent. Gesellschaft. Schaffhausen, Switzerland. 

42. The Journal of Experimental /oology. Philadelphia. 

43. Ohio Journal of Sciences. Columbus, Ohio. 

44. Revisla chilena de historia natural. YalparaiMi, Chile. 

45. Zeitschrift fiir \vissenschaftliche Insektenbiologie. Berlin. 

46. Zcit-chrift fiir Morphologic und <">kologie der Tiere. Berlin. 

47. Journal of Agricultural Res. 'arch. Washington. D. C. 

48. Wiener entomologische Zeitung. Wien, Au.-tria. 

49. Entomologische Mitteilungen. Berlin. 

50. Proceedings of the U. S. National Museum. Wa-lnnuton, D. C. 

51. Notulae cntomologicae, ed. Soc. ent. lieNingt'orv HeKingfors, Finland. 

52. Archiv fiir Naturgcschichte, hrsg. v. E. Strand. Berlin. 

53. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science. London. 

54. Annales de Parasitologie Humaine et Comparee. Paris. 

55. Pan-Pacific Entomologist. San Francisco, Cal. 

56. "Konowia". Zeit. fiir systematische Insektenkunde. Wien, Austria. 

57. La Feuille des Naturalistes. Paris. 

58. Entomologische Berichten. Nederlandsche ent. Ver. Amsterdam. 

59. Encyclopedic entomologique, ed. P. Lechevalier. Paris. 

60. Stettiner entomologische Zeitung. Stettin, Germany. 

61. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences. San Francisco. 

62. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. New York. 

63. Deutsche entomologische Zeitschrift "Iris". Berlin. 

64. Zeitschrift des osterr. entomologen-Vereines. Wien. 

65. Zeitschrift fiir angewandte Entomologie, hrsg. K. Escherich. Berlin. 

66. Report of the Proceedings of the Entomological Meeting. Pusa, India. 

67. University of California Publications, Entomology. Berkeley, Cal. 

68. Science. New York. 

69. Comptes rendus hebdoma. des seances de 1' Academic des sciences. Paris. 

70. Entomologica Americana, Brooklyn Entomological Society. Brooklyn. 

71. Novitates Zoologicae. Tring, England. 

72. Revue russe d'Entomologie. Leningrad, USSR. 

73. Quarterly Review of Biology. Baltimore, Maryland. 

74. Sbornik entomolog. narodniho musea v Praze. Prague, Czechoslavokia. 

75. Annals and Magazine of Natural History. London. 

76. The Scientific Monthly. New York. 

77. Comptes rendus heb. des seances et memo, de la soc. de biologic. Paris. 

78. Bulletin Biologique de la France et de la Belgique. Paris. 

79. Koleopterologische Rundschau. Wien. 

80. Lepidopterologische Rundschau, hrsg. Adolf Hoffmann. Wien. 

81. Folia myrmecol. et termitol. hrsg. Anton Krausse. Bernau bei Berlin. 

82. Bulletin, Division of the Natural History Survey. Urbana, Illinois. 

83. Arkiv for zoologie, K. Svenska Vetenskapsakademien i. Stockholm. 

84. Ecology. Brooklyn. 

85. Genetics. Princeton, New Jersey. 

86. Zoologica, New York Zoological Society. New York. 

87. Archiv fiir Entwicklungs mechanik der Organ., hrsg. v. Roux. Leipzig. 

88. Die Naturwissenschaf ten, hrsg. A. Berliner. Berlin. 

89. Zoologische Jahrbucher, hrsg. v. Spengel. Jena, Germany. 

90. The American Naturalist. Garrison-on-Hudson, New York. 

91. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences. Washington, D. C. 

92. Biological Bulletin. Wood's Hole, Massachusetts. 

93. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. England. 

94. Zeitschrift fiir wissenschaftliche Zoologie. Leipzig. 

95. Proceedings of the Biological Soc. of Washington, Washington, D. C. 

96. La Cellule. Lierre, Belgium. 

Q7. Biologisches Zentralblatt. Leipzig. 

98. Le Naturaliste Canadien. Cap Rouge, Chicoutimi, Quebec. 

99. Melanges exotico-entomologiques. Par Maurice Pic. Moulins, France. 

100. Bulletin Intern., Academic Polonaise des Sci. et des Lett. Cra- 

covie, Poland. 

101. Tijdschrift voor entomologie, Nederlandsche Entomol. Ver., 


102. Entomologiske Meddelelser, Entomologisk Forening, Copenhagen. 

103. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, Lawrence, Kansas. 


Krtto mo logical Literature 


Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the Kn- 
tomology of the Americas (North and .South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles, irrelevant to Am. ri> ;in entomology will not be no'ted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, 
however, whether relating to American or exotic species will be recorded. 

The numbers within brackets I I refer to the journals, as numbered 
in the list of IVriodicals and Serials published in the January and June 
numbers (or which may be secured from the publisher of Entomological 
News for 10c), in which the paper appeared. The number of, or annual 
volume, and in some cases the part, heft, &c. the latter within ( ) 
follows; then the pagination follows the colon : 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their 
first installments. 

*Papers containing new forms or names have an * preceding the 
author's name. 

(S) Papers pertaining- exclusively to neotropical species, and not so 
indicated in the title, have the symbol (S) at the end of the title of 
the paper. 

For records of Kconomic Literal ure, see I he [experiment Station Rec- 
ord. Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied 
Entomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

fH? Note the change in the method of citing the bibliographical refer- 
ences, as exi>/itiur// dhove. 

Papers published in the Entomological News are not listed. 

GENERAL. Allard, H. A. Our insect instrumentalists 
and their musical technique. |.\n. l\ep. Smiths. Inst.] 
1928: 563-591, ill. Burgess, A. F. Imported insect enemies 
of the gipsv moth and the l>ro\yn-tail moth. (S). |l". S. 
Dept. Agric.] Tech. Hull. 86: 147 pp., ill. Cockerell, T. 
D. A. Some results of a journey to Kaieteur Falls. British 
Guiana. [ 75 | 4: 439-444. Crowell, M. F. A discussion of 
human and insect societies. |5| 3f> : 182-189. *Ewing, H. E. 
A manual of external parasites. 225 pp., ill. Springfield. 
Illinois, 1929. [ Xew genera in Mallophaga, Anoplura !v 
Siphonaptera] . Ferris, G. F. The principle- of -vstematic 
entomology. [Stanford Univ. Pub. Hiol. Sci.] 5: 3-169. ill. 
Horn, W. Ueber die resolutionen des IV. [nternationalen 
Entomologen-Kongresses in Ithaca, 12-18 August 1928. 
| 1S| 23: 333-335. Kusnezov-Ugamskij, N. N. I );is mas- 
senauftretten einiger insekten in ihren uberwinterungsorten 
mid biologist-he- bcdcutung dieser erscheinung. | I\e\ . /.ool. 
I\usse| 9: 124-125. Murillo, L. M. --Clave dicotomica 
general de los insectos. | l\e\. SMC. ( "< .It iml.iana Cien. \'at.| 
4: ! ( '52<if>. Park, O. - - Fci (logical observations upon the 
m vrmecocoles , ( f Formica ulkei. especially Le]>tiniis tcsta- 
ceus. [5] 36: 195-215, ill. Strand, E.- Down with the type- 
cult. |5| 3o: 228-231. Strickland, E. H, Larder beetle 
infestations arising from tent caterpillars. | \\ id : 23S. 


ban des kopfes der rhynchoten. I Teil. I Ian des koptes \.in 
Xaucori.s cimicoides. | l\e\ . /ool. Kn--e| 9: 51 96. Crowell, 
M. F. A preliminary stnd\ of the trachea! system of the 


mature larva of Blepharipa scutellata. [5] 36: 220-227, ill. 
Needham, D. M. The chemical changes during the meta- 
morphosis of insects. [Biol. Rev. & Biol. Proc. Cambridge 
Phil. Soc.] 4: 307-326, ill. Rau & Rau. The sex attraction 
and rhythmic periodicity in giant saturniid moths. [Trans. 
Acad. Sci., St. Louis] 26: 83-221, ill. Schrader, F Notes 
on reproduction in Aspidiotus hederae (Coccidae). [5] 36: 
232-236, ill. Verlaine, L. L'instinct et 1'intelligence chez 
les Hymenopteres. X. La reine des al)eilles dispose-t-elle 
a yolonte du sexe de ses oeufs? [33] 69: 224-238. 
Wojtusiak, R. J. Entwicklungsgeschichtliche und psycho- 
graphische studien an Mamestra-Raupen. [100] 1929: 1-54, 
ill. Ueber die raumorientierung bei Pieris-Raupen. [100] 
1929: 59-66, ill. 

(See under General.) Roewer, C. F. - - Weitere weber- 
knechte III. [Abh. Naturw. Ver. Bremen] 27: 179-284, ill. 
Savory, T. H. On wolf-spiders' memories. [75] 4: 524- 

E. (See under General.) *Mosley, M. E. Oxford Uni- 
versity Greenland Expedition, 1928. Trichoptera and 
Ephemeroptera of Greenland : Additional records made by 
the Oxford University Expedition to Kugssuk, Godthaab 
Fjord, W. Greenland, "1928. [75] 4: 501-509, ill. 

HEMIPTERA *Glendenning, R. A new Callipterine 
from Victoria, B. C. ( Aphididae). [4] 61 : 237-238. Haupt, 
H. - - Neueinteilung der Homoptera-Cicadina nach phylo- 
genetisch zu wertenden merkmalen. [89] 58: 173-286, ill. 
Kusnezov-Ugamskij, N. N. - - Ueber die anolocyclie-er- 
scheinumgen bei pflanzenlausen. [Rev. Zool Russe] 9: 
108-110. *Laing, F. Descriptions of new, and some notes 
on old, species of Coccidae. (S). [75] 4: 465-501, ill. 
Severin, H. C. --A third report upon the Membracidae 
(Treehoppers) of South Dakota. [Pro. South Dakota Acad. 
Sci.] 29: 33-49. 

LEPIDOPTERA Bandermann, F. Erfolgrdche zuch- 
ten mil amerikanischen barenformen aus dem eigelege. 
[18] 23: 345-347, ill. Bouvier, M. E. L Sur le classement 
et la distribution geographique des Saturnioides hemileu- 
cidiens de la sous-famille des Automerines. [69] 189: 603- 
607. *Brown, F. M. A revision of the genus Phoebis. (S). 
[40] No. 368: 22 pp., ill. *Comstock, J. A. A new species 
or form of Anthocharis from California. [38] 1929: 32-33, 
ill. Comstock, J. A. Studies in Pacific coast Lepidoptera. 
[38] 1929: 22-32, ill., cont. Fletcher, T. B. A list of the 
generic names used for Microlepidoptera. [Mem. Dept. 


Agric. India] 11 : 244 pp. Hayward, K. J. Larval descrip- 
tions from the Argentine. The larva of Pholus lahruscae ; 
a sphingid. [21 1 41 : 143-144. McDunnough, J. Note on a 
generic term in the Agrotinae. [4| 61 : 241. *Michael, O. 
Neue oder \venig bekanntc Agriasformen vom Ama/con- 
asgebiet. [14J 43: 1/6-177. cont. Schrader, W. - Addi- 
tional experiments with Pyrameis carve. | 38 | 1929: 20-21, 
ill. Vickery, R. A. Studies on the fall army worm in the 
gulf coast district of Texas. | U. S. Dept. Agric. | Tech. 
Bull. 138: 64 pp., ill. 

DIPTERA *Alexander, C. P. A list of the crane-flies 
of Quebec I. [4] 61: 231-236. *Johannsen, O. A. A new 

species of Sciara from Canada. [4| 61 : 223-224. Johnson, 
C. W. A note on Chilosia hiawatha. [5] 36: 237-238. 

COLEOPTERA *Brown, W. J. Revision of the species 
of Aphodius of the subgenus Diapterna. [4] 61: 224-231, 
ill. Cros, A. Notes sur les larves primaires des Meloidae. 
[24] 98: 193-222. Darlington, P. J.- -Notes on the structure 
and significance of Palaeogyrinus. [5| 36:216-219. *Fisher, 
W. S. Ne\v species of btiprestid beetles from Costa Rica. 
[50| 76, Art. 6: 20 pp. Fleutiaux, E. Notice sur plusieurs 
filaterides malgaches. [24] 98:223-249. Friedrich, A. - 
Kaferklopfen in brasilianischen urwald. [14| 43: 187-190, 
ill. Gilbertson, G. I. The ( 'irindelidae (Tiger Hectics) of 
South Dakota. [I'ro. South Dakota Acad. Sci.| 29: 22-2o. 
Nylen, J. V. Kuropeau Coleoptera at Providence, l\. 1.. in 
1<>2S. [5] 36: 219. *Ochs, G. - - Bestimmungstabelle der 
gyrinidengattung (iyreles nebst ncubeschreibungen und 
kritischen bemerkungen. (S). 1 7 ( > \ 15: 62-69. Ohaus, F. 
- Aus der praxis des kafersammlers. XII. Ueber das 
sammeln und zuchten von mistkafern. |79] 15: 141-144. 
cont. *Pic, M.--Neue Phrixothrix-arten. iMalacoder- 
mata). (S). [26] 9: 375-376. *Sicard, A. -- Description 
d'especes nouvelles de Coccinellidae. (S). | 75 | 4: 515-524. 
*Spaeth, F. - - Die gattung Hemisphaerota. (S). |79| 15: 
111-131. :i: Wallis, J. B. A new species of Odontaeus. [4| 
61: 239-241, ill. 

HYMENOPTERA. Balduf, W. V. Tetrastichus ver- 

rucarii, new spc-cies, a chalcid para>ite of Xeurotc-rus (Cy- 
nipidae) on l)ur oak. |4| 61 : 221-222, ill. Rau, P.- -The 
silk spun by the larvae of certain >ocial wasps. |4| (A : 
219-221. Rau, P. The biology and behaviour of mining 
bees, Anthophora abrupta and Kntcchina taurea. |5| 36: 
155-181, ill. Rau, P. The nesting habits of the burrowing 
bee, Kpinomia triangulit\-ra. |5| 36: J 13-2 IS. ill. Salt & 
Bequaert. Stylopized Vespidae. [5] 30: 24'J-JXJ. 


ANTS, BEES and WASPS. A Record of Observations of 
the Habits of the Social Hymenoptera. By Sir JOHN LUBBOCK 
(LORD AVEBURY). New ed., based on the 17th, edited and an- 
notated by J. G. MYERS. With four colored plates by A. J. E. 
Terzi. E. P. Button Co., New York. 1929. Pp. xviii, 377, 
6 pis., 31 text figs. $3.75. 

In this new edition of Lubbock's classical treatise on Ants 
the original text has been left intact and occupies about two- 
thirds of the volume. The remaining third, except for a few 
of Lubbock's own appendices, consists of annotations by the 
editor. These are exceedingly well done and greatly enhance 
the value of the book to readers who are not so familiar with 
the most recent writings upon insect behavior and the ecology 
of the social insects. Just as Lubbock himself continually 
inserted among the records of his own work the observations 
and conclusions of his predecessors and contemporaries in- 
cluding Huber, Forel, Emery, von Hagens, and others, so the 
present editor, following the spirit of Lubbock, has made avail- 
able, in the annotations, the most recent observations and the- 
ories of Forel, Wheeler, von Frisch, Donisthorpe, Eidmann, 
Bequaert, Lutz, and others. These notes are largely actual 
quotations. Among them we find translations of von Frisch's 
work, being the most extensive account which has yet appeared 
in English. In the notes and in the text we find recorded both 
observations and interpretations and in both places it is the 
observations which excite our interest and the interpretations 
which merely divert us. We thus come to realize that good 
observations are ageless and permanent if recorded with suffi- 
cient care ; and we find, indeed, that Lubbock has survived 
because he did not fall into the error of giving "general state- 
ments rather than . . . accounts of the particular experiments 
and observations on which these statements rest," for which 
Lubbock criticizes Huber on one occasion. Altogether the 
book continues to fulfiill the author's purpose in that it shows 
"the great interest of the subject and the numerous problems 
which remain to be solved.' -R. G. SCIIMIEDER. 

mology. By GEORGE H. CARPENTER, D.Sc., Keeper of the 
Manchester Museum, sometime Professor of Zoology in the 
Royal College of Science for Ireland. Second edition, revised. 
New York, E. P. Dutton & Co., publishers. 21 x 14 cm., xii 
+ 335 pp., 184 text figs., 4 colored plates. $3.75. Received 
from the publishers Oct., 1928; not dated except after the 
preface : April, 1924. 

Thirty years ago the present reviewer wrote a notice of the 

XLI, '30] ENTOMOLor,ir.\], \K\VS 25 

first edition of this book, occupying a page in tbe \K\VS for 
November, 1899. The preface to tin- volume now before us 
makes it evident that a second edition appeared in 1924. A 
copy of that date is not available and how far this revision 
differs (if at all) \ve can not say; no work of any year later 
than 1924 is cited in the classified "References to Literature", 
which occupy pp. 310-323. As compared with the first edition, 
the number of the chapters is the same and so (practically) are 
their titles and their subheadings, except that sections on wing- 
growth and metamorphosis have been added to Chap. II (Life 
History of Insects), on Germ-plasm and Body, Mutations, 
Alternative Inheritance, Sex-linked Inheritance, Inheritance 
and Segregation, Germinal Modifications and Darwinism and 
Mendelism to Chapter III (Classification and Evolution of 
Insects) and on Protura to Chap. IV (Orders of Insects). 
Many minor changes have been made in the text throughout 
the book and the page forms are entirely new. There are 184 
text figures, the same number as before, but some of those of 
the first edition have been combined under one number and 
six are new to this text (nos. 22, 58, 91, ( '3, 135. 172). Four 
colored plates, from Poulton, Bateson and Watson, lacking in 
the first edition, illustrate protective resemblance in caterpil- 
lars, alternative (Mendelian) inheritance in moths, two species 
of Saturnid silk moths and their cocoons and the mimetic fe- 
male varieties of I\ipilio danhiints. The literature list at the 
conclusion of the volume has been largely revised, although the 
number of titles (237) is only 20 more than that given in 1899. 
This work of Carpenter's most resembles Folsom's among 
our American text books, in its many-sided treatment of the 
subject, but differs therefrom in giving much more space to 
taxonomy, describing the principal families under each order; 
but it is not designed to serve as a means of further identifica- 
tion, nor does it contain keys. It deals but very briefly (pp. 
281-283) with the economic aspects of insects in their relations 
to man. All in all. it is an excellent volume and its illustrations, 
being taken so large!}- from American sources, tit it as well 
for use on this side of the Atlantic as in Great Britain. 


WALTF.K SCOTT I'ATTOX. M.I 5.. Dntton Memorial Professor of 
Entomology, Liverpool I'nivcrsity. and Liverpool Si-boo] of 
Tropical Medicine, and ALWEX M. LVAXS, l).Sc., Lecturer on 


Entomology in the same School. Illustrated by Edith Mary 
Patton, Alwen M. Evans and A. J. Engel Terzi. Photographs 
by M. Brown. With a Foreword by Emeritus Professor Robert 
Newstead. Made in Great Britain by H. R. Grubb, Ltd., 
Croydon. MCMXXIX. Crown 4to. x-j-785 pp., 374 text 
figs., 60 plates, 3 maps, large illustrated revision sheet. Obtain- 
able only from the Entomological Dep't., Liverpool School of 
Tropical Medicine, at 20 shillings, including packing and post- 
age, to any part of the world. The U. S. duty will bring the 
price to about $5.68. 

This portly volume replaces Patton and Cragg's Textbook 
of Medical Entomology (1913), stated to be now out of date 
and out of print. It has been published privately in order that 
it may be sold at the very reasonable price above stated. Had 
it been published in the usual way its price would have been 
prohibitive to most medical officers and nearly all students of 

The authors state in the preface : "In writing this book we 
have had two objects in view. It has been primarily written 
for the medical officer approaching the subject for the first 
time . . . The second, and perhaps the most weighty rea- 
son . . . , is to make available in handy form not only the 
essentials of the subject, but a great deal of more detailed infor- 
mation which is at present neither available in books on ento- 
mology, nor even in papers on the subject . . . we have 
devoted a large part of this book to the subject of 
morphology and phylogeny, believing that the former is of 
fundamental importance, not only as a guide to the systematic 
part of the subject, but also as a help to the investigator, in 
understanding the anatomy and homologies of the structures 
in which he may find pathogenic parasites." 

Following the preface is a page of dedication of this book 
"to the memory of the following twelve well-known Medical 
Men and Scientists, and to other Workers of all Nationalities 
who have died while investigating the Etiology of those Dis- 
eases the causal Organisms of which are transmitted by Insects 
and Acari; J. M. Lazear, W. Myers, J. E. Dutton, F. M. G. 
Tulloch, F. Schaudinn, J. Carroll, S. von Prowazek, A. \V. 
Bacot, F. W. Cragg, A. Stokes, II. Noguchi and \V. A. Young." 

Primarily this book is intended for those following the 
"course for the diploma in Tropical Medicine, University of 
Liverpool, and for the diplomas in Tropical Medicine and Hy- 
giene in other tropical schools and universities." The Intro- 
duction, pp. 3-9, gives an outline of the way in which the course 
is given at Liverpool and the text is correspondingly arranged 


under twenty-eight meetings of the class. Curiously enough, 
there is no table of contents of the hook, although an alpha- 
betical index occupies pp. 771-785. The following summary 
will indicate the sequence of subjects discussed, irrespective' 
of their grouping under class "meetings". 

Classification of the Animal Kingdom, of the Arthropoda 
and of the llexapoda to Orders (pp. 10-36). External Anato- 
my (pp. 37-103) and Internal Anatomy (pp. 104-171) of In- 
sects with especial reference to the Diptera. Wing Venation 
of the Diptera (pp. 171-189). Systematic Study of the Diptera 
of Medical Importance, beginning with the Nematocera and 
ending with the myiasis-producers (pp. 189-494). Siphonap- 
tera (pp. 494-541). Anopleura, including Mallophaga. and 
Hemiptera (pp. 541-601). Arachnida, Acarina (pp. 601-664, 
676-690). Linguatulida, Copepoda, Insects of Orders other 
than those above mentioned (pp. 664-675), Leeches (p. 675). 
Stinging, Vesicating and Venomous Animals (pp. 690-706). 
Dissecting, Collecting. Preserving. Mounting and Breeding 
.Methods (pp. 7C6-735). Principles underlying control of in- 
jurious arthropods, control of mosquitoes and of Glossiita 
(pp. 735-770). 

Under each "meeting" the text is arranged in two parts, the 
lirst being the synopsis of a lecture, the second being illustra- 
tive laboratory work, comprising descriptions of mounted 
slides, or of specimens preserved in other ways, 558 in all, with 
notes on the habits, stations and other peculiarities of the 
species concerned. On page 8, the authors rightly say: "By 
cutting down the time spent on lecturing on this subject to the 
absolute minimum, more time is available for the study of the 
practical material in the laboratory where alone the student 
will learn the essentials of the subject." Some teachers will, 
perhaps, consider that even more of the lecture material may 
be transferred to the laboratory. Here and there are to be found 
summaries of certain lectures and laboratory work in order to 
emphasize the most important farts for the student. There is, 
in consequence, much repetition throughout the book. 

\\ itb respect to taxonomy, it may be noted that only two .sub- 
orders of Diptera are recogni/cd, ( )rthorrhapha and ( Yclorrha- 
pha.the Pupipara being classified as subfamilies of the Muscidae 
Calypteratae; the Cyclorrhapha "are classified in two families. 
the Muscidae Acalypteratae and the Muscidae Calypteratae"; 
the species formerly included in the < testridae "are classified 
in subfamilies of the- Muscidae Calypteratae and are placed in 
what is believed to be their natural positions." 

"It will be noted that we have retained the familiar and well 


established names of medical importance. We see no satisfac- 
tory reason for increasing the difficulties of the medical officer 
by asking him to learn new and unfamiliar names of doubtful 
validity. To correct the name of an insect of old standing, in 
supposed obedience to the letter of the Law of Priority, is 
often to act contrary to the spirit of that Law. The plea for 
the retention of an old and familiar name, notwithstanding 
its questionable validity, is to be urged with particular force, 
especially when the insect named is either of medical or vet- 
erinary importance" (p. vii). "In this book the old and familiar 
names are strictly adhered to, for instance the yellow fever 
mosquito, the important carrier of the unknown parasite of the 
disease, is Stcgomyia fasciata ; the important carrier of the 
parasites of malaria in Tropical Africa is Anopheles costalis. 
Although the alternative names are given, we recommend our 
students to use these familiar names and no others" (p. 36). 
["So this is progress!"] 

References to literature have been entirely omitted from this 
volume on the ground that "the medical officer stationed in the 
tropics is an isolated worker, has no library and certainly can- 
not afford to carry about with him a large number of journals 
and papers in which the information he wants may be found." 
We suspect that many others, not peripatetic medical officers, 
who will be glad to use this book for various purposes, will 
find it necessary to supply this lack. 

The authors rightly claim that "the illustrations of the book 
are its special feature, for a large proportion are original and 
are drawings of the specimens exhibited" in the courses at 
Liverpool. Others are from the old Patton and Cragg and 
from a variety of sources. The fullness of their lettering and 
explanation will be of the greatest service to the many users 
which the book will find. Especially noteworthy are the numer- 
ous figures of internal organs and of sections, which will inter- 
est all students of morphology. The large "revision sheet" 
(26^4 x 17 inches), consisting of figures of the principal ar- 
thropods discussed and attached to the back cover of the book, 
must not be forgotten. 

We confidently predict that the authors' hopes as to the 
great usefulness of their work to both parasitologists and to 
those engaged in other fields of entomology will be fully realized. 

Three other parts or volumes uniform with this are planned 
as follows: Part 2, Public Health by Patton, ready in 1930; 
Part 3, Tropical Hygiene by Patton and Evans, ready in 1930; 
Part 4, Veterinary by Patton and Fillers, ready in 1931. 



Plate ]IJ. 




(Portrait, I'latc* III). 

Thomas Nesmith Brown was horn in Uniontown, Pennsyl- 
vania, on December 24, 1851, and died in the city of his birth 
on January 19, 1929. Thus briefly arc recorded the beginning 
and the end of a life outwardly uneventful but in reality of 
singular interest and achievement. 

\Yhile he was still a young man, Mr. Brown's attention be- 
came attracted to entomology through reading a book on but- 
terflies, which he purchased at second hand. The interest thus 
aroused led him to further study, and to the collection of this 
and other groups ; and for more than forty years he continued 
to build up a large and valuable private collection, especially of 
Lepidoptera and Coleoptera. lie spent a year in California 
(1903) and a year in Oklahoma (1913) ; but for the most part 
his work was confined to western Pennsylvania and \Yest Vir- 
ginia, and especially the immediate vicinity of Uniontown. 

He was particularly successful in collecting Cychrini. which 
he exchanged in large numbers for specimens from all over the 
world. There are at least two collections in Pacific Coast uni- 
versities containing series of this group bearing Mr. Brown's 
name as collector, which is partially representative of the ex- 
tent of his exchanges. 

His method of collecting was interesting. He would visit 
some of the deep, secluded valleys among the mountains near 
Uniontown, and pile 11 at stones one on top of another, wher- 
ever he could find them. The following year he would .140 back 
and collect the beet Irs that had taken up residence in the con- 
venient crevices thus provided. 1 am not sure that this pro- 
cedure was original with Mr. Brown, but it certainly was ef- 
fective as he used it. especially for such forms as Scufliinotus 
(I rich nni ) ijcnnun ('hand, and ridi/n/si var. monongahelae 

Mrs. Brown wrote me shortly after his death, "He had about 
fifteen thousand specimens in his collection, and he still was 
collecting till we would not let him go to the mountains, for it 
was not safe for him in the condition he was in." Mv own 


memory is that his collection of all groups was even larger than 

This indefatigable collector found time also to assemble an 
interesting group of geological specimens, and of Indian relics. 
He was further a skillful artist, executing a number of paint- 
ings of butterflies and moths, accurate and beautiful in detail. 
Most of his collections were given, shortly before his death, to 
the Benjamin Franklin High School, of Uniontown. 

Mr. Brown's achievements were the more remarkable in 
view of the limitations under which he labored. Without even 
the advantage of attending high school, he educated himself, 
reading widely and understandingly in many scientific fields. 
Hampered by limited means, and forced even in the feebleness 
of age to earn his living day by day (he was a horticulturist 
and landscape gardener), he allowed nothing to discourage him 
from scientific and intellectual pursuits. I visited him last on 
his seventy-seventh birthday. In broken health, and mourning 
the recent death of his daughter, he was self-contained, uncom- 
plaining, glad to converse on scientific subjects, eager for intel- 
lectual adventure, and undismayed by the spiritual adventure 
on which he knew he was soon to embark. 

He is survived by his widow, Mrs. Louise Malone Brown, 
to whom he was married on September 13, 1877, and by one 
daughter, Mrs. Phoebe Click, of Uniontown. 

While Mr. Brown was known through correspondence and 
exchange to a wide circle of entomologists at home and abroad, 
his principal service was to his own community, where all his 
life he labored to stimulate interest in natural history, and in 
the study of the local fauna, flora, and physiography. He rep- 
resented a fine type of amateur naturalist all too rare in Ameri- 
ca today. Particularly interested in young people, he always 
warmly welcomed the boys -,who came to him with their ques- 
tions about the out-of-doors, encouraging and instructing them, 
lending his books and giving freely of his time. Those boys, 
one of whom was the present writer, will always hold him in 
grateful memory. ROKF.RT C. MILLER. 

University of Washington. 

ENTOMOLOGICAL \K\\S fur I Kn.-iiibrr. \ ( >2<), was mailed at the Phila- 
delphia Post Office on December 19, 1929. 



Vol. XLI 

No. 2 




Gunder North American Institutions Featuring Lepidoptera XI ... 31 
The New Biological Laboratories at Canberra, Australia. ....... 33 

Bruton Philip Henry Gosse's Entomology of Newfoundland ..... 34 

Fulton A New Species of Nemobius from North Carolina (Orthoptera : 

Gryllidae) ......................... 38 

Hebard Additional Data on Nemobius sparsalsus Fulton (Orthoptera: 

Gryllidae, Nemobiinae) ................... 42 

Brower An Experiment in Marking Moths and Finding them Again 

(Lepid.; Noctuidae) ....................... 44 

Imschweiler An Appreciative Subscriber ............... 46 

Knight Recognition of Lygus lucorum Meyer from North America 

(Hemiptera, Miridae) ..................... 47 

Cockerell A Fossil Dragon-fly from California (Odonata: Calop- 

terygidae) ............................ 49 


Entomological Literature ........................ 58 

Obituary Rev. Alfred Edwin Eaton, Frank Hurlbut Chittenden, James 

Walker McColloch, George F. Gaumer ............. 63 

Hilton Another Genus of Protura in California 

Possible Light on Geographic Distribution of Insects ....... ., . 

Van Duzee New Species of Dolichopodidae from North America (Dip.) 
Editorial Entomology at the Convocation Week Meetings, December 
27, 1929, to January 2, 1930 


Logan Square 

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Plate IV. 





VOL. XLI. FEBRUARY, 1930 No. 2 

North American Institutions featuring Lepidoptera. 

XI. Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey. 

By J. D. GUNDER, Pasadena, California. 

(Plates IV, V.) 

It is interesting to note that the principal colleges and schools 
in United States where entomology is seriously taught are 
non-sectarian. There is not much clanger, therefore, of direct 
interference by certain classes of anti-evolutionists, so far as 
it may concern the study of insects. 

Rutgers University at New Brunswick is the State Univer- 
sity of New Jersey and was founded in 1766 by the former 
Protestant Dutch Church of America. It is one of the old 
colonial colleges and its history is set forth in a book entitled, 
"History of Rutgers College" published by Dr. Wm. H. Demar- 
est in 1924. Like most of the old seats of learning, it is sup- 
ported by accumulated private funds with occasional State and 
Federal aid. The school is situated on an original site of some 
thousand acres and occupies more than two hundred buildings, 
many of which are modern, while the majority are small and 
of the old stone and brick type, though quite suited for their 
purposes. The enrollment for 1929 was over nine thousand. 
The University divides its activities among six branches, called ; 
the College of Arts and Sciences, the College of Engineering, 
the College of Pharmacy, the College of Agriculture, etc. 

Of interest to lepidopterists is the Department of Entomol- 
ogy in connection with the College of Agriculture, because it 
was here that Dr. John B. Smith, Rev. Gen. Ilulst and others 
developed their work and deposited their collections. Ilulst 
instigated the first entomological studies in 1888. lie- was an 
alumnus of the Class of 1866 and when he died his collections 
of butterflies and moths were left to the school. Though many 
of his types are now in Washington, the bulk of his collections 
remain as he left them. Smith first came to Rutgers in 1889 



and proceeded to organize the Entomological Department along 
educational lines, becoming its first professor in charge. At 
the same time he was appointed entomologist for the New Jer- 
sey Agriculture Experimental Station. Later, in 1898, his work 
merited the office of Chief State Entomologist. Dr. Smith was with 
the University up until the time of his death in March, 1912, 1 
and probably his outstanding accomplishment was in the Noc- 
tuidae of which he described the types of many new species, 
adding approximately 800 to the collection. Smith's two Check 
Lists of Lepidoptera (1891 and 1903) are well remembered, 
but of course are long since out of date. His "Explanations 
of Terms used in Entomology" is still unique and no one seems 
willing to attempt a newer revision. 

Dr. Smith did outstanding work in the field of economic en- 
tomology as well, bringing about the control of the San Jose 
scale. It is due to his research that miscible oils were placed on 
the market, as a means of controlling this and other scale insects. 
He accomplished the passage of the first insect laws in his state 
and his mosquito control work stands as a model for similar 
efforts elsewhere. 

Plate V shows the collections as they appear today. They 
are well kept and in good order. Most of the Noctuidae are in 
the uniform cabinets to the left in the picture. Some day some 
one will segregate the type specimens, but whoever does this 
should know his business, otherwise the collection should be left 
as it is. There are about 30,000 lepidopterous specimens alto- 
gether. Aside from Smith's material there are about 100,000 
mounted specimens in all orders in the Department's collection, 
as follows: 35,000 Coleoptera ; 14,000 Hymenoptera; 4000 
Hemiptera ; 4000 Diptera ; 1400 Orthoptera and representatives 
in other Orders in proportion. Although no new types have 
been added of late years, there is always that hope. However, 
the bulk of the collection is gradually increasing in size. Miss 
Augusta Meske, who is Dr. Smith's sister-in-law, is still an 
Assistant Entomologist in the Department. I understand there 
are 55 students taking a straight course in entomology at the 
present time. 

1 See obituary in May, 1912, ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS ; also notice in 
May, 1912, Canadian Entomologist, by Mr. Arthur Gibson. 


Plate V. 

An aisleway in the Entomology Building showing 
Dr. Smith's collections as they look today. 


Dr. Thomas J. Headlee was appointed to fill the vacancy 
caused by the death of Dr. Smith and he is shown on the ac- 
companying Plate IV seated at his desk in conference with Mr. 
Carl Ilg. Dr. Headlee received his A.B. and A.M. at the Uni- 
versity of Indiana and his Ph.D. at Cornell University. While 
interested generally in insect physiology, most of his studies 
have been along the lines of strict economic entomology and 
he has published more than 170 articles in various kindred 
journals. Among his first papers, though probably not his most 
important, was "A Study in Butterfly Wing Venation, with 
Special Regard to the Radial Vein of the front Wing", Smith- 
sonian Miscellaneous Collections, 1907. A recent paper of 
interest appearing in the March, 1929, Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 
is titled "Some Facts Relative to the Effect of High Frequency 
Radio Waves on Insect Activity". This article is in co-author- 
ship with R. C. Burdette. 

Every lepidopterist who goes to Rutgers to study the collec- 
tions meets and knows Carl Ilg. Mr. Ilg has been with the 
Department as Laboratory Assistant since 1921 in charge of 
the insects and exhibit material. His special hobby is the making 
of minature insect habitat groups. I have seen several of these 
little exhibit cases and they are truly clever. Mr. Ilg should 
be encouraged to pursue his talent along this line. Many 
museums and schools might be interested in such products. 
Mr. Ilg was born in Wurttemberg, Germany, and worked for 
a while at Cornell University. 

The New Biological Laboratories at Canberra, Australia. 

Dr. R. J. TILL YARD, the Commonwealth Entomologist, wrote 
to the editor of the NEWS on November 26, 1929: Our fine 
new Laboratory Building, which should have been readv by 
July, is still not complete, but we are in possession of half the 
ground floor. . . . We hope to be in possession of the entire 
building by January 1st, and we have also two fine new in- 
sectaries in good working order. Next year there will still 
remain the big central Administrative Block and the Botanical 
Laboratory to be built. ... So we shall not be completely in- 
stalled until December, 1930, or even later. 


Philip Henry Gosse's Entomology of Newfoundland. 

Introductory Note by F. A. BRUTON, M.A., Litt.D., 

27 Clevedon Rd., Weston-super-Mare, Somerset, England. 

Pbilip Henry Gosse, the English Naturalist, landed at Car- 
bonear, in Newfoundland, in the year 1827, when he was seven- 
teen years old ; and for some eight years he was employed 
in a shipping firm in that country. In May, 1832, he purchased 
a copy of Adams's "Essays on the Microscope" at a sale at 
Harbour-Grace, and of that year he wrote: "In 1832 I com- 
menced that serious and decisive devotion to scientific Natural 
History which has given the bent to my whole life." 

In 1835 he left Newfoundland, and bought a farm at Comp- 
ton in Canada. Here, in the following year, as his biographer 
tells us, he wrote his first book, entitled : "Entomologia Terrae 
Novae", which has never been published. Early in 1839 he 
returned to England, and on the voyage he wrote his "Canadian 
Naturalist'', which was published in London in the next year, 
and had a favorable reception. 

In response to a number of requests from Canada and New- 
foundland, the late Sir Edmund Gosse searched carefully, but 
without success, for his father's "Entomologia Terrae Novae". 
Since Sir Edmund's death, however, the volume has been found 
by his son, Dr. Philip Gosse. In a small book, with between 
sixty and seventy pages, there are nearly two hundred and fifty 
beautiful hand-painted figures of insects, larvae, and pupae, 
and the pages are headed, in very faint pencil, more or less 
according to the list of orders and genera given in the twelfth 
edition of Linnaeus's "Systema Naturae." 

In this connection, it may be interesting to quote a few sen- 
tences from the author's preface to his "Manual of Marine 
Zoology", published many years afterwards. There he says : 

It is now about twenty-four years ago that, in a land far 
remote from this, I began the study of Systematic Zoology with 

In my ignorance, I attacked it entire and indivisible collect- 
ing and trying hard to identify everything that I found, from 
the Cicindela to the Podura. 

I had not an atom of assistance towards the identifications, 
but the brief, highly condensed, and technical generic characters 
of Linnaeus's "Systema Naturae"; over which I puzzled my 
brains, specimens in hand, many an hour. 


At the beginning and end of the book, very faintly pencilled, 
are long lists of insects, which seem to be of the nature of 
memoranda. One list is headed: "Insects described but not 
painted herein." The book, however, contains no descriptions 
whatever, and we can only conclude that the intention was 
frustrated by other duties. That a wide field is covered may 
be seen from the list that follows. The pictures evoked the 
admiration of the experts at the British Museum. 

With the consent of Dr. Philip Gosse, I took the book to 
the British Museum (Natural History) at South Kensington, 
in March, 1929, and there Major Austen, D.S.O., who is the 
Keeper of Entomology, very kindly arranged that I should 
submit the book in turn to the Heads of the various Sections 
under his direction. I must here acknowledge, most gratefully, 
the great kindness of Major Austen and the following members 
of his Staff, who spared no pains in the attempt to identify and 
classify the Insects figured in the book. The names are: 

Mr. G. J. Arrow and Mr. K. G. Blair, (Coleoptera) ; Mr. 
W. E. China and Mr. R. J. Izzard, (Hemiptera) ; Captain N. 
D. Riley, Mr. W. H. Tarns, and Mr. H. Stringer, (Lepidop- 
tera) ; Mr. D. E. Kimmins, (Neuroptera) ; Dr. Waterston, Mr. 
R. B. Benson, and Dr. Charles Ferriere, (Hymenoptera) ; and 
Miss D. Aubertin and Mr. F. W. Edwards, (Diptera). 

Some of the figures are named, but hardly any of these names 
would stand now; a few had been re-named by Mr. W. H. 
Edwards in 1882. English names ("Banded Veneer", etc.) 
had been appended to a number of the moths. 


List of Insects Figured, Pages 1 to 61. 

ACRIDIDAE: Mclanoplus sp. 

FORFICULIDAE : Forficula sp. 

Three larvae of Ephemera. 



GOMPHIDAE: Gomphus sp. AESCHNIDAE: Aesohna 2 spp. 
CORDULIIDAE: Two specimens. LIBELLULIDAE : Libcllula quad- 
rimaculata Linn. LESTIDAE : One specimen. AGRIONIDAE : Two 


Thrips, sp. 


PENTATOMIDAE : Doubtful genus pencilled Cimex. LYGAEI- 
DAE: Eremocoris ferus Say. MIRIDAE: Calocoris no-rvegicus 
Gmelin. GERRIDAE : Gerris remigis Say. CORIXIDAE : One spec- 
imen, probably Arctocorisa sp. (pencilled: Notonecta}. CICA- 
DELLIDAE : Dcltoccphalns configuratus Uhler, Draeculacephala 
angulifcra Walker or noveboracensis Fitch, Evacanthus acu- 
minatus Fabricius. 


HEMEROBIIDAE : Hemerobius 2 spp. 

LIMNOPHILIDAE: Limnophilus sp. Another specimen. 


Classified according to the Check-List of Lepidoptera of 
Boreal America : by Wm. Barnes and J. Me. Dunnough. 

RHOPALOCERA PAPILIONIDAE : Papilio glaucus canadewsis 
R. & J., P. poly.vcnes brevicauda Saunders. PIERIDAE: Pieris 
napi (frigida Scud.) gen. aest. acadica. Edw. NYMPHALIDAE: 
Aglais milbcrti Godt., A. antiopa Linn., Vanessa atalanta Linn., 
Vanessa car dm Linn. SATYRIDAE: Ocncis chryxus Calais 
Scud.,- Coenonympha inornata Edwards. LYCAENIDAE : H codes 
cpixanthc Boisduval, Plcbeius scudderi aster Edw., PI. aquilo 
Boisduval, Glaucopsyche lygdanius coupcri Grote. 

//ETEROCERA NoCTUiDAE : Euxoa sp., Agrotis plccta Linn., 
Lycophotia occulta Linn. Xylcna nupcra Lintner, Trachea fini- 
titna Guenee, Agroperina co git at a Smith, Erctnobia claudens 
Walker, Hyppa xylinoidcs Guenee, Aparnca nic titans Linn., 
Autographa brassicae Riley, A. putnanu Grote, A. bimaculata 
Stephens. LYMANTRIIDAE: Notolophus antiqua Linn. GEO- 
METRIDAE: Rachela bruciata Hulst, Calocalpc undulata Linn., 
Dysstroma ccrvinifascia Walker, Enlype hastata Linn., Mcso- 


leuca ruficiliata Guenee, Lygris propulsata Walker, Eufidonia 
notataria Walker, Bapta vcstnliata Guenee, I tame sulphured 
Packard, /. subccssaria Walker, Pcro honcstarius Walker. 
PYRALIDAE: Cr ambus agitatcllus Clemens, C. topiarius Zeller, 
C. innotatcllus Walker, C. trichostomus Christoph, Evcrgestis 
straminalis Hiib., Phlyctucnia itysalis Walker, Pyrausta orphi- 
salis Walker. TORTRICIDAE : Tortrix sp. EUCOSMIDAE: Epi- 
blcma sp., Olethreutes dealbana Walker, 0. capreana Hiibner, 
Ancylis biarcuana Stephens. OECOPHORIDAE: Dcpressaria sp. 
(near applana Fab.), Dasycera sp. (near sulphur ella Fab.). 
PTEROPHORIDAE: Platyptttia carduidactyla Riley. 


CARABIDAE: Sphaeroderus Iccontei Dej., Notiophilus aquati- 
ciis Linn., ? Agonum or ? Platynus (probably Platynus cupri- 
pcnnis Say.), Carabus macandcr Fisch., Loricera puicornis 
Fab. DYTISCIDAE: ? Agabus, ? Hydro poru-s. GYRINIDAE: 
Gyrinus sp. STAPHYLINIDAE: Creophilus maxillosus Linn. 
SILPHIDAE: Nccrophorus ? mortuorum (Note: mortuorum is 
recorded from Nfld.). BYRRHIDAE: Cytilus scriceus Forst. 
(Nflcl.). COCCINELLIDAE : Coccindla trifasciata Linn., Adalia 
bipunctata Linn. TELEPHORIDAE : Telephorus sp. ELATERIDAE : 
Cor\nnbites pictus Cand., C. triundulatus Rand., C. kcndalli 
Kirby. MORDELLIDAE: Morddhi sp. PYROCHROIDAE : Dcndroi- 
dcs concolor Newman. CEPHALOIDAE: Ccphaloon lepturoides 
Hald. APHODIIDAE: Aphodius fiinctarius Linn. CERAMBYCI- 
DAE: Crioccphalus agrcstis Kirby, Lcptura ? lacta Leconte, 
Evodinus monticola Rand. HALTICIDAE: Phyllotreta vittata 
Fab., Chaetocncma sp. CURCULIONIDAE: Otiorhynchus ? sul- 
catus Fab., Orchcstcs sp., Sitona 2 spp., Notaris ? aethiops 
Fab. or puncticollis Lee. (Nfld.), Pissodcs notatns Fab., Cahiti- 
dra ? granaria Linn, or oryza-c Linn. SCOLYTIDAE: Dcndroc- 
tonus rufipennis Kirby. 


TENTHREDINIDAE: Three larvae, Chnbex violacca Kirby, 
Trichiosoma (larva only), Trichiosoma sp. SIRICIDAK: Uro- 
cerus albicornis Fab. (female), U. flaricornis Fab. (male and 
female), Sir ex abbotii Kirby (male), 5". ? cyancus Fab. (fe- 


male). ICHNEUMONIDAE: (as numbered by Gosse) : 1. Coclich- 
neumon cocruleus Cresson (female), 2. Ichneumon sp. (male), 
3. Hcnicospilus sp. (female), 4. Ctcnichncumon sp. (female), 
5. Ephialtcs sp. (female), 6. Ichneumon sp. (male), 7. Ctcnich- 
neumon sp. (male). CLEONYMIDAE: one figure (not Chalcis 
as marked). FORMICIDAE: Formica or Camponotus (an alate 
form). CHRYSIDIDAE: Chrysis sp. VESPIDAE: V-cspa sp., 
V. maoulata Linn., Odynerus sp. CRABRONIDAE: Crabro sp. 
APIDAE: Nomada sp. 


TIPULIDAE : Pcdicia albivitta Walker, Eriocera spinosa Osten 
Sacken, Tanyptera dorsalis Walker. PTYCHOPTERIDAE : Bitta- 
comorpha clavipes Fab. STRATIOMYIDAE : Stratiomyia laticeps 
Loew, O.rycera sp. TABANIDAE: Clirysops sp., Tabanus zonalis 
Kirby. ASILIDAE: Laphria lasipus W r iedemann. SYRPHIDAE: 
Volucella ? ere eta Walker, Syrphus sp. 


A New Species of Nemobius from North Carolina 
(Orthoptera : Gryllidae). 1 

By B. B. FULTON, N. C. State College, Raleigh, North Carolina. 

Nemobius sparsalsus 2 new species. 

This species was found in a strip of marsh grass, Spartina 
stricta, bordering a shallow sound near Carolina Beach, sixteen 
miles south of Wilmington, North Carolina. Its presence was 
detected by its distinctive type of song. 

Type; female; Carolina Beach, N. C., Sept. 12, 1928. Types 
deposited in the U. S. National Museum. 

Size large for the genus. Head as wide as pronotum. Eye 
1.4 times as long as wide. Length of segments of maxillary 
palpus as follows: third 1.0 mm., fourth .7 mm., fifth 1.5 mm. 
Diameter of fifth segment increases gradually to tip which is 
slightly obliquely truncated ; diameter at tip .35 mm. Pro- 
notum 2.6 mm. long ; greatest width at middle 3.4 mm. ; slightly 
narrower at anterior and posterior margins ; median line im- 
pressed ; covered with fine brown pubescence and scattered 
black bristles. Tegmina cover about half the abdomen; dorsal 

1 Published with the approval of the Director of Research as Paper 
No. 35 of the journal series. 
" From Spartuia, marsh grass and salsits, salt. 

XLI, '30] 



field obliquely truncated; intermediate channel rather wide, 
distally narrowing- to three-fourth of width at middle. Dorsal 
field of right tegmen with three complete veins, the external 
one forked, and a fourth nearly complete vein. Dorsal field of 
left tegmen with only one complete vein, which is forked, and 
a vestigial second vein. Hind tibia four-fifths and tarsus three- 
fifths the length of the femur. Spurs and spines of hind tibia 
unusually long for the genus ; disto-ventral spurs very unequal 
in length; the longest inner spur (2.9 mm.) reaches the base 
of the disto-internal spur of the metatarsus ; disto-internal spine 
nearly equals longest spur (2.7 mm.). Ovipositor slightly 
shorter than hind femur ; with a slight but distinct curve about 
the distal third ; upper edge nearly straight at tip, with low 
rounded teeth ; extreme tip of upper rods obliquely truncated. 
Color nearly uniform dark sepia, becoming nearly black on 
occiput, pronotum. dorsal field and upper portion of lateral 
field of tegmina. Proximal portion of hind femora lighter 
sepia. Faint trace of four lighter longitudinal lines on occiput. 

Fig. 1. Nemobius sparsalsus, new species. A. Lateral view of type. 

Enlarged view of tip of ovipositor. C. Dorsal field of tegmen of 

allotype. D. Same of N. fasciatus socius from Wilmington, N. C. 

Exposed abdominal tergites each with pair of small slightly 
lighter blotches at level of cerci. Ovipositor black, tip dark- 
reddish brown. Maxillary palpi sepia, distal portion of fifth 
segment darkest. Head, pronotum and tegmina shiny. 

Allotype ; male ; same data as type. Similar to female in 
general structure and color. Tegmina broad and cover a little 
more than half the abdomen; distal margin of dorsal field 
broadly curved and oblique, apical area broader than long; 


longest part of dorsal field near the fold and but little longer 
than lateral field. Proximo-internal spine of hind tibia special- 
ized as in other native species. 

Tegmina entirely dark sepia including all the veins. Exposed 
abdominal tergites black with fine brownish pubescence, con- 
cealed tergites shining black. Sixth and seventh abdominal 
tergites with paired obscure lighter spots at level of cerci. 

Paratypic series ; seven females, five males ; same data as type. 
All of the females have the stout, slightly curved ovipositor 
with minutely truncate tip. All males have the obliquely trun- 
cated tegmina. No long-winged forms are present. With the 
exception of one female, the general coloration is dark sepia to 
black. In the exception noted all parts except the dorsum of 
abdomen and ovipositor are medium sepia, slightly mottled on 
head and pronotum but otherwise uniform. Dorsum of abdomen 
blackish and shows two paired rows of obscure lighter blotches 
on the exposed tergites, the additional rows above the level of 
the cerci. Measurements in millimeters : 

Pronotum Hind Hind 

Length Tegmen Femur Tibia Ovipositor 

Type 2.6 4.4 8.4 6.8 7.5 

Allotype 2.3 5.0 7.6 6.2 - 


Females 2.1-2.6 3.6-4.7 6.8-8.5 5.5-7.0 6.4-7.5 

Males 2.0-2.3 4.0-5.0 6.5-7.6 5.3-6.2 

Comparisons : The spurs and spines of the hind tibiae are rela- 
tively longer and in the larger specimens actually longer than 
those of any species examined. The minutely tuncated tip of 
the upper rods of the ovipositor is a distinct character and on 
account of the mucky nature of the ground where the species 
is found, it could hardly be due to wear from the use of the 
organ in oviposition. 

The species is distinct from N. carolinus and N. confusus by 
the unequal length of the disto-ventral spurs of the hind tibiae. 
It resembles N. cubensis and N . palustris in the curvature and 
shape of the tip of the ovipositor ; even the minute truncation 
of the upper rods is approached in some specimens of these 
species by the rather sudden curvature of the lower margin of 
the upper rods close to the apex. It also resembles the last 
two species in the uniform dark coloration, but differs greatly 
from them in body size and length of ovipositor. From the 
subgenus Allonemobius the new species differs in the curvature 
of the ovipositor. It also differs further from N. maculatus 
and N. ambitiosus by the uniform body coloration; from N. 


griseus and N. griscus funcralis by the lack of contrasting 
colors in the tegmina. In size it resembles only N. fasciatus 
and averages larger than the N. fasciatus socius which inhabits 
the same general region. It differs from all races of N. fasci- 
atus by (1.) the stouter and more curved ovipositor, (2) the 
uniform dark color of the tegmina which in N. fasciatus gen- 
erally have distinctly lighter veins or areas, (3) the uniform 
color of the pronotum, (4) the obliquely sub-truncate apical 
margin of the dorsal field of the male tegmina, extending but 
little beyond the lateral field. In dark specimens of N. fascia- 
tus the lateral lobes of the pronotum are black above and the 
ventral margin is pale, even the blackest specimens generally 
have a pale spot of the ventro-caudal angle. In N. fasciatus 
the apical area of the dorsal field of the male tegmina is rounded 
and reaches its greatest caudal extension near the middle. 

Habitat : The species was found only in the thick growth of 
marsh grass, Spartina stricta, which is one of the dominants in 
the salt marshes of the North Carolina Coast, forming a zone 
bordering the brackish sounds. The grass grows about a foot 
high in a black silty mud which is partly or entirely submerged 
at high tide. The crickets live about the crowns of the grass 
and on the ground where they must have to be constantly on 
the alert to avoid the fiddler crabs which overrun the place. 

It was practically impossible to collect the crickets by sweep- 
ing in the high grass. The series was obtained by holding the 
open net on the ground and herding the crickets into it by 
tramping down the grass. 

Song: My attention was first attracted to the species by 
hearing the unique type of song. Its song is more varied in 
character than that of any species of the genus I have observed. 
The usual calling song consists of short notes about one per 
second at 80 F or about 3 notes per 5 seconds at 70 F. The 
pauses are of briefer duration than the notes. The sound is 
high-pitched but rather weak and wheezy for the size of the 
cricket. Each note increases slightly in volume and pitch after 
starting. There is no rhythmical regularity about the repetition 
of notes. Often when starting to sing and at irregular intervals 


during the song a longer and louder note, 2 to 3 seconds long 
may be introduced. 

When actively courting the female, the male resorts to short 
sharp chirps, 3 or 4 per second, but no louder than the longer 
notes. At times the long and very long notes and the short 
chirps may be mixed up promiscously in the same song. 

The only other cricket song heard in the Spartina stricta zone 
of the salt marshes was the silvery tinkling song of Anaxipha 

Additional Data on Nemobius sparsalsus Fulton 
(Orthoptera: Gryllidae, Nemobiinae). 

By MORGAN HEBARD, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Having read the manuscript of Fulton's paper on this inter- 
esting species, we made a search for specimens of it in both 
the studied and unreported series of Gryllidae in the Philadel- 
phia collections. 

The results were somewhat surprising, as among the very 
large series of Nemobius, only seven specimens were found, six 
of these having been recorded as Nemobius fasciatus sociiis 

The species closely resembles that insect superficially, but the 
characters given by Fulton readily distinguish it upon closer 

In many very dark individuals of Nemobius fasciatus fasciatus 
(De Geer) and its southern race fasciatus socius before us, the 
pronotum, without exception, has a pale area ventrad on the 
lateral lobes. 

The tegminal truncation in the male sex of sparsalsus is val- 
uable in distinguishing it from typical males of fasciatus, but in 
that species a brilliantly colored woodland condition of the cen- 
tral northeastern and southeastern mountainous portion of its 
range, mentioned by us only in our discussion of color in 191 3, l 
also has truncate tegmina in this sex. 

1 Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1913, p. 410, par. 3 and 4, p. 415, par. 1. 
That brilliantly colored condition we then believed to represent merely 
individual color variation, but we now think it probable that a woodland 
topomorph is represented, possibly worthy of nominal recognition ; cer- 
tainly is as worthy of such as the condition of palitstris found in the 
southeast in sphagnum, which we there treated as Nemobius palitstris 
entrant ins Rehn and Hebard on page 472. 


In females of sparsalsus the ovipositor curvature is distinct 
but not decided. The dorsal margin of the dorsal valves at the 
apex is armed with blunt teeth, quite distinct from the sharp 
serrations there developed in fasciatus, as observed by Fulton. 

These notes are based on the following specimens : 

Tybee Island, Georgia, September 2, 1911, (Hebard), l^ 2 
[Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.]. 

Cedar Key, Florida, July 13, 1905, (Rehn and Hebard; on 
salt marsh tidal flats), 1 $ , 1 $ , 3 [Hebard Cm.]. 

Everglade, Florida, April 9, 1912, (W. T. Davis), 4 1^,2$, 
[Davis and Hebard Clns.]. 

Virginia Point, Galveston County, Texas, July 21, 1912, 
(Hebard; one only, under board on salt marsh (Spartina).), 
1 $, [Hebard Cm.]. 

Measurements (in millimeters). 


M^ M-i <+H M-l U-< O 

o o E o^o o -Z 

c? "So "5 v "S'rt u "' 

tjQ ^* tjQ ~ fcjQ G tJO^O * tUO ("1, 

l^O Qj t* flj li) W rf ^ W ^ 

Tybee Island, Ga 10.9 2.2 4.7 6.9 

Cedar Key, Fla 10.7 2.2 4 7.3 

Everglade, Fla 12 2.7 4.8 8.7 

Virginia Point, Tex 10.8 2.4 4.8 7.8 

Cedar Key, Fla. 9.8 2.6 3.8 7.9 7.8 

Everglade, Fla 11 2.8 4.1 8.7 8.9 

We believe that the species is restricted to salt marshes and 
that it will probably be found quite generally distributed in such 
environment over its range. The present material shows that 
its distribution extends south from the type locality, Wilming- 
ton, North Carolina, along the Atlantic Coast around Florida 
to the Gulf Coast and there as far westward as the vicinity of 
Galveston, Texas. It is quite possible that the type locality 
represents the northern limit of distribution of sparsalsns. 

2 Recorded as Ncinohins fasciatus socius by Hebard (Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 1913, p. 426) and by Rehn and Hebard (Ibid. 1916. p. 287). 

3 Recorded as Ncnwbins socius by Rehn and Hebard (Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 1907, p. 316) and as Xcniol>iits fasciatus socius by 
Hebard (Ibid., 1913, p. 426). 

4 Recorded, as Ncnwbins fasciatus socius by Rehn and Hebard (Jour. 
N. Y. Ent. Soc., XXII, p. 114, 1914). 


An Experiment in Marking Moths and Finding them 
Again (Lepid.: Noctuidae). 

By AUBURN E. BROWER, Willard, Missouri. 

(Continued from page 15). 

The list of returns shows that thirty, or 9.55%, of the moths, 
were found a second time, four of them were found three 
times, and one of them was found four times. The last, a C. 
residua, was found four times on the same hillside, the last time 
within a few feet of where it had been marked eight days pre- 
viously. All of those found three times were innubens and 
residua. Two ncogama were found about one mile (see map} 
from where they were marked. On August 3, two ncogama 
were found on the same white oak tree in North Hollow ; one 
had been marked July 27 on a white oak tree 20 feet to the east, 
and the other had been marked July 29 in Long Hollow about 
one mile away. 

The returns do not indicate any definite movement in one 
direction but a continuous shifting about ; however, the results 
do not show what became of the numbers of ilia, ncogama , and 
cpiouc which were found in a hollow one day and which had 
completely disappeared by the next. The question of what all 
species do under unusual meteorological conditions is also an 
open one ; nearby local showers greatly reduced returns. Where 
the moths were, which were marked in a hollow but were not 
found when that hollow was next worked but were found upon 
a still later visit, is another puzzle. 

The age of the insects has a great influence upon the returns. 
Worn moths move about much more and presumably much 
farther than freshly emerged individuals, for most of the worn 
individuals were never found again. The period of emergence 
for four species was over, viz., C. ilia, arnica, junctitra, and 
epionc. Of these, 159 specimens were marked and only 7, or 
4.4%, were found a second time, none a third time. Of the 155 
marked specimens of all other species 23, or 14.84%, were 
found a second time, three of them being found three times, 
and one more four times. These figures, despite the fact (as 


a glance at the Table will show) that the majority of the 
former were marked during the first days of the work. It was 
not due to the death of the moths because many of the ilias 
live into September. 

C. innubens emerges over a long period, and part were al- 
ready worn. Of the 25 innubens taken, six (including form 
scintillans) were recorded as being distinctly worn, or with 
damaged wings, and only 1, or 16^3%, was found again, and 
only the second time. Of the 19 specimens not recorded as 
especially worn, 5, or 26.31%, were found again, two of them 
twice more. C. lacrymosa, angitsi, habalis, vidua, and luctuosa 
were just beginning to emerge when the marking started, and 
robinsoni had not yet appeared when the work terminated. 
Species like innubens and residua-- possibly arnica should be 
included as all marked individuals were much worn appear to 
be more local in their habits than such species as ilia-, neogaina, 
piatrix, and others. 

Quite as significant as the actual returns are the negative 
data because they are so much greater in quantity. An area 
would be thoroughly worked and nearly every moth found, 
captured and marked, but by the next day all, or all but one 
or two, would have completely disappeared. The morning of 
July 27, 31 moths were marked in North Hollow; the next 
morning after another hot, still night, only one, a ncrissa, 
could be found. Not one of the nine marked ilia could be found, 
although the adjacent woods were covered in order to see if 
they had moved away from the hollow. Nevertheless, ilia was 
even commoner in the hollow than the day before, there being 
more present than could be caught and marked in the time 
available. July 26, 45 Catocalas were marked in Long Hollow ; 
the next day only one was found. Eighty individuals of ilia 
and its forms were marked, but only two were ever found 

These data have been presaged by former collecting experi- 
ences. C. ilia appears early, and after the middle of July per- 
fect specimens are rarely taken, while many species do not 
reach the height of emergence until later than that date. Big, 


blundering ilias always seem to frighten a scarce form away, 
especially the wary lacrymosas. A number of times in the 
past, the worn ilias have been netted, and all except the occa- 
sional females crushed and tossed aside, but such an attempt 
to free a favorite collecting hollow was found to be only a 
temporary relief. More ilia replaced those killed just as more 
lacrymosa replaced those taken, and with the former it could 
not have been a case of emergence. As a rule, a hollow which 
is closely collected one day is not as good the next as one un- 
touched, but the numbers of Catocalas, many of them flown, 
which may be found there the next day is proof that the indi- 
viduals do a great deal of shifting about. In the fore part of 
the season, C. junctura is found in caves and buildings, under 
ledges, cliffs, and banks, and on trees ; but after hot, dry weath- 
er commences, the shallow caves in the cliffs are their favorite 
hiding places. A group of such caves (see map) have yielded 
many specimens in the last fourteen years. In the latter part 
of the season for the species, almost every visit yields from one 
to eight specimens, nearly all flown to badly worn ; and at that 
time, except in rainy weather, only rarely can specimens be 
found under favorable ledges and in old buildings. The country 
has been searched for miles around without finding a similarly 
favored spot, so. the conclusion that C. junctura flies in from 
unknown distances seems justified. 

The results of this work show that Catocalas shift about a 
great deal, many apparently leaving the vicinity. Some species 
as innubens and residua seem to be local in their habits. All 
species move about much less when freshly emerged than after 
they become worn. So far as the data show, the movement is 
in no definite direction. Weather conditions have a great in- 
fluence upon them. Marking individual moths and finding them 
again is feasible in some groups with favorable conditions. 

An Appreciative Subscriber. 

I wish to thank you for inserting my exchange notice ; it 
gave me fine results and if you have space and care to insert 
it again in the NEWS for the coming year I will surely appre- 
ciate it very much. 

JOHN IMSCHWEILER, Inglewood, California. 


Recognition of Lygus lucorum Meyer from North 
America (Hemiptera, Miridae). 

By HARRY H. KNIGHT, Iowa State College, Ames. 

The first record of the occurrence of Lygus lucorum Meyer 
in the Nearctic Region was by P. R. Uhler (1886) in his 
"Check-List of the Hemiptera Heteroptera of North Ameri- 
ca". On the authority of Uhler, Mr. Van Duzee (1917) lists 
lucorum Meyer in his Catalogue, but no North American speci- 
mens have been recognized by any worker since the initial 

When the writer (1917) published* his revision of the genus 
Lygus for America north of Mexico, no specimens of Lygus 
lucorum Mey. taken in North America could be located. The 
Uhler collection and other material in the U. S. National Mu- 
seum was searched with negative results in an effort to find a 
specimen bearing the label "Lygus lucorum Mey." which might 
have served as the basis for the record by Uhler (1886). In 
the absence of authentic specimens the writer could not include 
lucorum Mey. among the recognized species of the Nearctic 

Recently I received an interesting letter, dated July 11. 1929, 
from Dr. H. T. Fernald. in which he writes : 

About twelve years ago I turned over our college collection 
of Hemiptera to Dr. Parshley to name, and I believe that at 
that time he sent the Mirids on to you. At least manv of our 
Mirids bear the label. "Det. H. H. Knight. 1917." When this 
material came back I was so rushed with other matters that 
I had no chance to look it over so it was arranged in the boxes 
by one of my assistants. Today I happened to pick out one 
of those boxes and found a specimen labeled as follows : lower 
label. 'Lygus spmohc Meyer, Orono,' and with an X, meaning 
that it was originally named by Uhler: your label. 'Det. H. H. 
Knight. 1917. This does not occur in U. S. Should not use 
this record until collecting is authentic': third label, printed 
number 519; fourth, the insect mounted on a point. 

During the years when I lived at Orono, Maine, I collected 
Hemiptera quite carefully and kept a record of what I took. 
These printed numbers I put on to correspond with my entries 
in a book giving data about the captures, and the numbers were 

*Bul. 391, Cornell Univ. Agr. Expt. Sta., 1917. 


clipped from what was eveu then an old copy of the Natural- 
ist's Directory, published in SaJem. The type of these numbers 
was rather distinctive and on looking at the specimen this 
morning I recognized that number instantly and went to my 
record book, in which I find the following: "1885. August 25. 

Got Nos. 509-326 in the pasture back of the college 

519. Green Lygus lineolaris?" 

That insect was either later sent to Uhler and named, or 
was named fey him at the time I was living with him in Balti- 
more in 1886. 

I then wrote Dr. Fenaald stating that I remembered the speci- 
men quite well, but recalled that I thought it might represent 
Lygus lucorum Mey. instead of L. spinolac Mey. Not wishing 
to trust my memory for so long a period in a matter involving 
the record of an European species occurring in North America, 
I requested Dr. Fernald to again send the specimen for exam- 
ination. Dr. Fernald very kindly complied with my request so 
I have been able to compare his specimen with European speci- 
mens of L. lucorum Mey. and L. spinolac Mey. The result is 
I find the Orono specimen to be Lygus lucorum, Meyer. 

The species, Lygus lucorum Mey. and Lygus spinolac Mey., 
are closely allied green forms, yet may easily be separated by 
certain color characters that have been used by the best Euro- 
pean authors without objection. In lucorum Mey. the cuneus 
is entirely green, whereas, in spinolac Mey. the cuneus is black 
at the extreme apex. There are also other characters but the 
color of the cuneus may be relied upon to separate the species. 

The fact now seems well established, namely, that Dr. H. T. 
Fernald collected Lygus lucorum Mey. at Orono, Maine, Aug. 
25, 1885. Dr. Uhler examined this specimen shortly after and 
gave Dr. Fernald the name Lygus spinolac. However, Uhler 
records Lygus lucorum Mey. in his Check List of 1886 and fails 
to mention spinolac Mey. I have asked Dr. Fernald his opinion 
of how the label spinolac Mey. can be explained for his speci- 
men. He writes as follows : 

It is my opinion now that Uhler named this specimen Lygus 
spinolae and that later, in preparing his Check List, either for- 
got all about it but had evidence from other sources of the 
presence of lucorum in this country, or else that, on thinking 
the matter over, he decided that this specimen was, after all, 


Plate VI. 



lucorum. I am positive that he gave me the name spinolae for 
it, or I would not have known anything about spinolae. 

The writer hopes this article may stimulate some interest 
among the entomology students at Orono, and send them forth 
to search for the long lost Lygus lucorum Mey. It is possible 
that some of the collections made in that locality may even now 
contain this uniformly green Lygus. However, there is another 
green species, Lygus pabulmus L., which occurs in that area 
and may cause confusion in identification, but pabulums L. is 
more slender and distinguished by having the carina across 
base of vertex obsolete on the middle. Lygus lucorum Mey. 
is about the size and shape of the tarnished plant bug (L. pra- 
tensis oblineatus Say), but uniformly green or yellowish green 
in color. By next summer it will be forty-five years since Dr. 
Fernald captured the only known specimen of Lygus lucorum 
Mey. from North America. Who will be the first to rediscover 
this long neglected species ? 

A Fossil Dragon-fly from California 
(Odonata : Calopterygidae). 

By T. D. A. COCKERELL, Boulder, Colorado. 
(Plate VI.) 

It has seemed strange that the State of California, so rich in 
fossils of many kinds, possessed no deposits of fossil insects, 
with the exception of certain beetle elytra from the Pleistocene. 
Recently, however, Dr. Ralph W. Chancy was looking for 
fossil plants in the Eocene of Northern California, and at 
Phillips sawmill, five miles southeast of Montgomery Creek, 
Shasta County, he found the central portion of a dragon-fly 
wing in soft bluish rock. It occurred with fossil plants indicat- 
ing a swamp habitat. The specimen, though imperfect, seems 
unquestionably to belong to the Zygopterous subfamily I'oly- 
thorinae, at present confined to the Neotropical Region. I am 
inclined to interpret this as meaning that the Pojythorinae orig- 
inated in the north, not as representing an immigrant from 
some southern region. 

At first, T was disposed to place the insect in the genus 
Euthorc, but it combines characters of Euthorc and Chalcop- 
tcry.v, and considering its antiquity and location, there can be 


little doubt that it represents a distinct genus, the distinctness 
of which would be more evident if we possessed the whole 


PROTOTHORE new genus. 

Rather small species, the wings conspicuously marked, black 
and hyaline; (o.) stigma (pterostigma) large but slender, not 
as deep as the substigmatal cells; (&.) base of stigma with a 
transverse cell below, composed of upper part of the first two 
substigmatic cells; (c.) postnodal cells numerous, about 43, 
of which 20 are before the median black area ; the first 20 or 
more are much higher than long, some twice as high as long ; 
(</.) cells beyond subnodus (23 before median black area) 
practically as in Euthore, but the cross-veins of cells in light 
area are not in a straight line with those above (Chalcoptcryx 
character) ; (>.) subnodus ending some distance (about a cell's 
width) before origin of nodal sector (R 3 of Tillyard, M 2 of 
Needham) ; (/.) eight cells before doubling begins above nodal 
sector, but second cell with a triangular division above, doubt- 
less a variable character. 

Character /. agrees with Euthore, not at all with Chalco- 
ptcry.r. Character c. agrees with Chalcopteryx. Character e. 
agrees with Libellago. Character a. is different from Chalco- 
pteryx and Euthore. Character b. is probably not constant ; a 
similar transverse cell may sometimes be seen in EpiopMebia, 
beyond the region of the stigma. 

Protothore explicata new species. 

Wing hyaline in middle, from about two or three cells be- 
yond subnodus for a distance of about 7 mm., the end of the 
clear area curved apicad ; rest of wing, so far as can be seen, 
black ; the black extending as far as the stigma and probably 
to the apex ; shape of wing, so far as can, be seen, about as in 
Euthore. Nodus to base of stigma 14.5 mm. ; length of stigma 
about 3 mm.; width (depth) of wing in region of subnodus 
about 9 mm., in region of stigma apparently 7.2 mm., but there 
is some disarrangement and overlapping, so the actual depth 
is doubtless 'greater. 

I am indebted to my colleague Mr. Paul Shope for the pho- 
tograph of the wing. The specimen belongs to the University 
of California. 


Another Genus of Protura in California. 

By. W. A. HILTON, Department of Zoology, Pomona College, 

Claremont, California. 

For a number of years we have been attempting to deter- 
mine the distribution of insects and other arthropods in south- 
ern California. It was not until the spring of 1928 that Miss 
Edith Clayton, a student in the department, in connection with 
an investigation of soil insects, discovered a few specimens of 
this group in with a great host of Collembola and mites. She 
used a Berlese funnel and searched especially among the dead 
leaves at the bases of live oaks. Previous to this there have 
been a number of records within the limits of the United States. 
I have looked for them in a number of western states, and also 
in Cuba and Mexico, but without success. This failure to find 
them in regions where they might well be expected was due 
in part to the fact that I did not at first use the funnel method 
for collecting. 

Ewing has described one new species, Eosentomon yosemi- 
tensis, from the Yosemite Valley and recorded the occurrence 
of another, Acerentomon microrkinus Berlese, from the same 
place. Our specimens do not correspond to either of these, in 
fact they belong to Berlese's genus Accrcntulus. This makes 
a new record for the genus and adds one to the number of 
species known to occur here. Berlese mentions ten species 
from Italy and, as conditions in southern California are some- 
what similar, we may reasonably hope for many more records 
from California. 

A member of this genus described by Ewing from Takoma 
Park, Maryland, under the name of Acerentulus barberi dif- 
fers markedly from ours. The most striking contrast between 
the two species is in the second and third abdominal segments, 
which in ours are not cone-shaped. The prothoracic legs are 
also proportionately shorter in these California specimens and 
the proportions of the body parts also differ. Berlese's species 
Acerentulus perpusillus resembles ours much more closely. 
The general shape of the body, the position of the pseudoculi 
and the general proportions of the legs and body parts are 
similar. His specimens were .6 mm. in length and our largest 


were 1.2 mm. The distribution of the dorsal setae differs quite 
decidedly. Unfortunately Berlese's description does not give 
anything about the abdominal appendages and these seem to be 
quite important. Whatever species this California form may 
prove to be, at least it is clearly of the genus Acerentulus. 

With such minute forms it would seem that specific descrip- 
tions should be quite detailed. Berlese's characterizations in 
some cases are very scant. The only virtue that saves some of 
them from being worthless is the series of very excellent draw- 
ings, but even here a few more might have helped to distin- 
guish his species from others not known to him. The charac- 
ters which must be used are many of them minute and for that 
reason careful drawings showing the positions of the setae and 
proportions of parts are very helpful. Proportions alone are 
good, but if the total length is given, measurements of other 
parts might more accurately indicate conditions. 

It is our hope to extend the range of known forms in this 
group as soon as possible. However, it is not easy to find 
these specimens. If dead leaves or other materials containing 
them are too dry or too wet it is almost impossible to discover 
them. They are seldom abundant ; we have usually found but 
one or two at a time. Those near Claremont were of various 
sizes but all seemed of the same species. Some were found at 
the edge of the mountains, others, apparently exactly like them, 
were discovered in the college park among the live oaks. 

Possible Light on Geographic Distribution of Insects. 

Entomologists interested in the fauna of the \Vest Indies 
should not overlook a paper which appeared nearly a year ago 
but whose title and place of publication, although perfectly 
appropriate, would not find mention in strictly entomological 
literature. Reference is made to Prof. Charles Schuchert's 
"Geological History of the Antillean Region" (Bull. Geol. 
Soc. Amer., 40 : 337-360, with 9 paleogeographic maps. Published 
March 30, 1929). The maps show the presumed distribution 
of land and water in southern North America, northern South 
America and the West Indies, in upper Carboniferous and 
lower Permian, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Eocene, Oligocene, Mio- 
cene and Pliocene times, and illustrate such questions as the 
existence and non-existence of land connections of these con- 
tinents and islands. 


New Species of Dolichopodidae from North America 


By MILLAKD C. VAN DUZEE, 12 Abbotsford Place, Buffalo, 

New York. 

Rhaphium latifacies new species. 

$ : Length 4 mm. Face wide, silvery white, rounded below, 
its sides nearly parallel ; proboscis and palpi black with black 
hairs and bristles ; front covered with white pollen ; antennae 
black, third joint half as long as the face, arista two-and-one- 
half times as long as third joint; beard white, moderately 

Dorsum of thorax green, dulled with white pollen ; pleurae 
blackish with white pollen ; scutellum with two pair of marginal 
bristles. Abdomen blue-green with black hair and considerable 
white pollen, hairs on the venter whitish; hypopygium black, 
rounded above, conspicuous, its lamellae black, elongate tri- 
angular, one-third as long as height of hypopygium, inner ap- 
pendages small, mostly concealed. 

Fore coxae, all femora and tibiae yellow ; apical third of hind 
femora and extreme tip of posterior tibiae black; fore coxae 
with black hair and bristles, both hair and bristles appear yel- 
low in certain lights ; middle coxae without a thorn at tip ; all 
femora with pale hairs below, but these also appear black in 
certain lights and are not as long as width of femora; fore 
femora with long pale hairs on posterior surface; fore and 
middle tarsi from the tip of the first joint and whole of hind 
tarsi black; all tarsi plain; joints of fore tarsi as 41-14-13-10- 
10; of middle ones as 54-18-15-8-7; joints of hind pair as 
41-27-20-10-9. Calypters, their cilia and the halteres yellow. 

Wings grayish, darker in front of fourth vein ; third vein 
bent backward towards the tip; last section of fourth vein 
quite sharply bent before its middle, parallel with third for a 
short distance at tip, ending just back of the apex of the wing; 
last section of fifth vein straight, twice as long as the crossvein. 

Described from one male, taken by Owen Bryant, July 10, 
1925, at Lake Agnes, Laggan, Alberta, at an elevation of 
6,800 feet. Type in the U. S. National Museum. No. 20578. 

Rhaphium longibara new species. 

$ : length 4 mm. Face narrow, silvery white; palpi and 
proboscis black; front shining green; antennae black, third 
joint four-fifths, arista six-sevenths, as long as the face; beard 
white, abundant but not very long. 


Thorax green with a little white pollen on front of dorsum 
and on pleurae ; scutellum with one pair of bristles. Abdomen 
shining green, its hair black on dorsum, white on venter, third, 
fourth and fifth segments coppery at base; hypopygium black, 
rather small, flattened posteriorly, its lamellae filiform, broader 
at base, brown, fringed with long pale hairs, the lamellae as 
long as middle tibiae ; inner appendages black, slender with a 
conspicuous lobe on one side near the tip, a little less than two- 
fifths as long as height of hypopygium. 

All coxae, fore and middle femora and apical two-thirds of 
hind femora green; tips of fore and middle femora, basal 
third of hind ones and fore and middle tibiae and basitarsi yel- 
low ; hind tibiae mostly black, yellowish above on basal third ; 
fore and middle tarsi from tip of second joint and whole of 
hind tarsi black, fore coxae with abundant, long, white hair; 
middle coxae with a black thorn at tip; middle femora with 
short white hair below ; fore tibiae with two rows of long, 
bristly, black hairs on upper surface, these are as long as width 
of femora; middle basitarsus with three long bristles below 
near the base, the longest being three times as long as diameter 
of the joint; first joint of fore tarsi concave below, being nar- 
rowed in the middle, larger at each end and with a row of spine- 
like, short hairs below, which are about as long as diameter of 
joint; second joint a little widened in the middle below, the 
lower edge being slightly and evenly rounded, it has a row of 
delicate hairs below, which are a little shorter than width of 
joint in the middle, joints of fore tarsi as 33-25-8-6-8; of 
middle ones as 43-23-15-8-8; joints of hind ones as 35-29-21- 
17-11; Calypters and halteres yellow, the former with white 

Wings grayish ; third vein bent backward towards the tip ; 
last section of fourth vein without a distinct bend, but arched 
so as to be parallel with third at tip, ending in the apex of the 
wing; last section of fifth vein straight, scarcely reaching the 
wing margin, it is 38, crossvein 20-fiftieths of a millimeter 

$ : One female taken two days later at the same place, is 
no doubt the same species ; having the venation of the wings 
the same; the color of the legs about the same and the fore 
coxae with long white hair. 

Its face broad, silvery white ; third antennal joint one-third, 
arista one and a fourth times as long as the face; fore tibiae 
with one row of bristly hairs above on anterior edge; middle 
femora at extreme base, basal half of hind femora and basal 
three-fourths of hind tibiae yellow ; fore and middle tarsi plain. 


Described from one pair, taken at Banff, Alberta ; type, male, 
on June 29, allotype, female, July 4, 1925, by Owen Bryant. 
The allotype was taken on Norquay Mt., at an elevation of 
5,000-6,000 feet. Type in U. S. N. M., No. 20579. 

Neurigona ornatus new species. 

$ : Length 4.5 mm. Face linear, silvery white; front and 
occiput black wtih white pollen ; antennae yellow, small ; orbital 
cilia whitish yellow. Thorax black; prothorax, humeri, pos- 
terior edge of pleurae, outer margin of scutellum, root of wings 
and some of the sutures of the thorax yellow ; dorsum of thorax 
dulled with gray pollen, especially the depressed space before 
the scutellum. Abdomen yellow with large shining black patches 
on the upper surface, that on second segment covering all the 
dorsum, except the posterior margin, on the following seg- 
ments the black is more narrowed posteriorly. Hypopygium 
black, the basal part appearing more like an apical segment of 
the abdomen, outer part somewhat square in outline and with 
small, indistinct, yellowish appendages at tip. 

Coxae, femora and tibiae yellow ; fore tarsi with first three 
joints yellow, last two black, flattened, fourth nearly round 
when seen from above, fifth oval, longer than wide, cut off 
nearly straight at tip, one claw long and enlarged: all joints 
with long hairs above, which are about twice as long as the 
diameter of the joint, those on first joint a little shorter; mid- 
dle and hind tarsi blackened from the tip of first joint ; first 
four joints of middle tarsi with a row of stiff black hairs 
below, these are a little longer than the diameter of the joints ; 
joints of fore tarsi as 103-64-28-8-12; width of last joint at tip 
as 10 and langth of long claw the same; joints of middle tarsi 
as 137-48-30-19-12; of hind ones as 67-68-36-22-12. Calypters, 
their cilia and the halteres yellow. 

Wings gray, veins brown almost to the root of the wing ; 
last section of fourth vein bent near its middle, ending rather 
close to tip of third and considerably before the apex of the 
wing, third and fourth veins bent backward at tip; last section 
of fifth vein about three times as long as the crossvein; sixth 
vein strong and reaching the wing margin ; anal angle of wing 

Described from one male, taken by Owen Bryant, June 5, 
1925, at Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Type in the U. S. Na- 
tional Museum. No. 20580. 

This is separated from all related species by the form of the 
anterior tarsi and their enlarged claw. 

(To be continued) 



Entomology at the Convocation Week Meetings, 
December 27, 1929, to January 2, 1930. 

Following is our annual summary of the programs of the 
eighty-sixth meeting of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science, and of the associated societies held 
at Des Moines, Iowa, in so far as entomology is concerned. 

The numhers of papers listed by the various societies were 
as follows : 

Entomological Society of America 38 

American Association of Economic Entomologists 83 

American Society of Zoologists 12 

Same, Joint Genetics Section 10 

Ecological Society of America 1 

American Meteorological Society 1 

Section C (Chemistry), A. A. A. S 1 

Wilson Ornithological Club 1 

American Phytopathological Society 6 

American Society of Horticultural Science 1 

Total 154 

These papers were distributed in subject as follows: 

i Affecting Man or other 

General Entomology 5 Animals 1 

History of Entomology . . 2 Taxonomy 4 

Teaching Entomology ... 2 General Economic 

Collecting Methods 1 Entomology 16 

Cytology 3 Insecticides and 

Anatomy 5 Appliances 14 

Physiology 24 Apiculture 9 

Ecology 11 Affecting Cereals, Forage 

Geographical Distribution . 1 and Field Crops 14 

Ontogeny 12 Do., Truck Crops 9 

Genetics 11 Do., Greenhouse Plants . . 1 

Parasites of Insects 7 



Do., Fruits and Fruit Coleoptera (excluding the 

Trees 21 Japanese beetle) 13 

Do., Household and Japanese beetle 5 

Stored Products 7 Hymenoptera (excluding 

Do., Forest and Shade Apis) 10 

Trees 6 Apis 9 

Carrying Plant Disease Lepidoptera (excluding 

Germs 5 Codling Moth, Oriental 

ii peach Moth, Corn-bor- 

Orthoptera 9 ers) 11 

Psocoptera 1 Codling Moth 6 

Odonata 1 Oriental Peach Moth .... 6 

Ephemerida 1 Corn Borers 3 

Homoptera 15 Diptera (excluding Dro- 

Heteroptera 2 sophila} 11 

Thysanoptera 1 Drosophila 3 

Many of these figures are duplications, both between sections 
i and ii and also within each section. 

The total of 154 is lower than that of any of the preceding 
six years, the loss being due to the much lower figure accred- 
ited to the Association of Economic Entomologists. Since 
the Northeastern branch of this Association held a meeting 
at New York, as recently as last November, at which many 
papers were presented, the decrease can probably be accounted 
for in this way. Papers on Physiology continue to hold a 
prominent place. 

The Entomological Society of America, Prof. C. T. Brues, 
president, Prof. J. J. Davis, secretary, met December 28 to 30. 
The annual public address, "Economic Adventures of an Un- 
economic Entomologist," was given by Dr. Wm. M. Mann, 
Director of the Zoological Park, Washington, D. C., on the 
evening of December 30. He dealt with some of his experi- 
ences in Mexico on the trail of insect pests that are likely to 
be shipped into the United States, especially the orange mag- 
got (A. lii(fcns), illustrated with lantern slides of scenes in 

The American Association of Economic Entomologists, Prof. 
T. J. Headlee, president, Mr. C. W. Collins, secretary, met 
December 29 to January 2. The annual address of the Presi- 


dent, "Some Tendencies in Modern Economic Entomological 
Research," was delivered on December 31. 

Both societies were invited by Iowa State College to visit 
the campus and laboratories of zoology and entomology at 
Ames, on Sunday, December 29, where dinner was served to 
212 persons at the Memorial Union at 1 P. M. Following this 
Dean Beyer of the Science Division of the College gave a brief 
welcome to all the visitors. Dr. Herbert Osborn gave an in- 
formal address on the early history of entomology in the 
central states and called on Dr. C. P. Gillette to recount his 
personal experiences with Prof. Cook. Dr. S. A. Forbes, al- 
though expected to take part, was not present. Dr. H. H. 
Knight, to whom the NEWS is indebted for some of this infor- 
mation, writes that the trip to Ames was a great success ac- 
cording to all the comment he has heard. 

The annual entomologists' dinner was held in the Hotel 
Savery, at Des Moines, on Tuesday evening, December 31. 

Entomological Literature 


Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, 
however, whether relating to American or exotic species will be recorded. 

The numbers within brackets I ] refer to the journals, as numbered 
in the list of Periodicals and Serials published in the January and June 
numbers (or which may be secured from the publisher of Entomological 
News for lOc), in which the paper appeared. The number of, or annual 
volume, and in some cases the part, heft, &c. the latter within ( ) 
follows; then the pagination follows the colon : 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their 
first installments. 

Papers containing new forms or names have an preceding the 
author's name. 

(S) Papers pertaining exclusively to neotropical species, and not so 
indicated in the title, have the symbol (S) at the end of the title of 
the paper. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Rec- 
ord. Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied 
Entomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

jjgg^Note the change in the method of citing the bibliographical refer- 
ences, as explained above. 

Papers published in the Entomological News are not listed. 

GENERAL. Bandermann, F. Botanisches und Ento- 
mologisches. [18] 23: 380-382. Chittenden, F. H. Obitu- 
ary. By L. O. Howard. [12] 22: 989-990, ill. Dingier & 
Henneberg. Apionlarven in "springenden Kapseln". [Mitt. 


Munch. Ent. Gesell.] 19: 165-171. ill. Friedrich, A. Er- 
lebnisse in Bahia (Brasilien) um der Entomologie willen ! 
[Ent. Jahrbuch] 1930: 91-98. Lewis, H. C. A method of 
preparing- insect mounts. [12] 22: 980-984, ill. Martell, P. 

-Die beine im altertum. [26] 9: 414-419. McColloch, J. W. 

-Obituary. By G. A. Dean. [12] 22: 990-991. Plank, H. 
K. Natural enemies of the sugar cane moth stalkborer in 
Cuba. [7] 22: 621-640, ill. Reed, M. M Citrus insects of 
northeastern Argentina. [39] 13: 67-68. Stager, R. War- 
urn werden gewisse insekten von den ameisen nicht ver- 
zehrt? [45] 24: 227-230. Taylor, R. L. The biology of 
the white pine weevil, Pissodes strobi (Peck), and a study 
of its insect parasites from an economic viewpoint. [70] 
9: 167-205. Vogt, A. -"Aus der praxis des schmetterlings- 
samlers." [18] 23: 393-395. Warnecke, G. Die benen- 
nungssucht in der Entomologie. [Ent. Jahrbuch] 1930: 
53-58. Couper, William. A pioneer Canadian Naturalist. 
By J. L. Baillie, Jr. [Canadian Field Nat.] 43: 169-176, ill. 
Wright, F. R. E. The attractive force in assembling in- 
sects. [8] 65 : 265-266. X. Y. Z. Tagebuchblatter aus dem 
Urwalde. (S). [Ent. Jahrbuch] 1930: 132-136, ill. 


The elimination of the male sex in the evolution of some 
lower animals. [76] 1930: 59-65, ill. Barnes, H. F. Uni- 
sexual families in Rhabdophaga heterobia (Cecidomyidae). 
[8] 65: 256-257. Brown & Hatch. -- Orientation and 
"Fright" reactions of whirligig beetles (Gyrinidae). [Jour. 
Comp. Phych.] 9: 159-189, ill. Bugnion, E. Les organes 
bucco-pharynges de deux Sphegiens : Sceliphron (Chaly- 
bion) bengalense et Sceliphron (Pelopoeus) spirifex. [4l] 
14: 139-170, ill. Champy, C. -La croissance dysharmonique 
des caracteres sexuels accessoires, son importance biolo- 
gique. Applications pratiques de ses lois. [An. Sci. Nat. 
Zool. Paris] 12: 193-244, ill. da Costa Lima, A. Considera- 
qoes sobre a musculatura dos segmentos terminaes da perna de 
alguns insectos e sobre a do chamado Orgao Tarsal. 
[Suppl. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro] 1929: 257- 
264, ill. Dunavan, D. A study of respiration and res- 
piratory organs of the rat-tailed maggot. Eristalis arbu- 
storum. [7] 22: 731-753, ill. Payne, N. M. Absolute 
humidity as a factor in insect cold hardiness with a note 
on the effect of nutrition on cold hardiness. [7] 22: 601- 
620, ill. Shull, A. F. The effect of intensity and duration 


of light and of duration of darkness, partly modified by 
temperature, upon wing-production in aphids. [W. Roux' 
Arch. Entw. Organ.] 115: 825-851, ill. Shute, P. G. The 
effect of severe frost on larvae of Culicella morsitans (Culi- 
cidae). [9] 62: 243-244. 

A synopsis of the American Arachnids of the primitive 
order Ricinulei. [7] 22: 583-600, ill. Jacot, A. P. Genera 
of Pterogasterine Oribatidae (Acarina). [Trans. American 
Micro. Soc.] 48: 416-430. Thor, S. Ueber die phylogenie 
und systematik der Acarina, mit beitragen zur ersten ent- 
wicklungsgeschichte einzelnen gruppen. [Nyt. Mag. Nat., 
Oslo] 67: 145-210, ill. 


M.--Libellenhochzeit. [Der Naturf., Berlin] 6: 329-335. 
Krull, W. H. The rearing of dragonflies from eggs. [7] 
22: 651-658. Light, S. F. New termite records for lower 
California. [55] 6: 67-72. *Malcomson, R. O. Two new 
species of Mallophaga. [7] 22: 728-730. ill. Moulton, D.- 
New Thysanoptera from Cuba. [39] 13: 61-66. Ris, F. 
Gynandromorphismus bei Odonaten. [41] 14: 97-102, ill. 
Shepherd, D. Ephemerella hecuba ; description of various 
stages. (Ephemerida, Baetidae). [4] 61: 260-264, ill. 

ORTHOPTERA. *Hebard, M. Previously unreported 
tropical american Blattidae in the British Museum. [1] 55: 
345-388, ill. *Hebard, M. Supplementary notes on Pana- 
manian Dermaptera and Orthoptera. [1] 55: 389-399, ill. 
Imms, A. D. The locust problem. [31] 124: 950-952, ill. 
*Uvarov, B. P. Marellia remipes, gen. et sp. n. (Acridi- 
dae), a new semiaquatic grasshopper from S. America. [75] 
4: 539-542, ill. 

HEMIPTERA. Hungerford, H. B. Concerning two of 
Guerin-Meneville's types in the National Museum of Paris 
(Notonectidae and Corixidae). [55] 6: 73-77, ill. *Lobdell, 
G. H. Two new species of Eriococcus from Mississippi 
(Coccoidea). [7] 22: 762-767. *Parshley, H. M. New 
species and new records of Aradus (Aradidae). [4] 61 : 243- 
246, ill. Shull, A. F. Determinations of types of individ- 
uals in aphids, rotifers and cladocera. [Biol. Reviews] 218- 
248. *VanDuzee, E. P. A new Oliarus. [55] 6: 72. * Wai- 
ley, G. S. Notes on Homaemus with a key to the species 
(Scutelleridae). [4] 61: 253-256, ill. 


LEPIDOPTERA. *Bouvier, E. L. Additions a nos 
connaissances sur les Saturnio'ides americains. [An. Sci. 
Nat. Zool. Paris] 12: 245-343, ill. Gaede, M. Ueber den 
wert von bestimmungstabellen fur schmetterlinge. [18] 
23: 377-380. Gunder, J. D. A state butterfly for Califor- 
nia. [55] 6: 88-90, ill. Hering, M. Synopsis der Blattminen 
an Ulmus. [Ent. Jahrbuch] 1930: 59-70, ill. Hoffmann, F. 

Ueber die Lepidopteren-fauna Brasiliens im allgemeinen 
und der von Siidbrasilien im besondern. [Ent. Jahrbuch] 
1930: 123-131. Hoffman, F. Der Psychidenbaum in Sao 
Francisco do sul und anderes. (S). [14] 43: 199-200. Hul- 
staert, P. G. Genera Insectorum. Fasc. 191. Fam. Anthe- 
lidae. 13pp., ill. Pickens, A. L. The "Coffee-Pot" cocoon 
and the insect that makes it. [55] 6: 63-66, ill. Sjostedt, Y. 

-Ueber einen . . . zwitter von Morpho rhetenor, den 
prachtvollsten aller bisher bekannten gynandromorphen 
Lepidopteren, nebst Literatur iiber die zwitter (Herma- 
phroditen) dieser insektengruppe. [83] 20: 1-60, ill. Skin- 
ner, H. M. The giant moth borer of sugar-cane. (Castnia 
licus). (S). [Suppl. "Tropical Agric. Trinidad] 1929: 8pp., 
ill. Snapp & Swingle. Life history of the oriental peach 
moth in Georgia. [U. S. Dept. Agric. Tech. Bull.] 152: 
16pp., ill. Sokolov, G. N. Die struktur des mannlichen 
kopulationsapparates bei der gattung Parnassius. [Rev. 
Russe Ent.] 23: 60-71, ill. 

DIPTERA. *Aldrich, J. M. New genera and species 
of muscoid flies. [50] 76, Art. 15: 13pp. *Aldrich, J. M.- 
Revision of the two-winged flies of the genus Coelopa in 
North America. [50] 76, Art. 11: 6pp. *Alexander, C. P.- 
New species of crane flies from South America. Part III. 
(Tipulidae). [7] 22: 768-788. *Alexander, C. P. A list 
of the crane-flies of Quebec I. [4] 61 : 247-251. Allen, H. W. 
An annotated list of the Tachinidae of Mississippi. [7] 
22: 676-690, ill. *Cresson, E. T., Jr. A revision of the 
North American species of fruit flies of the genus Rhago- 
letis. (Trypetidae). [1] 55: 401-414, ill. Edwards & Keilin. 
Genera Insectorum. Fasc. 190. Fam. Protorhyphidae, 
Anisopodidae, Pachyneuridae, Trichoceridae. 41pp., ill. 
Enderlein, G. Klassifikation der Sarcophagiden. Sarcopha- 
giden-Studien I. [Arch. Klass. & Phylogenet. Ent.] 1 : 
56pp., ill. *Enderlein, G. Zur kenntnis einiger von Herrn 
Oskar Schoenemann gesammelten chilenischen Melpiinen. 
[48] 46: 66-71. *Reinhard, H. J. Notes on the muscoid 
flies of the genera Opdousia and Opsodexia with the de- 
scription of three new species. [50] 76, Art. 20: 9pp. 


COLEOPTERA. *Blaisdell, F. E. -- Miscellaneous 
studies in the Coleoptera, III. [55] 6: 57-62, ill. Cros, Dr. 

Observations nouvelles sur les Meloes. [An. Sci. Nat. 
Zool. Paris] 12: 137-168. ill. de Lapouge, G. V. Genera 
Insectorum. Fasc. 192. Fam. Carabidae ; Subfam. Carabinae. 
153pp., ill. *Eggers, H. Zehn neue Loganius-arten (Ipi- 
dae) aus Sudamerika. [48] 46: 59-65. Eggers, H. Zur 
synonymic der Borkenkafer (Ipidae). [48] 46: 41-55. 
Fletcher, F. C. Notes on a few Minnesota Coleoptera. 
[4] 61 : 256-260. Friedrich, A. - - Die fauna der cacao- 
plantage. [14] 43: 206-210, ill. Frost, C. A. Lema palus- 
tris [at Framingham, Mass.] [5] 36: 215. Hetschko, A. 
Zur nomenklatur einiger Clavicornierarten. [48] 46: 94. 
*Hopping & Hopping. II. New Coleoptera from Western 
Canada. [4] 61 : 251-253, ill. Laboissiere, V. Sur la sous- 
famille des Chlamydinae (Chrysomelidae). [25] 1929: 256- 
258. *Ochs, G. Notes upon some Gyrinidae in the Car- 
negie Museum with descriptions of new species. [3] 19: 
123-134. Reineck, G. Beitrag zur lebens-und entwick- 
lungsweise von Coleopteren. [45] 24: 220-226, ill. Schenk- 
ling, S. Welcher Riisselkafergattung kommt der name 
Curculio zu? [48] 46: 79-81. Tanner/ V. M. The Coleop- 
tera of Utah Cicindelidae. [55] 6: 78-87. *Wasmann, E. 

-Ein neuer Xenocephalus aus Costarica. [48] 46: 81-82, ill. 
West, L. S. A preliminary study of larval structure in the 
Dryopidae. [7] 22: 691-727, ill." *Williams, S. H. A list 
of prionid beetles taken at Kartabo, Bartica district, British 
Guiana, with the description of a new species. [3] 19: 139- 
148, ill. 

HYMENOPTERA. *Bequaert, J. The folded-winged 
wasps of the Bermudas, with some preliminary remarks 
on insular wasp faunae. [7] 22: 555-582. *Cockerell, T. D. 
A. Some bees of the group Trachandrena, (Andrenidae). 
[7] 22: 754-758. Kuznetzov-Ugamskij, N. N. Neue anga- 
ben iiber den hochzeitsflug der ameisen. [Rev. Russe Ent.] 
23 : 101-106. Neumann, C. W. Wie der bienenstaat sich 
entwickelte [Ent. Jahrbuch] 1930: 158-170. Rau, P. The 
nesting habits of the bald-faced hornet, Vespa maculata. 
[7] 22: 659-675, ill. *Santschi, F. Melange myrmecolo- 
gique. (S). [48] 46: 84-93, ill. Schmiedeknecht, O. Opu- 
scula Ichneumonologica. Genus Ichneumon. Suppl. Bd: 
353-432. *Turner, R. E. Notes on Chilean Thynnidae. 
[48] 46 : 56-58. 



Among the entomologists whose deaths occurred during 
1929, and whose passing has not hitherto heen mentioned in 
the NEWS, was the Reverend ALFRED EDWIN EATON, mono- 
grapher of the may-flies. He died at Northam, North Devon, 
March 23, 1929, and at that time was the senior Fellow of the 
Entomological Society of London, to which he was elected 
July 3, 1865. An obituary notice appeared in the Entomolo- 
gists' Monthly Magazine (London) for May, 1929. In 1873 
he accompanied B. Leigh Smith on a cruise to Spitzbergen. 
In 1874 he was naturalist to the British Transit of Venus Ex- 
pedition to Kerguelen Land where he made extensive collec- 
tions of plants and animals which he described and discussed 
in the Philosopliical Transactions (vol. 168, 1879). His Re- 
visional Monograph of Recent Ephemeridae of 352 pages, 
appeared in the Unnean Society's Transactions (Zoology) 
between 1883 and 1887 and is well-known as the most authori- 
tative treatise on this group of insects for many years. The 
types of the species described passed into the collection of 
the late Robert McLachlan, of Lewisham, London, who showed 
them to the writer in 1895. Supposedly they remain in Mr. 
Hugh McLachlan's possession. Among Eaton's other works 
on the may-flies were the 16 pages which he contributed to the 
Neuroptera volume of the Biologia Ccntrali-Americana (1892) 
and a brief one, his last on this group apparently, on those 
of the Seychelles (1913). He was also interested in the l\v- 
chodidae and published on the British members of this family 
(Ent. Mo. Mag. 1893-1898). Science for December 13, 1929, 
quoting from the London Times, states that his widow has 
presented his collection thereof, of over 1800 pinned speci- 
mens and about 200 microscopic slides, to the department of 
entomology of the British Museum. Besides the known British 
species, it includes much material from Switzerland, Algeria, 
Madeira, the Canary Islands and elsewhere. Mr. Eaton "had 
also accumulated extensive notes in preparation for a mono- 
graph on the group, and it is hoped that it may be possible to 
publish some parts of his manuscript." 


FRANK HURLBUT CHITTENDEN, born in Cleveland, Ohio, 
November 3, 1858, died at Washington, September 15, 1929. 
He graduated from Cornell University in 1881 and was given 
the honorary degree of D.Sc. by the University of Pittsburgh 
in 1904. He entered the service of the Federal Department 
of Agriculture in April, 1891, and there remained until his 
death, becoming chief of the section on truck crops and insects 
affecting stored products. Dr. L. O. Howard, who contributes 
an obituary notice of him, accompanied by a portrait, to the 
Journal of Economic Entomology, for December last, writes: 
"Those of us who knew him best here in Washington, and 
who worked with him for very many years, think that he was 
probably the most learned man in America on everything relat- 
ing to the insects that are found in the garden." In addition 
to the insects with which his section was particularly concerned, 
Dr. Chittenden especially studied the Coleoptera. Leng's 
Catalogue of the Coleoptera of America North of Mexico and 
the Supplement thereto cite 22 of his papers on this order, 
those purely economic being omitted. Lists of 140 of his 
writings, 1888-1904, on economic insects will be found in 
parts vi-viii of the Bibliography of the most important contri- 
butions to American Economic Entomology by Nathan Banks. 

JAMES WALKER McCoLLOCH, Professor of Entomology at 
the Kansas State Agricultural College since 1925, died at Man- 
hattan, Kansas, November 11, 1929. He had received the B.Sc. 
of the same College in 1912 and was made Associate Professor 
in 1918. In addition, he was Assistant Entomologist (1912- 
18) and Associate Entomologist (1918 on) at the Kansas 
Agricultural Experiment Station. His chief work was on the 
chinch bug and the Hessian fly. Prof. G. A. Dean, in an 
obituary notice in the Journal of Economic Entomology for 
December, 1929, pays high tribute to the thoroughness of his 
investigations and his devotion to his duties. He was born at 
Anthony, Kansas, April 14, 1889. 

Science for October 4, 1929, announced that "Dr. GEORGE 
F. GAUMER, of Izamel, Yucatan, discoverer of several new 
mammals and author of a monograph of the mammals of 
Yucatan, died on September 2." He collected insects also, some 
of which are quoted in the Biologia Centrali- Americana. 


MARCH, 1930 


Vol. XLI 

No. 3 



Gunder North American Institutions Featuring Lepidoptera XII . . 65 

Grubb Collecting Male Polyphemus Moths (Lep.: Saturniidae). ... 69 

Van Duzee New Species of Dolichopodidae from North America (Dip.) 70 
Larson and Fisher Insects Screened from Bean Samples (Hemip., 

Coleop., Orth., Hym., Dip.) 74 

Cresson Descriptions of New Genera and Species of the Dipterous 

Family Ephydridae. Paper VIII 76 

Knull Notes on Coleoptera No. 2 82 

Cleveland Museum Entomological Expedition 86 

Entomological Literature 86 

Review Matheson's Handbook of the Mosquitoes of North America.. . 93 

Doings of Societies The American Entomological Society 94 


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published monthly, excepting August and September, by The American 

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Ernest Baylis, Associate Editors ; John C. Lutz, Business Manager. 
Advisory Committee : Philip Laurent, J. A. G Rehn, Chas. Liebeck, J. 

Chester Bradley, Ph.D., Frank Morton Jones, John C. Lutz, Max Kisliuk, Jr. 

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Plate VII. 





VOL. XLI. MARCH, 1930 No. 3 

North American Institutions Featuring Lepidoptera. 
XII. American Museum of Natural History, New York, 

New York. 

By J. D. GUNDER, Pasadena, California. 
(Plates VII-IX.) 

The American Museum of Natural History in New York 
City has a convenient public location on the west side of Central 
Park at 77th Street and occupies a rather large, long, five-story, 
red granite building with some fifteen acres of floor space. Its 
cornerstone was laid in 1874 by President U. S. Grant and the 
building was formally opened three years later by the succeeding 
President of the United States, R. B. Hayes. Though planned 
and built in the early '70s it is still admirably suited for the 
purposes of a great museum and fortunately there is sufficient 
ground area for further development. Recently announced 
building plans call for a new wing to lie known as the South 
Oceanic Hall and an additional structure in honor of Theodore 
Roosevelt which will contain an African Hall. These extensions 
require an expenditure in excess of three million dollars. Per- 
haps the total cost of the present museum building is more than 
$12,000,000 1 . 

The American Museum is governed by a self -perpetuating 
board of trustees of which Mayor Walker of New York, the 
City Controller and the President of the New York Park 
Board are c.v-officio members. The president of the board of 
trustees is Dr. Henry Fairfield Osborn, the first vice-president, 
George F. Baker and the second vice-president, 1. Pierpont 

Aside from being a well-known mecca for scientific research 
and a storehouse of valuable collections of natural objects, the 
Museum has of late years shared its educational facilities 

1 In this regard it is interesting to note that the Los Angeles Museum 
in California is spending nearly $10,000,000 alone for its new unit structure 



directly with the New York Public School system. This excep- 
tional and noteworthy activity comes .under the head of the 
School Service Department where hundreds of science lectures 
are arranged for each year and where thousands of lantern 
slides are prepared and circulated, in addition to movable ex- 
hibits of demonstrative value. The American Museum of 
Natural History is sometimes popularly spoken of as "the 
largest school house in United States" and certainly no other 
scientific institution in this country or in Europe has taken 
the trouble to directly share and so well develop its educational 

While the American Museum does not claim to have originat- 
ed the idea of habitat groups, or the life-like display of crea- 
tures amid their natural surroundings, it was the first large 
museum in this country to adopt this method for public display 
on an extensive scale and in all departments. Among the many 
beautifully executed habitat pictures to be seen, perhaps the 
one which attracts the most curious interest, is that of the 
famous dinosaur eggs from Mongolia collected by Dr. Andrews 
on his Third Asiatic Expedition. These eggs are depicted lying 
scattered in the original desert sand and rock just as they 
were discovered. 

Of interest to entomologists are the insect habitat groups 
and various displays shown for the most part in the Hall of 
Insects on the third floor 2 . Here are found graphically ar- 
ranged the various phases of insect life, their anatomy, their 
importance in relation to man, their classification, distribution, 
evolutionary tendencies, etc. It is the most unique display 
room of its kind and much credit is due Dr. Frank E. Lutz, 
Curator of the Museum's Department of Entomology and his 
assistants for its well-planned installation. A rather informal 
photo 3 of Dr. Lutz is reproduced on plate IX. This picture 
was taken several summers ago at one of the "Nature Trails" 
camps established in cooperation with the Museum near Tux- 
edo, New York. The "Nature Trails" organization was found- 

2 Plate VIII accompanying this article illustrates the original ."Butter- 
fly Group" of which many museums have made reproductions. 

3 From an article entitled "Taking Nature Lore to the Public" by Dr. 
Lutz in the Natural History Magazine, Vol. 26, No. 2. 


ed by the Doctor with the thought of giving the youth of New 
York a chance to study insect biology during their summer's 
vacation. It is hoped the "Nature Trails" idea will spread to 
many sections of the country. Dr. Lutz first came to the 
American Museum as Assistant Curator of Invert el irate Zool- 
ogy in 1909. He is a good executive and has published many 
papers in various popular and educational journals. Leaning 
somewhat to the study of Arachnida, Dr. Lutz is rapidly 
building up a large museum collection of this class. Some years 
ago, in a paper on the distribution of West Indian spiders, he 
compared each genus with its distribution elsewhere as given 
by Simon. He has also made some taxonomic study of bees. 
His "Fieldbook of Insects" is well known and is an invaluable 
work of reference for amateurs wishing a general knowledge 
of the better known insects of the northeastern United States. 
The American Museum has, from its beginning, acquired 
collections of insects. Baron Osten Sacken, while Russian 
consul general in Ne\v York City from 1862 to 1871, gave the 
Museum its first series of specimens. These consisted of many 
Diptera which were the Baron's favorite order ; however there 
were almost a thousand species of various insects in the lot. 
About the same time Mr. Coleman T. Robinson, who collab- 
orated with the well-known Mr. A. R. Grote, presented his 
collection of 3000 butterflies and moths. Mr. R. A. Whitthaus 
also gave some 2000 specimens especially donated as a study 
collection. Altogether these collections formed the start of the 
Museum's work in the entomological field. In 1888 Mr. Will- 
iam Beutenmuller was engaged to give his entire time to insects 
at the Museum and with his appointment as a regular curator, 
entomological activities went briskly ahead. Exhibition work 
along educational lines was begun and studies in life history 
and other phases of insect biology were undertaken. In 1892 
the widely known collection of the actor, Mr. Henry Ed\vanl>, 
was purchased by suhM-ription. This collection consists of 
about 250,000 specimens, mostly butterflies from many sections 
of the earth, as Mr. Edwards visited many exotic regions dur- 
ing his stage career. The Edwards types are kept separate. 
Probably Mr. Edwards will be longest remembered because 


of his work on the lepidoptera of California and of the Pacific 
Coast. Of late years the Museum has been gradually increasing 
the size of its lepidopterous collections, especially adding to the 
exotics from Central and South America, but no really note- 
worthy collection containing types from the United States has 
been added since the Edwards material. All the butterflies 
and moths are kept in uniform size cabinets as illustrated on 
plate VII. (An Am. Mus. photograph by Mr. Julius Kirschur). 
These cabinets are enameled white on the outside and hold 
about one hundred drawers each. Substantial sliding doors 
hung from a trolley give ready access. I imagine there are 
about ten of these cabinets in the two rooms devoted exclusively 
to the study collections. All types are kept in a single cabinet 
of stronger construction which is painted a darker color. At 
this writing no estimate is available as to the total number of 
lepidoptera in the Museum. 

Since 1914 Mr. Frank Watson has been in charge of the 
collections under the title of Assistant in Lepidoptera. He was 
born in New York City in 1877 and has always resided there. 
His Degree of B.S. was received at Cooper Union in 1900. 
In the past Mr. Watson has described a score or more of 
American butterfly variations and practically all of his types 
are in the Museum. He is at present engaged upon a paper 
concerning West Indian Lepidoptera. Frank is a hard work- 
ing fellow and busy from morning till night. The problem 
of taking care of the increasing number of deserving visitors 
to a great museum is gradually becoming a serious matter. 
Mr. Watson once told me his department averaged four a day 
and sometimes ten people wishing to see him or the study 
collections or the types. These folks, whether professional or 
semi-amateur, cannot be "hurried off". It all takes time and 
there seems no ready solution for the question. Tax-free 
public institutions and their employees must expect to be 
seen and be known. 

The scientific staff of the Division of Zoology and Zoo-geog- 
raphy under which the entomological section is conducted con- 
sists of the following: F. M. Chapman, Sc.D., N.A.S., Curator- 
in-Chief ; Frank E. Lutz, Ph.D., Curator (of Insect Life); 


Plate VIII. 


This habitat group contains over 1200 specimens of the one species, 
the Monarch Butterfly (Datitiits tmnippe Hbn.). They are shown in a 
natural cluster, temporarily at rest, during an accumulative migration. 
Am. Mus. photo. 


Plate IX. 


A. J. Mutchler, Associate Curator of Coleoptera, C. H. Curran, 
M.A., Assistant Curator; Frank E. Watson, B.S., Assistant 
in Lepidoptera; Wm. M. Wheeler, Ph.D., Research Associate 
in Social Insects; Chas. W. Leng, B.S., Research Associate 
in Coleoptera; H. F. Schwarz, A.M., Research Associate in 

The first Entomological Club in New York City was founded 
by Neumoegen, Grote, Graef, Koebele and Henry Edwards 
in 1880 4 . Their meetings were held in the different private 
homes and the publication Papilio was published for four years 
in four volumes. Papilio was devoted exclusively to articles 
upon lepidoptera and it is still an asset to any library. For 
various reasons this original Club gradually ceased to exist 
and it was not until June 29, 1892, that the New York Ento- 
mological Society was organized, to become an incorporate 
society a year later. Through the foresight and fortunately 
early intercession of Mrs. Annie T. Slosson with the late Pres- 
ident Morris K. Jessup, the Society established headquarters 
at the Museum and has been meeting there bi-monthly ever 

The organ of the Society, the Jonnnil of the New York 
Entomological Society, is now in its 38th volume. A recent 
bequest of ten thousand dollars towards publication by the 
late L. H. Woodruff assures its future. The issue of September, 
1929, 'is of unusual interest because of the publication of the 
numerous intimate and entertaining letters of Dr. A. E. 
Schwarz, the well-known coleopterist. Every entomologist 
should read these letters'. They were compiled and edited 
under the direction of John D. Sherman, |r. 

Collecting Male Polyphemus Moths (Lep.: Saturniidae). 

On the night of July 10th, 192 ( ', my coworker and I spent 
the entire night collecting the male polyphcimis moths, which 
were lured to their death by two raged >prcimens of the oppo- 
site sex. We had to our credit next day just eighty-two speci- 
mens. The moths began appearing at about 10:30 and con- 
tinued until four in the morning when dawn began to bu-ak. 
-MRS. ELMER GRUBB, Fredericktown. < )hio. 

4 See article by G. P. Englehart in Ann. Ent. Soc. uf Am XXII 3 


New Species of Dolichopodidae from North America 


By MILLARD C. VAN DUZEE, 12 Abbotsford Place, Buffalo, 

New York. 
(Continued from page 55) 
Neurigona nigrimanus new species. 

$ : Length 5 mm. Face linear, silvery white; palpi yellow; 
front wholly covered with white pollen ; occiput black with 
white pollen ; antennae small, arista brown ; orbital cilia white. 

Thorax black with white pollen, which almost conceals the 
ground color on the depressed space before the scutellum, the 
edge around this space is yellow on the sides ; most of the 
humeri, a stripe on each side extending from the humeri to 
the scutellum and posterior edge of pleurae yellow ; abdomen 
yellow, second, third and fourth segments largely black, but 
this black narrowed on the sides posteriorly. Hypopygium 
black, somewhat square in outline, with small, mostly yellowish 
appendages at tip. 

Coxae, femora and tibiae yellow ; anterior coxae with yellow 
bristles at tip ; first joint of fore tarsi dark brown, becoming 
black at tip, remaining four joints deep black, fifth joint very 
slightly thickened ; middle tarsi brown, becoming black ; hind 
tarsi with first joint yellow, remaining joints black; joints of 
fore tarsi as 87-45-23-10-11; of middle ones as 142-40-25-15- 
10; joints of hind tarsi as 66-63-37-19-15. Calypters, their 
cilia and the halteres pale yellow. 

Wings grayish, slightly tinged with brown along the costa ; 
third vein bent back at tip; last section of fifth vein bent near 
its middle, ending near tip of third and before the apex of the 
wing; last section of fifth vein three times as long as cross- 
vein ; sixth vein long, nearly parallel with the wing margin, 
but bent a little to reach the margin ; wing much narrowed at 

$ : Face wider than in the male; thorax black with humeri, 
a spot at root of wings, scutellum and posterior edge of pleurae 
yellow ; abdomen yellow, base of second, third and fourth seg- 
ments black, black on second narrowed in the middle of the 
dorsum ; all tarsi yellow or brownish yellow with last joint 
black ; wings with tips of third and fourth vein far apart, 
fourth ending almost in the apex of wing; anal angle more 
prominent and sixth vein shorter than in the male. 

Described from one pair, taken by Owen Bryant, July 4, 
1925, at Banff, Alberta. Type in the U. S. National Museum. 
No. 20581. 


Dolichopus breviciliatus new species. 

$ : Length 5.5 mm. Face wide, sordid gray; palpi velvety 
black ; front metallic bronze, dulled with gray pollen ; antennae 
wholly black, short, third joint scarcely as long as wide, obtuse 
at tip; orbital cilia wholly black. 

Thorax and abdomen dark green with slight bronze reflec- 
tions, abdomen with black hair ; hypopygium rather large, its 
lamellae black, a little brownish in the middle, nearly twice as 
long as wide, jagged and bristly on apical margin (shaped about 
as in figure 175a, Plate 12, Bulletin 116, U. S. National Muse- 

All coxae, femora, tibiae and tarsi black with black hair and 
bristles ; middle tibiae in the type with one bristle below ; middle 
and hind femora each with one bristle near the tip, the latter 
ciliated with brown hairs, which are not as long as the width of 
femora ; middle basitarsi with two large bristles above near the 
tip, otherwise the tarsi are plain ; joints of fore tarsi as 56-26- 
16-14-14; of middle ones as 86-34-28-18-18; first three joints 
of hind tarsi as 111-60-42. Calypters and halteres yellow, the 
former with black cilia. 

Wings dark grayish, tinged with brown in front ; third vein 
straight ; last section of fourth vein bent near basal third, par- 
allel with third for some distance before its tip, ending con- 
siderably before the apex of the wing; crossvein and last sec- 
tion of fifth vein of nearly equal length ; hind margin of wing 
not notched at tip of fifth vein, wing of nearly equal width; 
anal angle prominent. 

Described from one male, taken by Owen Bryant, August 29, 
1925, at Laggan, Alberta, on Paradise Mt, at an elevation of 
6,700 feet. Type in the U. S. National Museum. No. 20582. 

Polymedon flavitibialis new species. 

$ : Length 5.5 mm. Face wide, silvery white, reaching about 
its own width below the eyes ; front green with a little white 
pollen ; antennae black, all joints more or less yellow below, 
first joint long, third joint a little longer than wide, rounded 
at tip; arista with short pubescence; lateral and inferior orbital 
cilia white. 

Thorax and abdomen green, dulled with white pollen ; bristles 
of thorax inserted in indistinct brown dots ; acrostichal bristles 
in two rows, extending nearly the whole length of thorax and 
becoming longer posteriorly ; pleurae and coxae more black, 
white pollinose; there is a large, somewhat triangular white 
pollinose spot at suture and a small, silvery white, round spot 


at outer posterior corners of dorsum ; hairs of abdomen black ; 
hypopygium (Fig. 1) black, large; outer lamellae large, black, 
very slightly yellowish at base, thickly covered with white 
pollen, upper surface with fine white hairs, 
below with long, blunt, blackish bristles, inner 
appendages partly reddish yellow, with a 
black hook at tip. 

Anterior surface of fore coxae with small 
black hairs and black bristles at tip ; all femora 
greenish black, thickly covered with white 
pollen ; extreme tips of all coxae, tips of all 
femora, most of trochanters and all tibiae 
yellow or yellowish ; all tibiae with large 
bristles above, their extreme tips brown or 
black, the black most conspicuous on fore 
pair ; fore tibiae with one, middle ones with- 
out a bristle below ; all tarsi yellow at base ; p . 
hind tarsi blackened from tip of first joint, 
fore and middle ones from tip of second joint and with tip of 
first black ; fore tarsi very slightly compressed and widened from 
tip of first joint, their pulvilli rather large, white; middle tarsi 
with the usual bend between second and third joints, second 
joint distinctly hollowed out just before its tip, on under side, 
third joint straight ; hind tarsi with a large bristle below near 
base; joints of fore tarsi as 49-14-12-8-12; of middle ones as 
70-25-26-16-12; those of hind pair as 57-55-34-19-18. Calyp- 
ters yellow with black tips and very long, yellow cilia ; halteres 

Wings grayish, crossvein, fifth vein and last section of fourth 
vein distinctly but narrowly bordered with brown ; third vein 
bent back a little at tip, last section of fourth vein bent about as 
in the genus Paradius, the part from the crossvein to bend 
about two-thirds as long as last part, its tip near tip of third 
and before apex of wing; last section of fifth vein does not 
reach the margin of wing, which is notched where the tip 
should be ; crossvein as 37, from crossvein to wing margin at 
notch as 39; anal angle of wing prominent; sixth vein long 
but not reaching wing margin. 

Described from one male, taken by F. H. Snow, August, 
1902, in Southern Arizona. Type in the University of Arkansas. 

Paraclius elongatus new species. 

$ : Length 2.5 mm. Face narrowed below, silvery white, 
but the ground green color showing through on upper part; 


front shining blue ; palpi black : antennae rather large, black, 
third joint a little longer than wide, pointed at tip, arista with 
long pubescence ; lower orbital cilia yellow. 

Thorax green with blue reflections, shining, without a spot 
of white pollen at the suture ; pleurae with white pollen. Ab- 
domen green with broad metallic blackish bands at the in- 
cisures, its hairs black ; hypopygium brown, a little reddish, 
rather long, but not thick, its lamellae oval, about twice as long 
as wide, yellow with a black border and short hairs all around 
the edge ; there is a pair of rather long, bare, curved, horn-like, 
yellow inner appendages. 

Fore coxae almost wholly yellow with black hair on anterior 
surface and bristles at tip ; hind coxae yellow, a little blackened 
at base, middle ones largely black ; all femora and tibiae yel- 
low, posterior femora a little blackened at tip, especially on 
posterior surface ; middle tibiae with two bristles below, one at 
middle, the other a little nearer the base, these bristles are 
quite close together, bristles on upper surface large; fore tarsi 
yellow, darker at tip, middle tarsi black from tip of first joint, 
hind ones wholly black; joints of middle tarsi as 32-18-15-11-8; 
first two joints of hind tarsi as 27-15. Calypters and halteres 
yellow, former with black cilia. 

Wings grayish, a little tinged wtih brown in front of second 
vein ; third vein nearly straight ; last section of fourth vein 
quite abruptly bent, this bend broadly rounded and beginning 
at middle of the section, portion beyond the bend considerably 
concave posteriorly, its tip close to tip of third vein and far in 
front of apex of wing; last section of fifth vein only a little 
curved beyond the crossvein, it is 19; crossvein 11-fiftieths of 
a millimeter long. 

9 : Almost like the male, except that the face is wide with 
its sides nearly parallel and the bend in last section of fourth 
vein not as much rounded. 

Described from one pair, taken by H. H. Smith, May, 1906, 
at St. Vincent, \Yest Indies. Types in the collection of the 
University of Arkansas. 

This comes nearest arcuatus Loew, but in that species the 
fore and middle femora are brownish on upper edge, hind 
femora dark brown on most of apical half, middle and hind 
coxae black almost to the tip, and bend in last section of fourth 
vein is almost a right angle. 


Insects Screened from Bean Samples (Hemip., 
Coleop., Orth., Hym., Dip.). 

By A. O. LARSON and C. K. FISHER, 

Division of Stored-Product Insects, U. S. Bureau of 


While inspecting samples of newly harvested beans in Cali- 
fornia for evidence of bean weevil infestations the writers 
observed that large numbers of insects of many species were 
among the beans. Such insects had probably sought food or 
shelter in the piles of bean vines in the field and had gone 
through the threshing machines, in which many of them had 
been killed. Observation has shown that some insects pass out 
of the bean threshing machines with the straw while others 
pass into the sacks with the beans. The latter are taken to 
the warehouses where they are separated from the beans and 
are sacked up with the screenings. 

The numbers of insects varied in different samples from the 
same locality and the number of species varied as between dif- 
ferent localities and different years. During past years Fuller's 
rose beetle, Pcintonwrns fullcri Horn, was frequently found in 
large numbers in samples of beans grown in the Chino district 
of San Bernardino County, but not a single specimen was 
found amongst the beans inspected in 1928. In 1927, Dinoclcus 
pilosus Lee. was found in great numbers, sometimes eight or 
ten being in one sample, but in 1928 very few specimens were 
taken from beans grown in the same vicinity. 

Of the Coleoptera, one or another of the lady beetles has 
been the most numerous each year, while Chlorochroa sayi 
Stal has been the most numerous of the Hemiptera. 

By the time the samples reach the laboratory a good number 
of the insects are dead and too badly broken for identification. 
Especially is this true of the orders other than Coleoptera and 

During 1928 an effort was made to collect all living insects 
screened from 3,246 samples collected from Merced, Stanis- 
laus, and San Joaquin Counties in California. Some of these 
insects were sent to Washington, D. C., where they were kindly 
determined by the specialists named below. 


W. L. McAtee determined the following nine genera and 
nine species of Hemiptera : Brochymena 4- pustulate, Fabr., 
Clilorochroa sayi Stal, Euschistus conspersus Uhl., Neottiglossa 
cavifrons Stal, Thy ant a citstator Fabr., Murgantia histrionica 
Hahn, Corizus idcntatus Hambl., Lygaeus reclivatus Say, var., 
and Euryophthalmus cinctus H. S. 

E. A. Chapin determined the following 14 genera and 15 
species of Coleoptera : Nccrophonis sp., Silpha ramosa Say, 
Aeolus livens Lee., Cardiophorus sp., nr. tumidicollis Lee., 
Hippodamia convergcns Guer., H. ambigua Lee., Coccinella 
californica Mann., Mclanastns sp., Coniontis clongata Csy., 
Blapstinus pulverulentus Mann., Amphidora littoralis Esch., 
Lema nigrovittata Guer., Diabrotica soror Lee., Disonycha ma- 
ritima Mann., and Sitophilus oryzae L. 

L. L. Buchanan determined the following six genera and 
four species of Coleoptera: Curtonotus sp., nr. jacobinns Lee., 
Aniara sp., Calathus quadricollis Lee., Agomim maculicolle 
Dej., Dinocleus pilosus Lee., and Cleonus sp. 

Of the Orthoptera a nymph of Gryllus assimilis Fabr. was 
determined by A. N. Caudell. 

Of the Hymenoptera Cryptus tcjoncnsis Cress, was deter- 
mined by R. A. Cushman, and a broken ant was determined 
as Camponotus sp. by W. M. Mann. 

C. T. Greene determined one dipteron as Hcrmctia illucens L. 

Numerous broken specimens of Orthoptera, Hymenoptera, 
Diptera, and Lepidoptera, as well as a few broken specimens 
of Odonata, were sifted out of the beans and discarded. 

In addition to the foregoing insects many specimens of the 
following four genera and five species of Coleoptera were col- 
lected: Tcncbroidcs nianritanicus L., Oryzaephilus surinamen- 
sis L., Tribolium ferrugincuni Fab., T. confusum Duv., Tri- 
gonogenius globuluni Sol., and Sitophilus or\zae L. These had 
probably crawled in amongst the beans after the latter had 
reached the warehouses, as these insects are commonly found 
breeding in some of the sixteen warehouses from which the 
samples were taken. 

Besides the discarded broken insects, which outnumbered 


the others, there were collected 37 genera and 39 species in 
five orders. A pound would have been a very conservative 
estimate of the weight of the insects screened out. 

The bean crop of the United States for the last five years, 
1924 to 1928 inclusive, has averaged more than 17 million 
bushels or more than 1,023,000,000 pounds. The samples from 
which the above insects were screened weighed about 6,000 
pounds. From these figures it appears that more than 85 tons 
of insects are carried into the warehouses with the newly har- 
vested beans each fall. These insects are sacked up with the 
bean screenings and die, thereby reducing the numbers of both 
beneficial and injurious insects which would otherwise go into 
hibernation in or near the bean fields. 

Descriptions of New Genera and Species of the 

Dipterous Family Ephydridae. 

Paper VIII. 1 

Ditrichophora painteri new species. 

This species is unique in having the wings spotted somewhat 
similar to the species of the genus Ilytlica. In the narrow para- 
facialia and cheeks, the relatively short second vein, curving 
abruptly into the costa, the species falls near Ditrichophora 
uadincac Cresson, from California. 

Black ; antennae except upper part of third segment, knees, 
apex of tibiae, and all tarsi, yellow. Halteres white. Wings 
clear with the following fuscous design : a narrow transverse 
spot at tip of first vein, including anterior crossvein, a large 
quadrate spot at costa midway between first and second veins, 
a similar spot including tip of second vein, another such spot 
between tips of second and third veins, a small spot including 
tip of third, an irregular diluted spot including posterior cross- 
vein, and an irregular diluted design beyond tbe latter. 

Subopaque, somewhat golden brown above, more whitish be- 
low ; abdomen shining, somewhat opaque basallv. Frons opaque 
with a broad suborbital line dilating anteriorly, and a preocellar 
triangular spot, black ; otherwise the frons is brownish. Face 

1 Paper VI. See Ent. News, XXXV, p. 159 (1924). 
Paper VII. See Ent. News, XXXVI, p. 165 (1925). 


sparingly white pruinose ; the linear orbits white ; mesonotum 
with four series of well separated roundish, brown spots; scu- 
tellum with a pair of brown apical spots. 

Frons quadrate; orbits parallel. Face scarcely one-third 
width of vertex, strongly broadening below, in profile, convex, 
concentric with eye-outline; parafacialia and cheeks linear; 
arista with five hairs. Abdomen broad with revolute lateral 
margins; fifth abdominal segment, in the male, subglobose with 
rounded apex. Fore femora of male with about three minute 
postflexor spinules. \Yings slightly pointed at third vein; first 
and second costal sections subequal in length; second vein 
abruptly curving into costa. Length, 1.5 mm. 

Type. ; Puerto Castilla, HONDURAS, May 6, 1926, (R. 
H. Painter; taken at Balsamo Farm, about 110 kilometers 
along the Truxillo Railroad from Puerto Castilla), [A. X. S. 
P., no. 6366]. Paratypcs. 2$ , 1 9 ; topotypical. 

Ditrichophora balsamae new species. 

This species, represented by one specimen, the type, differs 
from Ditrichophora paintcri by the seven stripes on the meso- 
notum. I can find no other differentiating characters ; but the 
specimen is not as fully developed nor in as good a condition 
as is possible. However the vittate mesonotum is very charac- 
teristic and it is thus at once distinguished from puintcri. with 
which it apparently agrees in all other respects. Further de- 
scription is unnecessary. 

Type. 9 ; Puerto Castilla, I IOXDURAS, May 6, 1926, (R. 
H. Painter; taken at Balsamo Farm, along the Truxillo Rail- 
road from Puerto Castilla), |A. X. S. P., no. 6365J. 

Polytrichophora boriqueni new species. 

This species is more shining than is usual ; the face is scarcely 
gray dusted, while the orbits are very white and distinct. Sug- 
gesting DiscoceriiHt piilclira Cress., described from Costa Rica, 
in many respects, but the face is not so narrow nor so distinctly 

Black; antennae including second segment but nut apex of 
third, palpi, coxae, tibiae except dark median ring, and tarsi, 
yellow. Halteres white. \Yings hvaline: veins pale. Meso- 
notum, scutellum, and abdomen shining; pleura slightK grayish. 
Frons rather opaque, brownish: face medianly grayish, orbits 
narrowly white. 


Structurally similar to pulchra. Frons quadrate; face twice 
as long as broad ; parafacialia very narrow, not dilating below, 
setulae inconspicuous. Cheeks not broader than parafacialia. 
Arista with four to five hairs. Mesonotal setulae nonseriated. 
Postflexor comb of fore femora not well developed as distinct 
spines. Second section of costa not much longer than third. 
Length, 1.7 mm. 

Type. $ ? Adjuntas, PORTO Rico, June 26, 1915. [New 
York Acad. Sci.]. Paratype. 1 $ ? Mayaguez, PORTO Rico, 
February 15. 1915, [N. Y. Ac. Sc.]. 

Hecamedoides buccata new species. 

A robust, unformly cinereous species with very broad 
cheeks ; frontal orbital setulae wanting ; parafacialia with dis- 
tinct series of setulae ; tibial spur minute. Wings noticeably 
lactaceous. Although lacking many of the characters typical 
of Hecamedoides, the present species is more closely allied to 
Hecamedoides glaucclla (Stenh.) than to the species of Dis- 

Black ; frons below, face above, antennae, palpi, knees, bases 
and apices of tibiae, and all tarsi except apices, tawny to yel- 
low. Halteres white. Wings lactaceous with veins, except 
costa and posterior crossvein, yellow. Opaque, cinereous ; 
mesonotum somewhat yellowish tinged medianly. Abdomen 
less densely coated. Femora and tibiae cinereous. 

Cheeks nearly as broad as eye-height. Fore femoral comb 
of about four small spines ; hind tibial spur minute, scarcely 
spur-like. Length, 2.5 mm. 

Typc. $ ; Wildwood, NEW JERSEY, July 18, 1908. (Cres- 
son), [A. N. S. P., no. 6367]. Paratypcs. 3 5 , 2? ; topo- 

Allotrichoma salubris new species. 

Similar to A. abdominalis (Will.) but distinguished by the 
uniformly silvery pleura. The type is probably one of the 
specimens Dr. Williston had before him when he commented 
upon Allotrichoma abdominalis, in his "Diptera Brasiliana", 
Part 4, but it is entirely distinct from those before me which 
agree with the original description of abdominalis. 

Opaque. Frons, facial carina above, mesonotum, scutellum, 
first two abdominal segments, dark brown to yellowish brown ; 


antennae, palpi and tarsi, black ; remaining surfaces, including 
femora and tibiae, bluish gray. \Yings lactaceous, or slightly 
darkened; immaculate, with yellowish veins. 

Basal half of antennal arista bare and thickened, the three 
hairs confined to apical half. Fourth abdominal segment as long 
as the first three together, triangular and pointed apically. 
Second vein long and straight : second costal section four or 
five times as long as third. Otherwise similar to abdoininalis. 
Length, 1.5-1.75 mm. 

Typc. $ ; BRAZIL, (H.H. Smith), [A. N. S. P., no. 6368]. 

A series of 84 specimens from Chaco, Paraguay, (Fiebrig), 
[Vienna National Museum] is before me which appear to be 
this species, but I do not care to consider them paratypic. 

Axysta bradleyi new species. 

Black ; third antennal segment below, tip of palpi, extreme 
base of tarsi, yellow. Arista white and white pilose. Halteres 
dark. Wings hyaline, with dark veins. Shining to polished ; 
sparingly brown pollinose ; abdomen scabrous. Face grayish 
medianly, leaving the narrow orbits, which abruptly dilate near 
cheeks, shining. 

Frons convex, horizontal, without distinct frontal bristles. 
Facial tubercle not prominent ; facial profile vertical, twice as 
long as broad. Cheeks about one-fourth eye-height in width. 
Third antennal segment about twice as long as broad, conically 
pointed ; upper margin concaved. Scutellum rather flattened, 
rugulose, slightly elongated. Length, 1.7 mm. 

Type. $ ; Waycross, GEORGIA, May 8, 1911, [Cornell Uni- 
versity Collection]. Paratype. 1 $ ; Muncie, ILLINOIS, June 
8, 1917, [Illinois Xat. Hist" Survey]. 

Nostima quinquenotata new specie.-. 

This pretty species is allied tn /'!ii!y</n\i picta (Fallen), dif- 
fering in having five round, whitish spots on an infuscated 
wing: One in basal portion and one at middle of submarginal 
cell, one in apical poriiou of first posterior cell, one at middle 
of second posterior cell, and one in third posterior cell below 
posterior crossvein. The crossveins arc far removed towards 
base of wings. The mesonotum is brown with lateral whitish 
stripes, similar to those of picta, but the scutellum is not vel- 
vety black. The type may be somewhat teneral. as it is very 
pale with all but the dorsal surfaces pale yellow. Length, 1 mm. 


Type. $ ; Lloyds, Dorchester County, MARYLAND, July 
10, 1907, (H. S. Barber), [U. S. N. M., no. 21851]. 

Nostima niveivenosa new species. 

A distinct species similar to N. iiniiiacnlata Cresson described 
from Costa Rica, but the cross veins are conspicuously white. 

Mesontum grayish with three to five brown stripes ; abdomen 
shining, almost polished ; a large dorsal triangle broadest at 
apical margin of second segment, spot at apical angles of third, 
ventral lobes and a pair of small round dots medianly near 
apical margin of fourth, and apical margin of fifth segments, 
whitish or silvery. Wings immaculate with crossveins white 
within whitish halos. Face prominent below but not abruptly so. 

Type. $ ; Aguadilla, PORTO Rico, January, 1809, (A. 
Busck), [U. S. N. M., no. 21856]. 

The type has the antennae missing and the body somewhat 

Hydrina nigrescens new species. 

Very similar to Philvgria dcbilis Loew, but more blackish, 
not so brownish ; f rons much longer, about six-tenths as long 
as broad ; cheeks broader ; abdomen mostly shining ; at most 
the second costal section one and one-half as long as third. 
Length, 1.75 mm. 

Type. $ ; London Hill Mine, Bear Lake, BRITISH COLUM- 
BIA, July 21, 1903, (R. P. Currie ; 7000 feet alt.), [U. S. N. 
M., no. 21849]. 

The genus Hydrina Robineau-Desvoidy, as here used, is 
synonymous with Philyyria Stenhammer, and is retained in 
the same sense as recognized by Haliday, Loew and Becker. 

Hyadina macquarti new species. 

This species comes nearer to agreeing with the description of 
Ephydra nitida Macq. than to any specimen I have seen. It 
differs from Ephydra rufipcs Meigen, which I have seen, in 
having the legs dark, with the apices of the femora and the ex- 
tremities of the tibiae only, paler in some specimens. It differs 
from Hydrina binotata Cress, in having no whitish areas or 
spots on the wings; and from Hyadina yitttata (Fallen), in 
the absence of the velvety-black pleural spot. 

Type 6 ; Skag\vay, ALASKA, June 4, 1921, (J. M. Aid- 


rich), |U. S. N. M., no. 21852]. Pans types. I , 2 9 ; topo- 
typical. 2 $ ; Anchorage, ALASKA, June 15 and 19, 1921, (J. 
M. Aldrich), [U. S. N. M.]. 

Napaea halteralis new specie-. 

This species is distinguished from f'arydni appendiculata 
Lw. bv the black halteres and tarsi. md white pollinose lace. 
The females, which appear to be conspecific with the male type, 
have the halteres paler but tips of the knobs are black. This 
species is probably confined to the Pacific costal areas of Xorth 

Black including halteres and tarsi. Wings brownish tinged, 
with tips of second to fourth veins, and crossveins clouded; 
whitish areas not very pronounced. Subopaque, yellow-brown 
pollinose, becoming white on face and cheeks, grayish on pectns 
and legs. No trace of grayish marks on mesonotum. Ab- 
domen more shining, bluish. 

Structurally similar to appendiculata. Length, 2 mm. 

Type. $ ; Pullman, WASHINGTON, October 17, 1915, (A. 
L. Melander), [A. N. S. P., no. 6369]. 

Two topotypical females collected May 12 and June 15, I 
consider to be paratypic with the type, but they average larger, 
more shining; face whitish in the antennal foveae and along 
the orbits; mesonotum with faint grayish acrostical stripe; 
halteres knobs blackish but not decidedly so intense as in the 
type ; wings more mottled with brown. 

Parydra incommoda new species. 

Similar to P. bituberculata but more shining; the pollinose 
vesture darker, ranging from dark brown to yellow-brown on 
the head and thorax. Yerv little grayish pollen, even below 
where it is generally pale yellowish and on the abdomen where 
it is decidedly tinged with brown. 

Eyes distinctly horizontal. Frons strongly sculptured, and 
generally with a distinct longitudinal or roundish depression 
below ocellar tubercle. Face broader than long, about three- 
fourths as broad as vertex. Cheeks broader than eye-height. 
Scutellum quadrate, with lateral margins convex, rounding into 
the apex; the lateral bristled tubercle rather distinct. Wings 
with second costal section four times as long as third. 

Type. 6 ; Moscow Mountain, IDAHO. June 12, 1910, (A. 
L. Melander), [A. N. S. P., no. 6370]. ParatypesZ , 5 9 ; 


Notes on Coleoptera No. 2. 

By J. N. KNULL, Pennsylvania Bureau of Plant Industry. 

The following are miscellaneous rearing records and obser- 
vations made by the writer unless otherwise stated. Practically 
all of the rearing was done indoors and for that reason the 
dates of emergence are "not given. Clark's Valley is located 
in the Blue Mountains north of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, and 
runs east and west. The nearest postoffice is Dauphin. 


TILLUS TRANSVERSALTS Charp. The writer has a specimen 
of this species in his collection which was taken in New York 
City by Mr. George Moetz. Evidently the larva or adult was 
imported with a shipment of goods. 

THANASIMUS TRIFASCIATUS Say. Larvae of this species 
were taken in numbers from the outer bark of large dead and 
dying white pines (Finns strobus) in Clark's Valley on No- 
vember 6th. All of the larvae collected had constructed ovoid 
pupal cells in the thick outer bark which was about \ l /2 inches 
thick. These cells which were nearly at right angles to the 
grain of the wood were lined with a light colored substance 
which resembled silk. Some of the cells were four feet from 
the ground while others Were found six inches from the bases 
of the trees. The larvae were caged in the warm laboratory 
and the adults emerged early in the spring. These larvae did 
not seem to respond to warm indoor conditions as many other 
Coleoptera do and some of them remained in their pupal cells 
until the following spring. It is quite evident that the larvae 
pass the winter in the pupal cells and that most of the adults 
emerge in June and July, as shown by collection records. 

The main food of these larvae consisted of Tctropinm i'dn- 
tifium Lee. although the trees were also infested with AcantJio- 
dcrcs obsolctns Oliv., Gnathotrichus inatcriatus Fitch, OrtJio- 
tomicus caclatns Eich., Hylurgops pinife.r Fitch, Dryocoetcs 
amcricanns Hopk., and Dendroctonus I'alcns Lee. 

HYDNOCERA VERTICALIS Say. Adults were reared from dead 
linden (Tilia amcricana) branches infested with Eupogonius 
pubcsccns Lee. and Grammoptera e.rigna Newn. larvae, also from 
dead black oak branches (Qncrcns vclntina) infested with larvae 


of Agrilus (jciniiiatits Say. The material \vas collected in 
Clark's Valley. 

ORTHOPLEURA DAMICOKNIS Fab. Reared from white oak 
(i)ucrciis alba] infested with Pliyinatodcs acrcus Xewn. col- 
lected in Clark's Valley. 


LUDIUS sri.ncoLLis Say. Adults were reared from dead 
sour gum (Xvssa syk'aticu) wood infested with Lcptura cinur- 
(jinata Fah. and Cliarisalia aincricana Hald. collcrted at Ilum- 
melstown, Pennsylvania. 


DICERCA LURIDA Fab. \Yas reared from a dead branch of 
a living linden (Tilia aincricana) collected in Clark's Valley. 

XENORIIIIMS BRENDELI Lee. This insect seems to be so rare 
that a capture is worth}- of record. An adult male was col- 
lected on a dead black oak branch in Clark's Valley on July _'l. 

CHRYSOBOTHRIS CHRYSOELA Illig. A living adult was cho])])ed 
from a dead branch of persimmon (Diospyros i'ir</iniana) col- 
lected at Wallaceton, Virginia, on ( )ctober 3. 

C. OROXO Frost. Through the kindness of Mr. (-"rank llaim- 
bach and Mr. J. A. G. Rehn, the writer had a chance to work 
over three specimens of this species in the Horn collection in 
the Pennsylvania Academy of Natural Sciences. The material 
is labeled as follows, one male and female from North Caro- 
lina and another female from Virginia. The writer also po-.- 
sesses a large female labeled Fresno Co., Tennessee', June 11. 
Mr. C. A. Frost kindly sent me the type for comparison and 
in all of the southern specimens the chitinized areas of the 
dorsal surface were more pronounced and they lacked the gray- 
ish-green color of the punctured areas which is <|iu'te marked 
in the tyf>e and allotype. 

C. SEXSIGNATA Say. Reared from dead post oak (Quer- 
CHS stcllnla) branches collected in Clark's Valley. 

Fri-KisToCKkrs COGITANS \Ycb. ( )ne adult was reared from 
dead river birch (/>'<//</ nii/nt) collected in ('lark's Yallev. 
This is an unusual record as this in-ect nui-mally brec-ds in 

AcRlLUS DEKECTI-S Lee. Reared from dead jiost ( iak (Quer- 
cns slt'Un/ti) branches collected in C 'lark's Yallex . 


A. ARCUATUS Say. Adults which resemble subspecies ful- 
tjcns Lee. were reared from dead shadbush (Amelanchier cana- 
densis) collected in Clark's Valley, the tree having been girdled 
by a beaver. The material was reared from the main trunk 
which was about three inches in diameter. The larvae had 
worked beneath the bark and pupated in the sapwood, which 
is quite unlike the typical girdling of this species. 

A. OTIOSUS Say. Reared from small dead branches of black 
walnut (Juglans nigra) collected in Clark's Valley. 

A. GEMINATUS Say. Adults were reared from the small dead 
branches of black oak (Quercus velutina) collected in Clark's 

A. BETULAE Fisher. A large series of this species was reared 
from dead river birch (Bctitla nigro) collected in Clark's Val- 
ley. A considerable variation in size and color was observed, 
the length ranging from 5 mm. to 11 mm., and many of the 
specimens were bright cupreous throughout the dorsal surface. 


CATOGENUS RUFUS Fab. During the latter part of April a 
Cerambycid pupa was taken from a pupal cell in a dead pitch 
pine (Finns rig id a) tree at Hummelstown, Pennsylvania. This 
pupa was placed in a glass vial and in a couple of weeks a 
larva of Catogenus rufus Fab. emerged. The larva proceeded 
to devour the dead Cerambycid pupa and in the course of a 
week the entire pupa was consumed. The Catogenus larva 
pupated in the vial and later the perfect adult emerged. The 
fact that this species is an internal parasite might account for 
the great variation in the size of the adults. 


MYCETOCHARES BINOTATUS Say. Numerous adults reared 
from the dead wood of a living sour gum (Nyssa syhatica) 
tree collected at Hummelstown, Pennsylvania. 


SYNCHROA PUNCTATA Newn. Reared from dead poison ivy 
(RJius to.ricodcndron} stems collected at Harrisburg, Pennsyl- 
vania, and from dead iron wood (Ostrya virginiana) taken at 
Laporte, Pennsylvania. 


PROTHALPIA UNDATA Lee. This species was recorded er- 
roneously as (Mysta.rus simulator Newn.) in the Canadian 
Entomologist* as breeding in Viburnum dctitatmn and nine- 
bark (Opulaster opitlifoliiis). The species was determined as 
Prothalpia undata Lee. by Mr. Ralph Hopping. The two species 
resemble each other superficially. 


OCHROSIDIA VILLOSA Burm. This species was found breeding 
in a large lawn about two acres in extent near Middletown, Penn- 
sylvania. The larvae had eaten the roots of the grass and in 
this way killed the plants. The blades of the grass had turned 
brown and could be raked up in large quantities. 


HYPERMALLUS VILLOSUS Fab. Reared from dead yellow 
wood (Cladrastis lutca) branch collected at Philadelphia, Penn- 
sylvania, by Mr. Floyd Smith and from a dead linden (Tilia 
aincricana*) branch collected in Clark's Valley by the writer. 

ELAPHIDION mucronatum Say. Reared from dead sweet 
fern (Afyrica asplenifolia) stem collected in Clark's Valley. 

GRAMMOPTERA EXIGUA Newn. Adults were reared from 
dead linden (Tilia ainericana) branches collected in Clark's 
Valley. The larvae did not enter the sapwood but worked be- 
tween the bark and wood as stated by Craig-head. f 

CHARISALIA AMERICANA Hald. This species was found 
breeding in the dead decayed wood on the inside of a hollow 
sour gum (Nyssa sylvatica) at Hummelstown, Pennsylvania, 
by Mr. H. B. Kirk and the writer. 

LEPTURA ABDOMINALIS Hald. The males of this species are 
usually black, but a male was reared from dead cypress (Ta.vo- 
dium disticlmm) collected at Cape Henry, Virginia, which had 
legs, head, thorax, scutellum, suture of elytra, humeral angles 
and an oblique band across apices of elytra black; the rest of 
the elytra was testaceous including a very small spot on the 
vertex of head. A female was reared which had the usual bi- 
colored legs in this sex, two very small black spots on pro- 
notum, the rest of both dorsal and ventral surfaces was tes- 

*A. B. Champlain and J. N. Knull, Can. Ent. V. 57, p. 114; 1925. 
t F. C. Craighead Dom. Can. Agl. Bui. 27, p. 96 ; 1923. 

86 K \TOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Mar., '30 

The species had a high percentage of parasitism by a species 
of Bethylid determined by Mr. Rohwer as Sclerodermus inucro- 
//<istcr A shin. The adults are wingless and follow the bur- 
rows of the larvae. 

(To be continued) 

Cleveland Museum Entomological Expedition. 

Dr. George P. Engleharclt, Director of Natural Sciences in 
the Brooklyn Museum, and Mr. John C. Pallister, Entomolo- 
gist of the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, are making 
a brief trip into Central America in search of materials for 
entomological groups for the Cleveland Museum. They are 
the guests of Mr. M. F. Bramley, of Cleveland, who is making 
the trip in the yacht "Peary", which was used by MacMillan 
and Byrd in their Arctic Expedition in 1925. The party sailed 
from Long Beach, California, February 1. Before going to 
Guatemala they will spend a few days on the uninhabited island 

of Socorro. 


Entomological Literature 


Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, 
however, whether relating to American or exotic species will be recorded. 

The numbers within brackets I ] refer to the journals, as numbered 
in the list of Periodicals and Serials published in the January and June 
numbers (or which may be secured from the publisher of Entomological 
News for lOc), in which the paper appeared. The number of, or annual 
voiume, and in some cases the part, heft, &c. the latter within ( ) 
follows; then the pagination follows the colon : 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their 
first installments. 

*Papers containing new forms or names have an * preceding the 
author's name. 

(S) Papers pertaining exclusively to neotropical species, and not so 
indicated in the title, have the symbol (S) at the end of the title of 
the paper. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Rec- 
ord. Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied 
Entomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

fUBp-jVofe the change in the method of citing the bibliographical refer- 
ences, as explained above. 

Papers published in the Entomological News are not listed. 

GENERAL. Barnes, H. F. Gall midges ( Ceddoniyi- 
dae) as enemies of aphids. |22] 20: 433-442. Beling, I. 
Ueber das zeitgedachtnis der bienen. [88| 18: 63-67, ill. 
Bodkin, G. E. A note on the utility of aerial photography 
in entomological field work. [22] 20: 431, ill. Carpenter, 
G. H. Insects their structure and life. 335pp., ill. Dunker- 
ly, J. S. A note on parasites and the natural selection the- 


ory. [93] 1929: 267-270. Estable, C. Observaciones sobre al- 
gunos insectos del Uruguay. [An. Mus. Hist. Nat. Montevideo] 
3: 57-92. Fulda, O. Sammelreise quer durch Mexiko. [20] 
45: 2-4, cont. McKellar, H. Obituary. By X. Criddle. |4| 
61 : 288. Myers, J. G. The nesting together of birds, wasps 
and ants. [Pro. Ent. Soc. London] 4: 80-90. Navas, R. P. 
L. Insectos neotropicos. [44] 32: 106-128. Nininger, H. H. 

-Brief notes on Mexican insects. [103] 3: 28. Noble, G. K. 

-What produces species? [15] 1930: 60-70. Ruediger, E. 

Entomologie und ethik. [14] 43: 221-223, cont. Stiles & 
Hassell. -Key-catalogue of parasites reported for primates 
(monkeys and lemurs) with their possible public health 
importance. [U. S. Hyg. Lab.] Bull. 152: 409-601. Thomp- 
son, W. R. On the part played by parasites in the control 
of insects living in protected situations. [22] 20: 457-462. 
Weiss, H. B. The entomology of the "Menagier de Paris". 
[M] 37: 421-423. Weiss & Zieg'ler. More notes on the wood 
engravers of North American insects. [6] 37: 439-440. 

ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY, Etc. Allard, H. A. Our 

insect instrumentalists and their musical technique. [Smiths. 
Rep.) 1928: 563-591, ill. Alpatov, W. W. Experimental 
studies on the duration of life. XIII. The influence of dif- 
ferent feeding during the larval and imaginal stages on the 
duration of life of the imago of Drosphila melanogaster. 
[90] 64: 37-55, ill. Berland, L. Les forficules sont-elles 
carnivores? [25] 1929: 289-290. Boldyrev, B. T. Sperma- 
tophore fertilization in the migratory locust (Locust mi- 
gratoria). [Rep. Appl. Ent., Leningrad] 4; 189-218, ill. 
Bredig, Carter & Enderli. Ueber das gleichgewicht der 
kohlendioxyd-abspaltung aus ameisensaure und ihr poten- 
tial. [Sitzungsberichte, Wien] 138: 1023-1030, ill. Bureau, 
M. R. Stir la variation diurne des parasites atmosphe- 
riques : moyennes mensuelles, variation annuelle, influences 
meteorolog'iques. [69] 189: 1293-1295. ill. Crampton, G. C. 
-The terminal abdominal structures of female insects 
compared throughout the orders from the standpoint of 
phylogeny. [6| 37: 453-496, ill. Eltringham, H. On a new 
sense organ in certain Lepidoptera. |36] 77: 471-473. ill. 
Everly, R. T. Preliminary experiments on the jumping 
reactions of Melanoplus differentialis [43] 39: 309-315, ill. 
Giglio-Tos, E. Riflessioni di un biologo sul metaboli^mo 
dclla sostanza vivente. | Riv. Biol., Milano] 11: 485-519. 
Jobling, B. A comparative study of the structure of tin- 
head and mouth parts in the Streblidae (Pupipara). 
[P.-irasit.| 21: 417-444, ill. Lestage, J. A. Les larves a 
tracheo-branchies ventrales. [Ephemeroptera.] [33] 09: 


433-440. Locke, D. Die ungliickskerne. Eine dramatifche 
geschichte vom untergang einer aufbliihenden gemein- 
schaft bolivianifcher schirmameisen. [Kosmos] 27: 22-28, 
ill. Mclndoo, N. E. - - Communication among insects. 
[Smiths. Rep.J 1928: 541-562, ill. Mezger, M. Curiosite et 
resistance au vol des Papillions. [Lambillionea] 1929: 139. 
Myers, J. G. Facultative blood-sucking in phytophagous 
Hemiptera. [Parasit.] 21: 472-480. Peters, H. Ueber den 
farbensinn der tagfalter. [14J 43: 237-239. Reinohl, F- 
Die vererbung erworbener eigenschaften. [Naturwissen. 
Monats., Heimat] 42: 321-335, ill. Ripper, W. Beziehun- 
gen zwischen lebensweise und bau der kopfkapsel bei Lepi- 
dopterenlarven. [Verb. Zool.-Bot. Gesell. Wien] 79: 57-61. 
Snodgrass, R. E. The thoracic mechanism of a grasshopper 
and its antecedents. [Smiths. Misc. Coll.] 82: lllpp., ill. 
Study, E. Kami mimikry auf zufall beruhen? [17] 47: 1.4. 
Thompson, W. R. A contribution to the study of morpho- 
genesis in the muscoid diptera. [36] 77: 195-244, ill. Urneya 
& Karasawa. On the morphology of the duplicate geni- 
talia of the male-moth, Bombyx mori. [Jour. Chosen Nat. 
Hist. Soc.] 1929: 39. Verlaine, L. La construction des 
cellules hexagonales par les guepes et les abeilles. [33] 69: 
387-417, ill. " Wigglesworth," V. B. A theory of tracheal 
respiration in insects. [31] 124: 986-987. 


-The mating habits of spiders, with special reference to 
the problems surrounding sex dimorphism. [93] 1929: 309- 
358, ill. *Fage, L. Sur quelques Araignees des grottes 
de 1'Amerique du Nord et de Cuba. [23] 22: 181-187, ill. 
Hilton, W. A. Another proturan from California. [13] 21 : 
131-132, ill. *Petrunkevitch, A. The spiders of Porto Rico. 
Part II. [Trans. Conn. Acad. Arts & Sci.] 30: 163-355. ill. 
Petrunkevitch, A. On the systematic position of the spider 
genus Nicodamus. [6] 37: 417-420. 

P. P. Different rates of growth among animals with spec- 
ial reference to the Odonata. [Proc. American Philo. Soc.] 
68: 227-274, ill. Davis, W. T. Notes on dragonflies of the 
genus Neurocordulia. [6] 37: 449-450. *Denis, J. R. Notes 
sur les Collemboles recoltes dans ses voyages par le F. Sil- 
vestri. [23] 22: 166-179, ill. Fraser, F. C. A revision of 
the Fissilabioidea (Cordulegasteridae, Petaliidae and Petal- 
uridae). Part I. Cordulegasteridae. [Mem. Indian Mus., 
Calcutta] 9: 69-167, ill. *Hood, J. D. Two Urothripidae 
(Thysanoptera) from Florida, with keys to the known gen- 


era and the North American species. [19J 24: 314-321, ill. 
*Moulton, D. T\v<> new species of Lispothrips from Can- 
ada with notes on other species. [4] 61 : 286-287. Nichols, 
E. R. Termites of Southern California. | 13] 21: 123. 
Pirion, R. P. A. Observaciones sobre 3 Odonatos del valle 
de Marga-Marga. [44 j 32: 95-97. *Silvestri, F Contri- 
buzione alia conoscenza degli Japygidae (Thysanura) di 
Cuba. [23] 22: 263-281, ill. Stuardo, C. Notas entomolo- 
gicas. Algunas obser\ r aciones sobre dos Afelininos parasi- 
tos de Aleurothrixus ported. (S) [44] 32: 154-157. Winter, 
J. D. A preliminary account of the raspberry aphids. 
[Univ. Minn. Ag. Exp. Sta., Tech. Bull.] 61: 29pp., ill. 

ORTHOPTERA. *Liebermann, J. Morfologia y siste- 
matica de las "Tucuras" Argentinas (Acridioideos), con datos 
acerca de su distribucion en el pais y los perjuicios que 
causa a la agricultura nacional. [An. Soc. Cien. Argentina] 
108: 463-496. Porter, C. E. Sobre un fasmido poco comun 
en las colecciones. [44] 32: 61-64, ill. 

HEMIPTERA. Beckwith & Hutton. - - Life history 
notes on some leaf-hoppers that occur on New Jersey cran- 
berry boo-s. [6] 37: 425-427. Boselli, F. B Studii sugli 
Psyllidi. (Psyllidae o Chermidae). [23] 22: 204-217, ill. de 
la Torre-Bueno, J. R. ( )n some New England Heterop- 
tera. [19] 24: 310-313. Harding L The biology of Opsius 
stactogalust (Cicadellidae). [103] 3: 7-20, ill. ^Horvath, G. 

General catalogue of the Hemiptera. Fasc. II. Meso- 
veliidae. 15pp. *Hungerford, H. B. Three new Velia from 
South America. [103] 3: 23-26, ill. *Hungerford, H. B. A 
new genus of semi-aquatic Hemiptera. (S). [19] 24: 288- 
290, ill. Hussey & Sherman. General Catalogue of the 
Hemiptera. l-'asc. III. Pyrrhocoridae. 144pp. *Lawson, 
P. B. Genus Dikraneuroidea gen. N. (Cicadellidae). [19] 
24: 307-308. VanDuzee, E. P. Note on genus Clastoptera. 

[55] 6: 62. 

LEPIDOPTERA. Balduf, W. V. The life history of 
Achatodes zeae (.Noctuidae). [10] 31: 169-177, ill. Bander- 
mann, Fr. Xachtrag zu "Erfolgreiche zuchten mit ameri- 
kanischen barenformen aus dem eigelege". | 18) 23: 460- 
461. Earth, G. Kulcnfang am honigtau. [14| 43: 224-225. 
ill. Becker, D. J. Goethe iiber schmetterlinge. 1 14] 43: 
235-236. Brodie, H. J. A preliminary \\>i of the Lepido])- 
tera of Manitoba. [Trans. I\. Canadian lust.) 17: SI -101. 
Brower, A. E. Kurymus eurytheme, at Ithaca. X. N".. in 
1929. [6] 37: 437. Claude-Joseph, H. El Elachista rubella. 


[44] 32: 140-143, ill. Cleare, L. D. Butterfly migrations in 
British Guiana. II. [36] 77: 251-264, ill. *Gunder, J. D.- 
New butterflies and sundry notes. [19] 24: 325-332, ill. 
*Hawker-Smith, W. A new species of African Lycaeniclae. 
(S). [Bull. Hill Mus.] 3: 234. Hayward, K. J. Description 
of the larva of Sibine fusca. A limacodid from the Argen- 
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larva and pupa of Phobetron coras. A limacodid from the 
Argentine. [21] 41: 180-182, ill. Kremky, J. Remarques 
sur la morphologic et la distribution geographique des 
Lepidopteres du groupe de 1'Apamea nictitans. [An. Mus. 
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parently new Microlepidoptera. [4] 61 : 266-271, ill. 
Schultze, A. Die ersten stande von drei kolumbianischen 
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A monograph of the Pierine genus Delias. Part IV. 168- 
219, ill. Williams, C. B. Evidence for the migration of but- 
terflies. | Bull. Soc. R. Ent. Egypte] 1929: 193-210. 

DIPTER A. * Alexander, C. P. Diptera of Patagonia 
and South Chile. [Brit. Mus. Pub.]. Part I. Crane-flies. 
240pp., ill. * Alexander, C. P. The crane-flies of New York : 
Fourth supplementary list. [19] 24: 295-302. *Alexander, 
C. P. Records and descriptions of neotropical crane-flies 
(Tipulidae) VII. [6] 37: 395-407. Bandermann, F. Etwas 
iiber die stubenfliege (Domestica). [26] 10: 16-17. *Cor- 
dero, E. H. Contribucion al estudio de los Dipteros del 
Uruguay, I. Lophomyidium uruguayense n. gen., n. sp. 
Nueva Ceratopogonina hematofaga. [An. Mus. Hist. Nat. 
Montevideo] 3: 93-108, ill. *Curran, C. H. The genus 
Al \xosargus ( Stratiomyidae). [40] No. 378: 4pp. *Ed- 
wards, F. W. Diptera of Patagonia and South Chile. 
[Brit. Mus. Pub.]. Part II. Fasc. II. Blepharoceridae. 
33-75, ill. Ferris, G. F. Observations on the genus Or- 
nithoica (Hippoboscidae). [4] 61: 280-285, ill/ Huckett, 
H. C. A note on the habits of Hylemyia trivittata. [19] 
24: 294. Matheson, R. A handbook of the mosquitoes of 
North America. 268pp., ill. *Painter, R. H. A review of 
the Bombyliid genus Heterostylum. [103] 3: 1-7. Peus, F. 

Ueber variable Culiciden-Hypopygien. [34] 86: 120-123, 
ill. Porter, C. E. Cecidiologia chilena: Breve resena his- 
torica y bibliografica acerca de las "agallas" del Colliguay 
(Colliguaya odorifera). (S). |44] 32: 73-80. Reichardt, H. 

Untersuchungen iiber den genitalapparate der Asiliden. 
|94| 135: 257-301, ill. Ruiz, H. F. Breves notas biologicas 
sobre Hxoprosopa erythrocephala. [44] 32: 57-60. *Ton- 

xli, '30] KXTOMoi.or.icAi. \K\VS '->1 

noir, A. L. Diptera of Patagonia and South Chile. [Brit. 
Mus. Pnl>.|. Part II. Fasc. I. Psychodidae. 32pp., ill. 

COLEOPTERA. Boving, A. G. Taxonomic characters 
for the identification of the mature larvae of Pissodes strobi 
and Pissodes approximatus (Curculionidae). [10J 31: 182- 
18(i, ill. *Bridwell, J. C. A preliminary generic arrange- 
ment of the palm hruchids and allies with descriptions ot 
new species. | 10] 31: 141-160. *Brown, W. J. The Cana- 
dian species of Macropogon. [4] 61: 273-274. Burgeon, L. 

Monographic dn genre Graphipterus. [33] 69: 273-351. 
Burmeister, F. Die brutfiirsorge und das bauprinzip der 
gattung Onthophagus. Ein beitrag zur biologic der gattung 
Onthophagus. [46] 16: 559-647, ill. *Fall, H.'C. The genus 
Eurygenius in our fauna. [19] 24: 333-334. *Fall, H. C.- 
New North American species of Rhynchites. [19] 24: 292- 
294. *Fisher, W. S. Notes on leaf mining Buprestidae, 
with descriptions of new species. (S). [10| 31: 177-182. 
Heymons, R. Ueber die biologic der Passaluskafer. [4o] 
lo: 74-100, ill. *Liebke, M. Neue Carabiden aus Argentin- 
ien und Bolivien. | Physis, Buenos Aires) 9: 346-354, ill. 
Longnecker, K. A study of the Coccinellidae of Iowa. 
[Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci.J 35: 307-311, ill. *Luederwaldt, H. 

Passalus xikani n. sp. ( Lamellia-Passalidae). (S) [32] 
5: 31. *Marelli, C. A. l.a^ species invasoras pueden dar 
origen a nuevas especies. (S). [44] 32: 27-30. Maulik, S. 
On the structure of the hind femur in Halticine beetles. 
[93] 1929: 305-308. ill. Mequignon, A. Notes synonym- 
iques sur c|uel<|ues Elaterides. [25] 1929: 272-276. Park, O. 

-Taxonomic studies in Coleoptera, with notes upon cer- 
tain species o! beetles in the Chicago area, I. [6j 37: 42 ( )- 
43o. ill. *Schaeffer, C. < )n some species of Phaedon. |1 ( '| 
24: 28d-287. Scheerpeltz, O.- Monogra])liie der gattung 
( )lophrum < Sla])hvlinidae). [\"erh. Zool.-Bot. < iesell. \\'ien | 
79: 1-257, ill. Taylor, R. L. The biology of the white pine 
weevil, Pisodes slrobi, and a study of it-- iiiM-ct para^ile.-> 
from an economic \-iew])int. 1 70 1 10: 8o]p.. ill. 

HYMENOPTERA. Beck, D. E. Bees of the sub-fam- 
ily Osminae in the collection of the Brigham \ T oung I'ni- 
versity. |19| 24: 303-306. Berland, M. L. Les Sphegidae 

du Museum Xational de Paris. |P)ull. Mus. Nat. Ili-t. Xat.. 
Paris) 1 : 3OO-3 12. Buckle, J. W. Ancistroci-ru> cajira and 
the larva of l^pargyrrus tityrus. |4| 61: 2d5-2(>(>. :i: Chees- 
man, L. E. Hymenoptera collected on the "St. George" 
expedition in Central America and the \\ . Indies. |3(>J 77: 
141-154, ill. Cockayne, E. A. Spiral and other anomalous 


forms of segmentation. [36] 77: 177-184. ill. *Cockerell, 
T. D. A. New bees from the Mesa Verde National Park, 
Colorado. [6] 37: 441-448. *Cushman, R. A. New species 
of ichneumon-flies and taxonomic notes. [50] 76, Art. 25: 
18pp. Prison, T. H. A contribution to the knowledge of 
the bionomics of Bremus impatiens. [19] 24: 261-282, ill. 
Goetsch & Eisner. Beitrage zur biologic kornersammeln- 
der ameiseri. II. [46] 16: 371-452, ill. *Herbst, P. Nuevos 
Pomilidos chilenos. [44] 32: 135-139. Klein, B. M. Begat- 
tnng bei einer springspinne : Evarcha blancardi. (S). [Der 
Naturf.] 6: 377-380, ill. *Mann, W. M. Notes on Cuban 
ants of the genus Macromischa ( Formicidae). [10] 31: 161- 
166, ill. *Menozzi, C. Una nuova specie di formica del 
genere Aphaenogaster del Nord America. [23] 22: 282-284, 
ill. Rayment, T. The plumed bees. [Victorian Nat. Mel- 
bourne] 46: 155-162, ill. *Ross, H. H. Two new forms 
of the genus Zaschisonyx. (Tenthredinidae). [4] 61: 272- 
273. Salt, G. A contribution to the ethology of the Meli- 
poninae. [36] 77: 431-470, ill. Skorikow, A. S. Eine neue 
basis fur eine revision der gattung Apis (in Russian and 
German). [Rep. Appl. Ent., Leningrad] 4: 249-264, ill. 
Stryk, X. Untersuchungen iiber das gelenk in der taille 
der apocriten Hymenopteren. [46] 16: 648-747, ill. Taylor, 
R. L. A nomenclatorial note on the l)irch leaf-mining 
sawfly, Phyllotoma nemorata. [19] 24: 323-324. *Timber- 
lake, H. Records of western species of Perdita with de- 
scriptions of two new species. [55] 6: 49-56. *Turner, R. 
E. A new species of Microstigmus (Sphegid.). (S). [22] 
20: 407-408, ill. Waterston, J. On the differential charac- 
ters of Chelonogastra and Philomacroploea, two genera of 
ichneumon-flies of the family Braconidae. [10] 31 : 167-168. 
Williams, F. X. Notes on the habits of the cockroach- 
hunting wasps of the genus Ampulex, sens, lat., with par- 
ticular reference to Ampulex (Rhinopsis) caniculatus. [37J 
7: 315-329, ill. 

SPECIAL NOTICES. Bibliographia Zoologica. Vol. 

39. Just issued containing 1734 titles of entomological 
papers. Biological Abstracts. Vol. III. Nos. 6-8. Just 
issued containing abstracts of 536 entomological papers. 
Insects, Ticks, Mites and Venomous Animals of Medical 
and Veterinary Importance. Part 1. Medical. By W. S. 
Patton and A. M. Evans. 785pp., ill. This work should 
prove to l)e valuable to those interested in medical ento- 
mology. It can be secured only on application to Miss M. 
Brown, School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool. 


ROBERT MATHESON, Professor of Entomology, New York- 
State College of Agriculture, Cornell University. Published 
by Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois, and Baltimore, 
Maryland. Pages XVII -f 268. Plates XXV. Figures 23. 
Price $5.50. 

Dr. Matheson has produced a volume which will be of the 
greatest value to all who are interested in the mosquitoes of the 
northern United States. His introductory chapters on the 
structure and biology of mosquitoes and their relation to hu- 
man welfare are particularly good. He also includes chapters 
on the problem of mosquito reduction and on collecting and 
preserving mosquitoes and their larvae. 

The systematic portion of the book takes up in turn the 
common North American species of Anopheles, Acdcs, Culc.v, 
Theobaldia, Psorophora, Taeniorhynchus, Uranotaenia, Ortho- 
podoniyia, Megarhinus and Il'ycoinyia, with keys to the species 
by "adults", "males" and "larvae". 

In his nomenclature, Matheson discards all subgeneric divi- 
sions, but follows Dyar, for the most part, as to genera and 
species, although he has adopted the British viewpoint to the 
extent of substituting Theobald in for Cnlicclla, and Taaiior- 
liyiicJins for Mansoniu. This latter change is particularly 
unfortunate, since Tacniorliyiuiuts Lynch zA.rribalzaga 1891 
(mosquitoes) must be considered to be a homonym of Taeniar- 
liynclnts Weinland 1858 (cestodes). and is therefore not avail- 
able for use as a mosquito genus. It is also to be regretted 
that the arrangement of the genera in Matheson's book and 
of the species in the genera is entirely arbitrary, not corre- 
sponding to the natural relationships nor even following some 
alphabetical or chronological scheme. 

Dr. Matheson's years of intimate acquaintance with the 
mosquitoes of the northeastern United States enable him to 
give a thoroughly satisfactory treatment of the species of this 
region, but the southern and western faunas are rather neg- 
lected, many of the more uncommon species being barely men- 
tioned or entirely omitted. 

The illustrations are numerous and carefully prepared. Dr. 
Matheson is to be especially congratulated on the admirable 
drawings portraying the basal portions of the male hypopygial 
structures of several genera in both dorsal and lateral views. 
The many figures of entire male hypopygia are very accurately 
drawn and will be useful, although 1 wish that they could 
have been printed a little larger. The figures of entire mos- 
quito larvae, however, placed six to a page, are entirely too 
small for satisfactory use. To my mind, it would have been 
better to give larger scale figures of the head and tip of the 
abdomen only, as was done in Dyar's "Mosquitoes of the 


There are far too many typographical errors in the book, 
and some of them are hard to forgive. Casual references to the 
genus Megarhinus, for example, are spelled correctly, but in 
the table of contents and in the section devoted particularly to 
this genus, it appears as Megharinus. There are also some 
regrettably careless statements in the text. Under Anopheles 
pscudopunctipcnnis (page 91), for example, the larva of this 
species is described as follows : "The larva is almost identical 
with that of maculipennis. The only distinguishing character 
is the long drawn out condition of the leaves of the palmate 
hair tufts." In the larval key on a preceding page (page 84), 
Matheson has already used another "distinguishing character", 
the unbranched outer clypeal hairs, to separate out the larva 
of pseudopunctipcnnis, and there are many more which could 
be cited. In fact, the larva of pscndopunctipcnnics is entirely 
dissimilar to all the other North American species of Anophe- 
les in almost every character which has been used in differen- 
tiating between the larvae of the different species of this genus. 

Again, in his introductory discussion of mosquito reduction, 
on pages 59 and 60, Matheson says: "The problem of mosquito 
reduction involves two distinct points of view ; ( 1 ) that of the 
public health official who has been and still is largelv concerned 
with the reduction of mosquito-borne diseases: (2) that of 
the entomologist who urges that all species of mosquitoes be 
included in any plan of control." Of course Dr. Matheson 
can not have meant this statement to be taken literally. One 
cannot imagine, for example, an entomologist urging that any 
plan of mosquito control should include the destruction of all 
pitcher-plants in the area, because the harmless ]]' \co\n\\a 
smithii utilizes this breeding place. But even the idea of urging 
that any anti-malaria or anti-yellow fever campaign should 
include control of the mosquito nuisance in its program seems 
to me to be a step backward, opposed to the modern and scien- 
tific procedure of finding out the particular species of mos- 
quitoes which are actually carrying disease, and then restricting 
control measures to them, so far as is possible, thus reducing 
the expense of mosquito control to a point where control work 
will actuallv be undertaken. FRANCIS M. ROOT. 

Doings of Societies 

The stated meetings of the American Entomological Society 
for 1929 were regularly held in the rooms of the Entomological 
Department of the Academy of Natural Sciences. The average 
attendance was 17. Three members were admitted during the 
year, bringing the total to 59 resident members. 


A number of distinguished visitors participated in our meet- 
ings, and while the average attendance was not as large numer- 
ically as may be desired, all the meetings were successful and 
enjoyable. The meetings of the Northeastern Branch of the 
American Association of Economic Entomologists were held 
in New York on November 21. This coincidence materially 
reduced our average attendance, as many of our members took 
part in these meetings in Xew York. 

The outlook for 1930 is very promising as already 7 appli- 
cations for membership are in the Secretary's hands. 

At the meeting of January 24. Mr. J. A. G. Rehn gave a 
talk on African and Madagascan Grouse-locusts. 

At the meeting of February 28th, Mr. \Ym. M. Chapman 
spoke on his work at the Experiment Station in Florida, Mr. 
Frank M. Jones talked on finding of the bag-worm, Oikfiicus 
abbotti, near Accomac, Virginia, Dr. YVitmer Stone gave a 
graphic account of a trip made by him to the Chiricahui Moun- 
tains in Arizona. 

At the meeting of March 28, Dr. J. Lyonel King gave a 
talk on the work carried on at the Japanese Beetle Labora- 
tories in New Jersey. 

At the meeting of April 25, Mr. J. A. G. Rehn made some 
remarks on the distribution of certain genera of Grouse- 
locusts; Dr. P. P. Calvert gave a talk on the moulting of insect 
larvae, especially the increase in the number of moults upon 
reducing the food supply. 

At the meeting of Ma\ 23, Mr. Frank M. Jones exhibited 
carton nest and specimens of the ant. Crcmastogaster atkinsoiii 
Wheeler, from Royal I'alm State I 'ark, Florida. 

At the meeting of September 26, Mr. Frank M. Jones spoke 
on his collecting trip at Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts, dur- 
ing the past summer, listing many rare species; Mr. ('has. II. 
Ballon spoke of the experiment with the sap of geranium and 
its effect upon the Japanese beetles; Mr. Max Kisliuk >p<>ke on 
the absence of Japanese beetles at Atlantic City in the past 
summer; Mr. Robert J. Titherington related bis experiences 
in collecting insects in Xew Hampshire during his vaeat'on. 


At the meeting of October 24, Mr. R. C. Williams, Jr. spoke 
on the recent visit of Mr. and Mrs. Orazio Ouerci. Dr. P. P. 
Calvert spoke on the rearing in captivity from the egg of 
Syinpetntui vicinuni and of Caloptcry.r inacithtta (both Odo- 
nata) by Mr. F. Reese Nevin ; Dr. Henry Fox spoke of the 
ability of bringing Japanese beetles through their various 
stages of development more quickly in high temperatures ; Mr. 
Max Kisliuk suggested that if Japanese beetles would become 
established in Florida they would be a greater menace even 
than here ; Mr. Ballou spoke of the effect of soil under certain 
conditions upon the development of insects ; Mr. Revney, of 
Washington, spoke of the moulting in larval stages of insects, 
more especially of Cimex Icctularia; Mrs. Margaret Gary ex- 
hibited specimens of A pant c sis vittata (Lepidoptera) which 
she reared from eggs secured from a female captured in Fair- 
mount Park, and several other species of Apantcsis which she 
collected in New Hampshire in the past season ; Mr. Frank 
M. Jones reported the behaviour of Papcipcww, species (Lepi- 
doptera) in the south as maturing later than in the north; Dr. 
Jesse M. Shaver, of Nashville, Tennessee, spoke of the devel- 
opment of Chrysobothris feiuorata (Coleoptera) under tem- 
perature control and of its injury caused to peach trees; Mr. 
Jos. S. \Vade, of Washington, D. C., gave a brief outline of 
the scientific societies of Washington ; Mr. J. A. G. Rehn made 
some remarks on the African species of the Blattid genus 
Ectobins; Mr. Frank Haimbach reported the capture in num- 
bers of the European satin moth Stilpnotia salicis at New 
London, New Hampshire, in the past summer. 

At the meeting of November 21, Dr. Levi Mengel, of the 
Public Museum and Art Gallery of Reading, gave a talk illus- 
trated with lantern slides on his trip to Spain in the past sum- 

At the meeting of December 19, Mr. Chas. A. Thomas, of 
State College Laboratory, Kennett Square, gave a talk, illus- 
trated with lantern slides, on mushroom insects and wire worms 

FRANK HAIMBACH, Recording Secretary. 

APRIL, 1930 


Vol. XLI 

No. 4 



Gunder North American Institutions Featuring Lepidoptera XIII . 

Knull Notes on Coleoptera No. 2 

Hull Notes on Several Species of North American Pachygasterinae 
(Diptera : Stratiomyidae) with the Description of a New Species. 

Cole The Preservation of Lepidopterous Larvae by Injection 

Blatchley On a Family of Coleoptera new to the Fauna of North 
America with Description of One New Species (Gnostidae) . . . 

Cole Muscina stabulans Fall. (Diptera: Muscidae) Parasitic on 
Arachnara subcarnea Kell. (Lepidop. : Noctuidae) 

Haimbach The Crambinae in the Brackenridge Clemens Memorial 
Collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 
(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) 

Jeannel and Chopard Centenary of the Entomological Society of 

Woodbury A Note on the Longevity of a Paralyzed Orthopteran (Lo- 
custidae ; Hymen. : Sphecidae) 

Ditman Notes on Corythuca pallipes Parshley, and Leptodictya simu- 
lans Heidemann (Heteropt.: Tingididae) 

International Society of Ipidologists 

Howard Some Coincidences in the Lives of Three Prominent New Zea- 
land Entomologists of the last Century . 

Entomological Literature 

Review General Catalogue of the Hemiptera 









Review Kolosvary's Die Weberknechte Ungarns 146 


Logan Square 

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Acceptance for mailing at the special rate of postage prescribed for in Section 1 
Act of October 3, 1917, authorized January 15, 1921. 


published monthly, excepting August and September, by The American 
Entomological Society. 

Philip P. Calvert, Ph.D., Editor; E. T. Cresson, Jr., R. G. Sthmieder.Ph.D., 
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Advisory Committee: Philip Laurent. J. A. G Rehn, Chas. Liebeck, J. 
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Win. M. Chapman. , 

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Plate X. 

5?etm> (ComstocU 

9nna Uotsforb (ComstocU 


VOL. XLI. APRIL, 1930 No. 4 

North American Institutions featuring Lepidoptera. 

XIII. Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. 

By J. D. GUNDER, Pasadena, California. 

(Plates X, XI and XII). 

If you know of young men or young women who really seem 
interested in entomology and who would like to make that 
science their life work, advise them to prepare for the New 
York State College of Agriculture of Cornell University at 
Ithaca, New York. There is no better school in America, or 
for that matter in Europe, where students will receive that 
specialized instruction and that ultimate prestige which the 
"trained" entomologist of the future must surely have. Wheth- 
er the student's respective career leads to economic or systematic 
investigation, the laboratory or professorship, Cornell Univer- 
sity offers the most in educational facilities, both in physical 
equipment and in personnel of faculty. 

Ithaca is in the central-western part of New York State, 
easily accessible by railroad, and the University campus, which 
is just outside of town, occupies a picturesque site of about 
fifteen hundred acres in a hilly region overlooking Lake Cay- 
uga. The campus itself is really a city of fine buildings com- 
posing the various colleges and schools which go to make up 
the University. Of note is the Library Building with its many 
fine individual collections of books. Other structures include, 
the Boardman Hall, Stimson Hall, Sibley College, Morse Hall 
of Chemistry, the Rockefeller Hall of Physics, the Willard 
Straight Hall and the buildings of the College of Agriculture, 
two of which are shown in the circle at the top of plate XL 
There are about nine hundred persons on the University's 
teaching staff and last year the student enrollment was over 
five thousand. 

E/ra Cornell (1807-74), an American business man, founded 
the L'nivtTsity in 1868. He was born in Westchester, New 
York, of Quaker parentage, his father being a farmer and a 



maker of pottery by trade. Ezra was industrious and besides 
learning the potter's trade, taught school in the district. For 
a while he worked as a carpenter and also managed a flour mill. 
About that time an initial telegraph line was being installed 
between Washington and Baltimore and young Ezra invented 
a digging machine for laying the wires underground. Although 
the machine was a success, the system didn't work because 
electric insulation under the soil wasn't understood, so he pro- 
posed stringing the wires on poles. His idea, original at the 
time, was approved and Mr. Cornell became a contractor for 
the company and entered business on a big scale, making his 
first real money. In 1855 he was instrumental in forming the 
Western Union Telegraph Company. Having accumulated a 
very comfortable fortune by this time, he decided to retire 
from commercial life and revert to farming on a huge scale. 
Thus in 1858 he bought the land outside of Ithaca which was 
shortly to become the site of the University. Through politics 
he assembled certain United States and State land grants as 
a unit and by 'careful sales succeeded in getting the money all 
assigned to one institution of learning and that institution he 
founded on his farm as the Cornell University. At the same 
time he made a personal gift of $500,000 towards buildings 
and thus the school was opened in 1868. Andrew D. White was 
the first president and remained in that position for twenty 
years. Fortunately Dr. White was a very able educator and 
worked unceasingly for the future of the school. 

Although Cornell University continues to grow and now con- 
sists of eight well known colleges and the Graduate School, 
still its principal college, in fact, is the College of Agriculture 
and the Agriculture Department has always stood in the most 
preferred relation with the State of New York which made 
possible the erection of its best buildings in 1904. This is in 
entire accord with the wishes of the founder. Students of 
Agriculture who are residents of the State pay no tuition fees. 

Definite entomological instruction and research were begun 
at the College of Agriculture in 1874 with the appointment 
of John Henry Comstock. A fairly recent photograph of Mr. 
and Mrs. Comstock is reproduced on plate X. Prof. Comstock 
is often referred to as America's Dean of Entomology and 
certainly his original work and devotion to that science merit 


Plate XI. 





XLI, '30] i:\To.\IOLOGICAL NEWS 99 

the title. He was born in Janesville, Wisconsin, February 24, 
1849, graduating from Cornell in 1874, where he was appointed 
instructor in the same year. For two years he was United 
States Kntomologist at Washington (1879-81) and held the 
pnst of Professor of Entomology and Invertebrate Zoology at 
the University from 1882 to 1 ( )14, when he retired as Emeritus. 
Mis principal works on entomology are: ./ Manual for the 
Study of Insects, Introduction to Enloinoloi/y, Insect Life, 
Notes on Entomology, h'cport on Cotton Insects, How to 
Know the Hittter/Jii-s (With Mrs. Comstock), The Spider Book 
and The IT ings of Insects. He is also the author of numerous 
shorter papers. 

Mrs. Comstock, better known as Anna Botsford Comstock, 
is almost as well known entomologically as her husband. Be- 
sides being a talented artist of natural history subjects, she 
is a wood engraver of note, having exhibited at the Chicago 
Fair in 1803 and the Paris Exposition in 1900. At the Buffalo 
Exposition in 1901. her work in wood engraving was awarded 
the Bronze Medal. In 1923 Mrs. Comstock was chosen by 
the National League of Women Voters as one of the twelve 
greatest living American women. Her published works in- 
clude: IV ays of the Si.r Footed, Handbook of Nature Study, 
How to Keep Bees, The Pet Book and Bird, Animal, Tree and 
Plant Notebooks. 

The entomological activities of the University center around 
Roberts Hall and the class rooms and insect collections (third 
and fourth floors) are all in this building and the two imme- 
diately joining. Cornell has an enviable staff of well known 
instructors for entomology and the various professors seem 
especially interested in a variety of different insect orders in 
which much personal research work is being accomplished as 
time permits. Some of the older members of the faculty and 
their specialties are: J. G. Needham, Ph.D., Litt.D.. D.Sc., 
Aquatic insects and ()<lonata: G. W. derrick, B.A.S., Thysan- 
optera; C. R. Crosby, A. I!., Aradmida; ( ). A. Johannsen, Ph.D., 
Diptera; J. C. Bradley. Ph. I)., I lynienoptera ; Robert Mathe- 
son, Ph.D., Siphonoptera. etc.; P. \Y. (laaen. Ph.D., Plecop- 
tera; L. I'. \\Vhrlr. Pli.l).. Economic Entomology; W. T. M. 
Forbes, Ph. D., Lepidoptera, and G. L. Griswold, Ph.D., In- 
jurious Insects. 


For a teaching institution the collections of general lepidop- 
tera are the best in the country. There are seven cabinets and 
racks holding about 900 drawers in which it is estimated there 
are over 50,000 mounted specimens. The butterflies of New 
York and northeastern United States are well represented and 
the moth collection is fairly large. A good deal of the material 
of Foulks, Murtfeldt and Fassl is accessible ; much is still un- 
touched in papers and on cotton. By far the best worked-up 
groups are those from South America where Dr. Forbes and 
others have collected and which have been given preferred at- 
tention. There are many boxes of small exotic moths collected 
at light in the tropics yet to be mounted and given temporary 
classification. Among these should be found much new material. 
Mr. A. B. Klots has recently been working with some of the 
Pierids, particularly Ercnia, and thus this family is in very 
fine shape. Colleges where entomology is taught need good 
collections of insects ; however, it is not necessary that type 
specimens be retained. 

Plate XI shows Dr. Forbes and the College's two students 
who at present are taking major work in Lepidoptera. Both 
Mr. Klots and Mr. Richards are promising young entomolo- 
gists. Dr. Forbes was born in Westborough, Massachusetts, 
and attended Amherst, Cornell and Clark Colleges. He made 
an extensive trip through Asia Minor in 1907 and has twice 
visited countries in South America (1920 and 1927) for pur- 
poses of collecting and studying exotic Lepidoptera. The Doctor 
possesses a good private collection of European butterflies. 
His most recent extensive work was The Lepidoptera of New 
York which is a Cornell publication, memoir 68. 

A great deal has been written in the NEWS and elsewhere 
about the Fourth International Congress of Entomology which 
met at Cornell in 1928 between August 12th and 18th, but I 
thought a reproduction of the official photograph of the dele- 
gates might be of interest in this connection. A somewhat 
similar picture was published in the October, 1928, Journal 
of Economic Entomology and I am indebted to that publication 
for my copy of the key to names. Only two names are omitted 
on the plate, being unknown to this author up to the time of 
going to press. 


Notes on Coleoptera No. 2. 

By J. N. KNULL, Pennsylvania Bureau of Plant Industry. 
(Continued from page 86.) 

ANOPLODERA MUTABILIS Newn. Reared from partly decayed 
wood of alder (Alnus nujom), large-toothed aspen (Populns 
grandidentata) and tulip poplar (Liriodcndron tulipifcra) col- 
lected in Clark's Valley. 

A. PROXIMA Say. Reared from the dead decayed wood on 
the inside of a hollow sour gum (Nyssa syk'atica) collected at 
Hummelstown, Pennsylvania. 

MOLORCHUS BIMACULATUS Say. Adults were reared from 
dead witch hazel (Hainaniclis rinjiniana) collected at Rock- 
ville, Pennsylvania. 


A Molorchus was found breeding in hackberry (Celtis occi- 
d entails) which seems to differ materially from the specimens 
of Molorchus bimacnlatus collected and reared from other hosts 
in the same vicinity. The adults are much larger in size than 
those reared from many other hosts, although the branches in 
which these were breeding were no larger. The adults vary in 
length from 8 to 11.5 mm. 

As compared with Molorchus buna cul a tits, the antennae are 
relatively longer in the type male, pronotum longer and more 
nearly cylindrical, apices of elytra more broadly rounded, punc- 
tures of pronotum and elytra much finer, pubescence of entire 
insect longer and more dense. Length 11 mm., width 2.5 mm. 

Described from a series in the collection of the writer which 
were chopped from the sapwood of dead hackberry (Celtis 
occidcntalis) branches and one specimen from the sapwood of 
dead redbud (Cercis canadcnsis) collected at Hummelstown, 
Pennsylvania, in December. Type in the writer's collection. 
The adults mature in the fall and pass the winter in their pupal 

reared from dead white oak (Oucrcits alba) branches from an 
inch to two inches in diameter collected in Clark s Valley. The 
dead branches were attached to the living trees and had died 
the previous spring. The larvae work beneath the bark parallel 
with the grain and pupate in the sapwood. 


vania, this species was found breeding in living fire cherry 
(Prunus pennsylvanica). Many trees had been killed by the 
work of this insect. The adults were quite numerous on the 
trunks of the infested trees during the warm parts of the 
days in the latter part of June. 

NEOCLYTUS ACUMINATUS Fab. Reared from dead linden 
(Tilia amcricana) collected in Clark's Valley. 

ANTHOBOSCUS RURICOLA Oliv. Adults were reared from dead 
alder (Alnus rugosa) collected in Clark's Valley. 

EUDERCES PICIPES Fab. Reared from dead branches of post 
oak (Qucrcus stcllata) collected in Clark's Valley. 

A.STYLOPSIS MACULA Say. Adults were reared from the 
dead wood of the following trees collected in Clark's Valley : 
poison ivy (Rhus toxicodendron), witch hazel (Hamamclis 
virginiana) and black walnut (Juglans nigra.). 

LEIOPUS VARIEGATUS Hald. Reared from dead poison ivy 
(Rims to.vicodendron) collected at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. 

LEPTURGES SIGNATUS Lee. Reared from dead white oak 
(Quercus alba) collected in Clark's Valley. 

L. QUERCI Fitch. Reared from dead white oak (Qucrcus 
alba) branches collected in Clark's Valley. 

EUPOGONIUS VESTITUS Say. Was reared from dead branches 
of walnut (Juglans nigra) and witch hazel (Hamavn-elis vir- 
giniana) collected at Hummelstown, Pennsylvania. 

HIPPOPSIS LEMNISCATA Fab. Found breeding in the stems 
of living daisy fieabane (Erigeron ramosus) at Rutherford, 



EUSPHYRUS WALSHI Lee. Reared from dead poison ivy 
(Rhus toxioodcndron) collected at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. 


LAEMOSACCUS PLAGIATUS Fab. Reared from dead post oak 
(Quercus stellata) branches collected in Clark's Valley. 


ANISANDRUS SAYI Hopk. Living adults were taken in 
Clark's Valley, on March 29th, from a dead stem of spice bush 
(Benzoin acstivale) which had evidently been killed by this 
species. Adults were also found working in living large leaved 
holly (Ilc.v monticola) at Laporte, Pennsylvania, on June 20th. 
The barkbeetles were determined by Dr. Blackmail. 


Notes on Several Species of North American Pachy- 
gasterinae (Diptera : Stratiomyidae) with the 
Description of a New Species.* 

By FRANK M. HULL, Dickinson, Texas. 

The accumulation of material in this group of interesting 
little flies has led to the following notes upon them, together 
with the description of new species of Neopachygaster. All of 
these species referred to below belong to the group with "un- 
spined scutellum". The habits of the subfamily are unusually 
interesting. In late spring and early summer they seem to 
manifest a predilection for windows. I have frequently col- 
lected them in laboratories, street cars in the heart of a city, 
railroad coaches, etc. They are more usually found about deep 
woods near rotten logs and at such places they may be swept 
up from the grass. 

ZABRACHIA POLITA Coq. A male and a female. A. and M. 
College, Mississippi, April 8th, 1922 (E. W. Stafford), and 
May 12. 1920 (F. M. Hull). Taken on windows and by 

mens of both sexes, from A. and M. College, Mississippi, May 
19, 1920 (E. W. Stafford, F. M. Hull) ; Columbus, Ohio, 
May 30, 1923 (F. M. Hull). Taken on windows only. The 
male of this species has dichoptic eyes. The sexes are readily 
distinguished by the differently colored pile of the thorax ; in 
the male silvery, in the female more golden yellow. 

Neopachygaster vitreus n. sp. 

This species differs from N. maculicornis, the only other 
described North American species in the uniform shining black- 
color and size. The argenteus scales of that species completely 

$. Length 2.3 mm. On account of the furcate third vein, 
subglobose third antennal joint, and antennae near the middle 
of the head in profile, this species goes in to the genus Nco- 
pachygaster. It shows numerous differences from A . inacnli- 
conris Hine. 

* Contributions from the Plant Lice Laboratory, Texas Agric. EXJU.T. 


Head practically as in that species. Front shining, glossy 
black, the silvery lateral margins of the eyes extending a short 
distance above the antennae, and meeting along a median line, 
to form a hemispherical silvery spot at base of antennae. Pro- 
boscis yellow. Antennae pale yellow; third joint somewhat 
globose, slightly higher than long, conspicuously darkened on 
the inner side; arista yellowish, blackish on apical half. Head 
in profile about one-and-one-half times higher than long. An- 
tennae situated at middle of head in profile, or slightly above. 

Thorax black, extremely glossy, covered on the clorsum with 
sparse, appressed, very silky pile, longer and heavier on the 
sides behind the humeri, and towards the middle arranged to 
form three obscure, narrow, median stripes ; whole posterior 
half of dorsum uniformly pilose. Halteres yellow, knobs white. 
Scutellum rather simple, evenly rounded, shining black with 
pile similar to that of thorax, placed at an angle of not quite 
forty-five degrees ; rim slightly emarginate at apex ; extreme 
margin with numerous small nodular protuberances, more 
prominent than in maculicornis. 

Abdomen short and globose, shining, glossy black, with 
sparse, pale, appressed, silky pile. Legs pale yellowish ; coxae 
and femora, except bases and apices, shining blackish. \Yings 
hyaline; third vein furcate, veins yellowish. 

This specimen will be seen to be somewhat intermediate 
between Ncopachygastcr and Eupachygaster because of the 
strong prominences on the scutellar rim. A careful examination 
of maculicornis will also reveal small prominences of a similar 
nature, hence this character is not of importance in separating 
the two. Otherwise the scutellum is practically of the same 
shape as Ncopachygastcr. In its small size and shining black 
color it resembles ZabrocJiia polita. However, the third vein 
is distinctly furcate. 

Type, a male, Ames, IOWA, July 15, 1923 (F. M. Hull). In 
my own collection. 

EUPACHYGASTER PUNCTIFER Malloch. Apparently the male 
has not been taken before, and I append a short description of 
its essential differences from the female. 

$ . Eyes not quite touching, very narrowly divided. Front 
and likewise ocellar space triangular. The silvery pilose lateral 
border of eyes extends entirely up to where the eyes approach 
nearest, not confluent, separated by a narrow, shining black line. 
Median frontal groove prominent; otherwise head very much 
as in female. 


Thorax quite different from that of the female. There is a 
broad median stripe or band, of fairly long, thick, appressed, 
brilliant silvery scale-like hair or pile. On the sides and back 
of the humeri, this becomes small patches of shorter, silvery 
scales, or scale-like hair. Halteres dark brown, knobs white. 
Abdomen and legs practically as in the female. 

'/'v/v and one paratype in my collection. A number of speci- 
mens from MISSISSIPPI A. and M. College on the following 
dates: May 19 and 20, 1922. and April 28. 1920 (F. M. Hull). 

There will thus be seen a rather striking resemblance to the 
male of Neopachygaster maculicornis, in the wide silvery band 
of the thorax; however, the holoptic eyes and different scutel- 
lum readily separate the two. 

EUPACHYGASTER HENSHAWi Malloch. I have a single speci- 
men that I formerly held to be an undescribed form and which 
appears to belong here. The following notes are included for 

9 . Front shining black. The silvery lateral margins of 
the eyes do not extend as far above the antennae as in puncti- 
/(;. A median band, of short recumbent, slightly yellowish 
pile, begins where they leave off, divides at the ocelli, and ex- 
tends beyond them, the pilose area divided in its entire length 
by a slender groove. This is equivalent to the M-shaped mark 
described by Malloch in piiiictifcr, and in my specimens of that 
species it does not extend past the ocelli. First and second 
joints of antennae yellow; third orange, not so dark on inner 
side as in punctifcr, about one-and-one-half times broader than 
long, and longer below, on the inner side ; pubescence of annuli 
silvery and with a bead-like appearance; arista reddish at base, 
brownish apically (white in fnnctifcr), and very short pubes- 
cent and much slenderer than in pnnctifcr. Face dark grayish, 
more or less opaque. 

Thorax opaque black, obscurely punctate on the greater, 
median part of dorsum, and from which proceeds short ap- 
pressed, sparse, silky pile, somewhat yellowish in color. The 
silver, scale-like hairs are confined to a narrow median line. 
and to five or six rather regular rows, on outer side of dorsum 
between the humeri and base of wing. Halteres yellow, knobs 
white. Scutellum with similar punctures and pile as in p it nc ti- 
ler, but with the preapical hump or bulge, very much le^s 

Abdomen glossy, vitreous black, with pale, sparse, short ap- 
pressed pile, but with none of the silver, scale-like hairs as 


found in fiunctifrr. Legs pale yellow, coxae brownish, femora, 
all but bases and apices, shining black. Wings hyaline; third 
vein furcate. 

One female, A. and M. College, MISSISSIPPI, April 29, 1922 
(F. M. Hull). 

JOHNSONOMYIA ALDRiCHi Malloch. A number of specimens 
of both sexes from several localities. A. and M. College, 
MISSISSIPPI, April 13, 1922 ( F. M. Hull). Ames, IOWA, June 
20, 1923, and Columbus, Onio, June 2, 1923 (F. M. Hull). 
Collected both on windows and by sweeping. The above speci- 
mens agree well with the description. However, in the latter, 
there is no mention of a fairly distinct striped arrangement of 
the pile of the thorax. In my specimens three median stripes 
are easily discernible. 

PACHYGASTER PULCHER Lw. Several specimens, both sexes, 
loaned by Professor J. S. Hine, seem to be this species. They 
agree well with the description, although the latter seems de- 
ficient on one or two points. It does not mention a slight 
bluish reflection apparent in the material before me. Moreover, 
in this series, the abdomen, especially in the male, is somewhat 
more elongate than is common among other members of the 
group. The above mentioned specimens were from Atherton, 
MISSOURI, May 25, 1922 (C. F. Adams) and Madison WIS- 
CONSIN, June 3, 1919 (A. C. Burrill). 

The Preservation of Lepidopterous Larvae 
by Injection. 

By A. C. COLE, JR., Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. 

I have found, in the preparation of Lepidopterous larvae for 
display purposes in dry mounts, that the use of the methods 
listed below gave approximately 100^- insurance against their 
destruction by museum pests, and in most cases caused the 
larvae to retain their original shapes. 


Fill a hypodermic syringe with one of the fluids specified 
below, being sure to use the needle indicated under the fluid. 


Enter the needle into the anus being very careful not to punc- 
ture the wall of the intestine too near the opening. The wall 
must be punctured, however, as near the center of the larva as 
possible, and the needle thrust into the body cavity. As soon as 
the point of the needle is as far anterior as possible, inject the 
fluid into the body cavity, and extract the needle slowly. \Yhen 
the larva contains as much of the material as necessary with- 
draw the needle completely. 

Most of the substances listed below will not exude from the 
opening if the correct needle is used. In case this happens, 
however, it will be necessary to plug the opening temporarily 
as soon as the needle is withdrawn. 

Injection, due to the pressure of the fluid and the amount 
used, lengthens the larva considerably. During the process of 
hardening, however, the larva will again become nearly its 
normal size, due to a partial shrinking of the body-wall, around 
the internal organs. Those fluids which do not allow this 
shrinking or those which produce "over-shrinkage"* should be 

The following fluids may be used : 

Collodion Use a needle with a medium diameter. Excellent 
results are produced. There is no apparent over-shrinking and 
no distinct discoloration. The resulting specimen is firm and 
quite life-like in appearance. 

Formalin (40%) Use a needle with a small diameter. Good 
results are obtained. There is a slight discoloration and over- 

Celluloid dissolved in acetone Use a needle with a large 
diameter. This is quite difficult to inject due to its viscosity. 
It produces irregularity in the shape of the larva. There is no 
apparent discoloration and no shriveling. 

The viscera are best removed by cutting a small slit at the 
extreme posterior end of the larva and rolling a glass tube 
anterio-posteriorly on the body. As soon as the viscera have 

*By overshrinking is meant the shrinking of the skin of the larva to 
such an extent that it is out of proportion to that of the living insect. 


been removed the inside of the larva should be thoroughly 
washed with water. The specimen may then be injected with 
one of the fluids listed below. 

Melted paraffin A needle with a large diameter must be 
used. This material produces excellent results. Care must be 
taken, however, that the paraffin is not so hot that it scorches 
the tissue or discoloration will result. 

Formalin and Plaster of Paris Use a needle with a large 
diameter, or a medicine-dropper in this case. The results are 
very good, but the best results are obtained on large larvae. 
The formalin (40%) and plaster of Paris are mixed into a 
thin paste. This paste hardens in a short period and the work 
therefore must be done rapidly. 

Celluloid dissolved in acetone Use a needle with a large 
diameter. The results are quite good, although a slight over- 
shrinking follows. 

It must be noted that none of these fluids will prevent dis- 
coloration completely, nor will the brighter colors of the larvae 
be preserved entirely. Some, however, tend to discolor more 
than others and this must be correlated with the preserving 

power of the fluids. 

On a Family of Coleoptera new to the Fauna of 

North America with Description of One 

New Species (Gnostidae). 

By W. S. BLATCHLEY, Indianapolis, Indiana. 
On March 7, 1927, while collecting two miles east of Dunedin, 
Florida, I beat into an umbrella, from a large mass of Spanish 
moss attached to the limb of a dead pine snag, a small brown 
beetle which I at once recognized as new to my collection. On 
examining it closely that evening I found that T could not place 
it definitely in anv of the known families of North American 

f j 

Coleoptera. It had but three segments in each antenna and 
resembled somewhat some of the Pselaphids belonging to the 
genera Adrancs and Fustiyer, but the tarsi were 5-jointed and 
the elytra entire and covering the abdomen. 


On returning to Indianapolis in April I again gave it careful 
study, but was unable to identify it from any of the literature 
in my library. I then sent it to H. C. Fall, of Tyngsboro, 
Massachusetts, and later to Chas. Schaeffer, of Brooklyn, New 
York, two of the best Coleopterists in eastern North America, 
but both of them passed it up as a "strange and aberrant form," 
wholly unknown to them even as to family. Both suggested 
that the antennae had been broken off, leaving only the basal 
segments remaining, but this I doubted, as they had every ap- 
pearance of being in normal condition. 

In August, 1929, I took the specimen with me to New York 
City and showed it to Chas. W. Leng and A. J. Mutchler, but 
they could only guess as to its family relationships. Mr. H. S. 
Barber, of the U. S. National Museum, happened at that time 
to be at the Brooklyn Museum and as' I had the specimen in a 
box with others which I wished to compare, with those in the 
Schaeffer collection, I showed it to him. He at once recognized 
it as belonging to the family Gnostidae, as he had recently seen 
examples of that family taken by Dr. \Vm. M. Mann from the 
nests of ants in the Panama Canal Zone. By referring to the 
available literature at hand, we soon found that it belonged to 
the genus Gnostiis founded by Westwood in 1855, 1 the geno- 
type being G. fonnicicola \Yestw., taken by Henry Walter Bates 
from the nest of an ant, M \nnica (Crcnujtogastcr) victiina 
Smith, near Santarem,- Brazil. Of this ant and beetle Bates, 
the collector, wrote : "The ant, neuter and female, had its for- 
micarium formed in hollow, dried suspended sipos ; 3 only one 
female in each formicarium. This ant has a small species of 
beetle (Paussidae) almost invariably in its company, one or at 
most two, in each colony. No beetle was found in any part of 
the sipos not inhabited by the Myrmica." 

One other species of the genus, viz., Gnostns mcincrti \Ya>- 
mann, has since been described 4 from Valencia, Venezuela. It 
was found in the nest of the ant, Crematogaster liuiata Sm. 
\Yasmann gives characters showing that it is very different from 

1 Trans. Entoin. Sue. Loud., Ill, 1855, p. 90, pi. 8. 

2 A city on the Amazon, about half way up the river to Manaos. 

3 A kind of vine. 

4 Krit. Verzeichniss der Myrmekophilen und Termitophilen Artli- 
ropoden, Berlin, 1894, p. 216. 



[Apr., '30 

Westwood's species, as well as from the one found in Florida. 
\Yestwood's long Latin diagnosis of the genus Gnostus in- 
cludes also the structural characters of his species, G. fonnici- 
cola. Freely translated, the principal characters of genus and 
species as given by him are as follows, those portions pertaining 
to the antennae and prothorax being included verbatim in the 
original Latin : 

"Body minute, convex. Head small, immersed in thorax to 
the eyes, anteriorly rounded, subporrect. 

"Antennae paullo ante angulos internes oculorum insertae, 
pronoto breviores subcylindricae ; articulo Imo subclavato, cur- 
vato, apice oblique truncate, articulo 2nclo in angulum inferum 
truncaturae apicalis articuli basalis inserto, basi gracili supra 
in angulum subacutum producto, articulo 3tio elongate, cylin- 
drico apice truncate, subtus fere ad medium in angulum obtusum 
producto ; hoc articulo, certo situ, quasi ex articulis sex arctis- 
sime conjunctis apparent!. 

"Labrum small, transverse, angulate-produced in front. 
Maxillae minute, not bilobed ; maxillary palpi 3-jointed, joint 
3 largest, its middle slightly oval-inflated, apex acute. Labial 
palpi minute, 3-jointed, joint 1 annuliform; 2 curved, attenuate; 
3 oval, apex subacute without setae. 

1. Gnostus formic icola Westw. ; 2, head from above ; 3, head from the side ; 
4, front-leg. (After Westwood. Courtesy of Chas. W. Leng. ) 

"Prothorax oblongus, quasi in duas partes valde inaequales 
(postica multo minori) impressione divisus, pars antica capite 
multo latior; fossulis duobus paullo curvatis, longitudinalibus 
in discum notatus, lateribus rotundatis, in parte constricta 


utrinque in hamos duos apicibus aculis fere conjunctis produc- 
tis ; parte postica transversa fere anticae latitudine aequali. 

"Elytra large, more than twice the width of thorax, humeral 
angles rectangular, sides sul (parallel, tips rounded covering the 
abdomen; disc convex, glabrous, slightly setose, punctate-striate. 
Legs short, femora subclavate, tibiae compressed, slightly 
curved; tarsi short, all simple 5-jointed, joint 5 slightly the 
longer, slender. Abdomen with three visible segments, segment 

1 very large, 2 very short, 3 medium, subtriangular." 

The brief Latin description of his genotype is as follows: 
"(riiostus fonnicicoht Westw. Omino rufo-castaneus, nitidus, 
corpora et pronoto glabris ; elytris punctato-striatis, corpore in- 
fra polito impunctato convexo. Long. corp. lin. 1--1/12 
unc. = 2 mm." 

The specimen taken by me in Florida apparently differs 
from Westwood's species in characters pertaining to the 
antennae, and in the sculpture of thorax and elytra. It is 
therefore described as follows: 

Gnostus floridanus sp. nov. 

Oblong, subcylindrical. Uniform dark reddish-brown, 
strongly shining. Antennae much as described by West- 
wood, the joints with fine scattered setae; joint 2 sub- 
globose, one-half the length of 1 ; joint 3 as long as 1 and 

2 united, gradually but feebly clavate, its apex truncate and 
under side with a very slight submedian angulation. Front 
lobe of prothorax with a wide and deep median groove lying 
between two very distinct, feebly divergent dorsal ridges, 
the posterior ends of these ridges thickened and projecting 
over the feeble transverse impression separating the two 
lobes of thorax. Elytra about three-fourths wider than 
front lobe of thorax: umbones prominent; disc without 
striae but with rows of very small scarcely impressed punc- 
tures, each puncture bearing- a very fine short inclined yel- 
lowish seta, both punctures and setae visible only under 
high magnification. Length 1.6 mm. 

Type a unique (sex undetermined) in the author's col- 
lection, taken near Dunedin, Florida, March 7, 1927. 

Search for additional specimens in ants' nests and by 
beating other bunches of Spanish moss in the immediate 
vicinity of the type habitat has so far failed. 

I have been unable as yet to definitely ascertain who first 
used the family name (inostidae for the genus (inoshis. 


Nathan Banks, who kindly looked up the matter for me, 
states that: "Very possibly it is due to Gemminger and Von 
Harold, in vol. I, of their Catalogue, 1868, p. 700."^ How- 
ever, they there did not characterize the family but used 
the name Gnostidae as a family heading and placed under it 
three genera, viz., Ectrephes Pasco.e; Gnostus Westwood and 
Anapestus King. King's name is now considered a synonym 
of Ectrephes and for this the family name Ectrephidae is 
now used, thus leaving Gnostus alone in Gnostidae. 

Westwood, in the notes following his original characteri- 
zation, after showing that Gnostus could not belong to the 
Paussidae, where it was originally placed by Bates adds: 
"Its nearest allies appear to be found amongst some of 
those Xylophaga of Latreille which possess 5-jointed tarsi, 
but it stands sufficiently detached from the whole of them 
as to constitute a distinct subfamily of its own." However, 
he gives neither a subfamily nor family name. 

Muscina stabulans Fall. (Diptera: Muscidae) Parasitic on 
Arachnara subcarnea Kell. (Lepidop. : Noctuidae). 

At Toledo, Ohio on July 27, 1928 the author collected a 
pupa of Arachnara subcarnea Kell. in a stalk of Typha lati- 
folia, which appeared to be parasitized. Two parasitic larvae 
emerged from the pupa on Aug. 1 1 and pupated externally, 
one emerging on Aug. 19 and the other on Aug. 20. These 
adults were determined by Dr. J. M. Aldrich of the U. S. 
National Museum at Washington as Muscina stabulans Fall. 
(The stable fly.) 

The host pupa appeared in the stalk at the end of its larval 
burrow, about four inches under the surface of the water. 

The author has observed on several occasions adult Muscina 
stabulans flying around Typha lati folia infested with Arachnara 
subcarnea but egg-laying was not observed. Inasmuch as the 
host larvae enter the Typha leaves at the tip, it is entirely pos- 
sible that they were parasitized in this instar. 

I believe this is the first recorded observation of a distinct 
parasitic habit of Muscina stabulans, and rearing experiments 
with this host should prove interesting. 

Both the adult parasites and their pupal cases are now in 
my personal collection. -A. C. COLE, JR., Ohio State Univer- 
sity, Columbus, Ohio. 


do not (car this picture out of this issue of 
the INews, horn use il spoils the i'utiire value of 
the mimhcr. Mail .">() eents (2."> t\vo-eenl 
stamps or a postal money order) lo the !\e\vs 
and reeeive, postpaid, an uncreased copy 
ready for framing. 

THK EI\T()M()L<)(;iC\L FNK\\ S 

1900 Kare Street 
Philadelphia, IVnna.. I'. S. A. 


The Crambinae in the Brackenridge Clemens 

Memorial Collection of the Academy of 

Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 1 

(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). 

]>v FRANK HAIMBACH, Academy of Natural Sciences, 


This paper deals especially with the North American species, 
which are represented in our collection by approximately two- 
thirds of the known species. A list of European species con- 
tained in our collection is also given. The tropical and neo- 
tropical species in our collection have not yet been studied by us. 

We are desirous of building up our collection of Microlepi- 
doptera, and this paper is the first of a series which will show 
to other Institutions and specialists just what we have, and 
from which it will be easy to see what we lack, and we invite 
correspondence with anyone who can furnish us with any 
Buries or sub-species which are not represented in our collect- 
ion, with the view of obtaining such forms either by exchange 
or otherwise. 

For specimens of like value we will give paratypes and 
other typical material in exchange. 

\Ye are citing in this paper all the types in our collection 
of forms here dealt with, including the designation of a number 
of forms of which we have selected single types (lectotypes) 
from larger series of cotypes. We have also noted all para- 
types as well as specimens compared with types, and by whom 

Students of this group, as well as other groups which have 
been studied by us, are invited to consult our collections, and 
material sent to us for determination will be promptly returned, 
retaining only such species which are new to our collection. 

The sequence of species and nomenclature here used, is that 
of Barnes and McDunnough's List-, with such changes as were 
made by Dyar and Heinriclv"' and the elimination of the genera 

1 Published by the aid of the Brackenridge Clemens Memorial Fund. 

~ Check List of tin- I.epidoptrra of I'.orenl America. iKvatur. Illinois, 

"The American Moths of the uvnus Diatraea and allies, by Harrison 
G. Dyar and Carl Heinrich. Proceedings of the U. S. National Museum, 
Vol. 71, pp. 1-48, 1927. 


Clialcocla and Dicyinoloniia, which Forbes 4 has placed with the 

The European species are arranged according to Arnold 
Spuler 5 , Die sogcnanntcn Kleinschmcttcrlingc Euro pas. 


ARIZONA: Nogales, July 4-7, 1903 (E. J. Oslar) [6; com- 
pared with type, Kearfott. |. 


ARIZONA: Oracle, July 3, 1905 (E. J. Oslar) [6; Topo- 


ARIZONA: Phoenix, August (Kunze) [? ; Lectotype, A. N. 
S. P., no. 7189, by present designation]. Globe, August 25 
(Kunze) [1 ; Paratype]. 


NEW JERSEY: Brown's Mills Junction, July 21, 1907 (E. 
Daecke) ; Manumuskin, June 23, 1902 (E. Daecke) [2]. 


NEW JERSEY: Holly Beach, July 10, 1904 (F. Haimbach) 
[1]. Seaside Park, July 12, 1911 (F. Weigand) [5]. 


NEW JERSEY: Five Mile Beach, July 31 (F. Haimbach) 
[1]. Wenonah, July 15 and August 24 (F. Haimbach) [2]. 


ARIZONA: Yavapai County [Lectotype, A. N. S. P., no. 7190, 
by present designation]. 


COLORADO: Clear Creek, July 13, 1914 (E. J. Oslar) [1]. 
UTAH: Vineyard, May 16 and August 6, 1917 (Tom Spald- 
ing) [3]. 


MASSACHUSETTS: Bedford, August 25, 1907 [1J. 

PENNSYLVANIA: "Penn." [Type, A. N. S. P., no. 7447; 
same data, 1 Paratype]. Philadelphia, September 5 (F. Haim- 
bach) [1]. 

4 The Lepidoptera of New York and Neighboring States. Cornell Uni- 
versity Agricultural Station, Memoir 68, 1923. 
B Stuttgart, 1913. 


NEW JERSEY: Lucaston, September 9 and 14 (F. Haim- 
bach) [2], Wenonah, May 15, 1910 (F. Haimbach) [1]. Cape 
May Point, July 24, 1915 (F. Haimbach) flj. 

FLORIDA: Melbourne, March, 1907 (P. Laurent) [1]. Day- 
tona, March, 1907 (P. Laurent) [1J. 

. CANADA: Ontario, Mer Bleue, June 22 [lj. 


NEW JERSEY: Lucaston, August 17 and September 7 (F. 
Haimbach) [5J. Wenonah, August 21 (F. Haimbach) [1]. 
Cape May Point, August 1, 1918 (F. Haimbach) [2]. 

GEORGIA: Thomasville, April 3, 1903 (M. Hebard) flj. 


NEW JERSEY: Sea Isle City, September 5. 1908 (F. Haim- 
bach) [>]. Anglesea, August 3, 1906 (F. Haimbach) [lj. 
Holly Beach, July 11 (F. Haimbach) [1]. 

FLORIDA: Dunedin, February 5, 1927 (W. S. Blatchley) [1]. 
Daytona, March (P. Laurent) [1]. 


CANADA: Manitoba, Cartwright, August 31-September 16, 
1910 (J. F. Heath) [10]. British Columbia, Wellington, Au- 
gust 20, 1903 [1]. 


WASHINGTON: Pullman, September 27, 1898 (C. V. Piper) 

NEW MEXICO: Jemez Mountains, 64-6600 feet, September 

9 (J. Woodgate) [10]. 


MAINE: Greenville. July 21-29, 1919 (F. Haimbach) [2]. 
Monmouth, June 25-26, 1906 [2|. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE: New London, [une 17-19, 1929 (M. M. 
Cary) [1]. 

MASSACHUSETTS: Hyde Park, July 12, 1910 (F. Haim- 
bach) [1]. 

NORTH CAROLINA: Black Mountains, July 2, 1912 ( W. Beu- 
tenmuller) [1]. 

COLORADO: Chimney Gulch, Golden, September 10, 1907 (E. 
J. Oslar) [3]. 

UTAH: Vineyard, July 11, 1917 (Tom Spalding) [2]. 



NEW YORK: Katonah, West Chester County, July (W. Beu- 
tenmuller) [ $ ; Type A. N. S. P., no. 7182]. Same locality, 
June (W. Beutenmuller) [Paratype, 1]. 


NEW JERSEY: Brown's Mills Junction, May 30, 1906 (E. 
Daecke)" [S ; Type A. N. S. P., no. 7183]. Clementon, May 24, 
1908 (F. Haimbach) [1]. 


MAINE: Greenville, July 21-29, 1919 (F. Haimbach) [1]. 
Monmouth, June 26, 1916 (C. A. Frost) [1]. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE: New London, June 20- July 11; August 
10-20 (M. M. Cary) [2]. 

MASSACHUSETTS: "Mass." (C. Girard) [Type, A. N. S. P., 
no. 7293]. Hyde Park, July 15, 1910 (F. Haimbach) [1]. 
Bedford, July 14, 1907 (L. W. Swett) [1]. 

PENNSYLVANIA : Lower Merion Township, Montgomery 
County, July 15-28 ( F. Haimbach) [2]. Philadelphia, July 12, 
1906 (F. Haimbach) [1]. Philadelphia (H. Hornig) [2]. 
Roxboro, Philadelphia, July 9 and 21 (F. Haimbach) [2]. 
Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, July 12, 1906 (F. Haimbach) 
[1]. Clark's Ferry, July 4, 1915 (F. Haimbach) [2]. Weaver, 
July 21, 1917 (R Haimbach) [1]. North Mountain, July 17 
(H. W. Wenzel) [1]. 

VIRGINIA: "Va.", ? [1]. 

NORTH CAROLINA: Black Mountains, July 3, 1912 (W. Beu- 
tenmuller) [1]. 



PENNSYLVANIA: Philadelphia, July 23 (F. Haimbach) [1]. 
Broomall, September 18, 1910 (F.' Haimbach)' |2J. 

NEW JERSEY: Lucaston, July 9-15 (F. Haimbach) [17]. 

VIRGINIA: Hot Springs, July 17-21, 1916, at light (M. 
Hebard) [2]. 

NEW MEXICO: Jemez Mountains, 6400 feet, July 14, 1917 
(J. Woodgate) variety [1]. 

ILLINOIS: Chicago [1]. 


MAINE: Greenville, July 21-29, 1919 (F. Haimbach) [8]. 
COLORADO: Denver (E. J. Oslar) [7]. 



Cranibns inz'olntcllns Clemens, without data. [Type, A. N. 
S. P., no. 7294J. 

MAINE: Greenville, July 21-29, 1919 (F. Haimbach) [3]. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE: New London, August 10-September 10, 
1928 (M. M. Gary) [2J. 

MASSACHUSETTS : Framingham, May 9, 1925 ; [une 27 and 
July 14, 1906 [3]. Everett, August 5, 1901 [1|. Hyde Park, 
August 22, 1907 (F. Haimbach) [2J. 

PENNSYLVANIA: Philadelphia, May 18-21, June 1, July 19 
(F. Haimbach) [4]. Roxboro, Philadelphia, May 6-18, June 
6-21, July 19 (F. Haimbach) [10]. Lower Merion Town- 
ship, Montgomery County, May 4, 1916, July 26, 1921 (F. 
Haimbach) [2]. Perkasie, June 16 (F. Haimbach) [1J. 

NEW JERSEY: Sea Isle City, September 5, 1908 (F. Haim- 
bach) [1]. Five Mile Beach, August 3-12, 1906 (F. Haim- 
bach) [2]. Cape May Point, August 1, 1918 (F. Haimbach) 
|1|. Lucaston, September 11 (F. Haimbach) [1]. 

TEXAS: May 22 (no. 22, 1). 


COLORADO: Clear Creek, July 3, 1907 (E. J. Oslar) [? ; Type 
A. X. S. P., no. 7184]. Same data [c?; Allotype]. Same d'ata 
[Paratypes, 2]. 


CANADA: Ontario, Mer P>leue, July 3, 1907 (C. H. Young) 
[Lectotype, A. N. S. P., no. 7191, by present designation]. 


CANADA: Ottawa, July 13-14, 1906 (C. H. Young) [2]. 
MAINE: Greenville, July 21-29, l ( )2l ( F. Haimbach) [2]. 
NEW HAMPSHIRE: New London, August 10-30, 1928 (M. 
M. Gary) [3J. 

MASSACHUSETTS: Hyde Park, |ulv 12, 1910 (F. Haimbach) 


PENNSYLVANIA: Lower Merion lownship, Montgomery 
County, July 4, 1<M7 (F. Haimbach) |T|. 

NEW JERSEY: \\Vnonuh, June 23, 1912 (F. Haimbach) [4|. 


MAINE: Greenville. July 21-2 ( >, 1921 ( K. Haiml.adi) |2|. 
NEW HAM I'sniRK: \Y\v London, |mie 17-19, 1929 (M. M 
Gary) [1J. 


MASSACHUSETTS: Bedford, July 14, 1907 (C. W. Frost) 
[2]. Framingham, July 16, 1906 [1]. 

NEW YORK: Katonah, Westchester County, June, July, 1915 
(W. Beutenmuller) [2]. 

PENNSYLVANIA: Philadelphia, June 9-25, July 8, 1914 (F. 
Haimbach) [7]. Roxboro, Philadelphia, June 13-27, July 2- 
21 (F. Haimbach) [19]. Lower Merion Township, Montgomery 
County, July 4-29, August 7, 1916 (F. Haimbach) [11]. 
Swarthmore, July 9, 1924 (E. T. Cresson, Jr.) [Ij. Lang- 
horne, July 10-11, 1922 (F. Haimbach) [8]. Weaver, July 21, 
1917 (F. Haimbach) [7J. 

NEW JERSEY: Wenonah, June 23, 1912, July 20 (F. Haim- 
bach) [4]. Cape May Point, July 3-26 (F. Haimbach) [4]. 
Five Mile Beach, July 31 (F. Haimbach) [1]. 

NORTH CAROLINA : Black Mountains, July 14- August 10, 
1912 (W. Beutenmuller) [4]. 


MARYLAND: Plummers Island, July 21, 1919 (G. M. Greene) 

VIRGINIA: Hot Springs, July 17, 1916 (M. Hebard) [1]. 

WEST VIRGINIA: "W. Va." [3]. 

NORTH CAROLINA: Black Mountains, July 19, 1912 (W. 
Beutenmuller) [ ; Type A. N. S. P., no. 7185]. Same loca- 
tion, June 21-July 19, 1912 (W. Beutenmuller) [11 paratypes]. 


Without data [Type, A. N. S. P., no. 7287]. 

MAINE: Monmouth, June 26, 1905 [1]. 

MASSACHUSETTS: Bedford, July 1, 1917 [1]. 

PENNSYLVANIA: Philadelphia, June 12 (F. Haimbach) [1]. 
Roxboro, Philadelphia, June 13, 1907, August 11 ( F. Haim- 
bach) [11]. Rockville, July 5, 1915 ( F. Haimbach) [2]. 
Clark's Ferry, July 4, 1915 (F. Haimbach) [1]. 

NEW JERSEY: Wenonah, June 23, 1915 (F. Haimbach) [2]. 


MAINE: Greenville, July 21-29, 1919 (F. Haimbach) [1]. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE: New London, August 10-September 10, 
1928 (M. M. Cary) [2|. 


Without data [Type, A. N. S. P., no. 7295]. 
MASSACHUSETTS: Framingham, June 5-10, 1906 (C. A. 
Frost) [2J. 


PENNSYLVANIA: Philadelphia, May 14-18 (F. Haimbach) 
[3]. Roxboro, Philadelphia, May 19-June 9 (F. Haimbach) 
j 13]. Lower Merion Township, Montgomery County, May 
28-31 (F. Haimbach) [2]. Buckmanville, Bucks County, May 
21-22 (F. Haimbach) [4]. Toughkenamon, Chester County, 
May 29-31 (E. G. Vanatta) [2]. 

NEW JERSEY: Wenonah, May 24 (F. Haimbach) [1]. 

OHIO: Cleveland [1J. 

FLORIDA: % 'Fla." [1]. 


MAINE: Greenville, July 21-29, 1919 (F. Haimbach) [2|. 
Monmouth, July 1, 1905 [1J. 

MASSACHUSETTS: Hyde Park, July 8-12, 1910, and August 
22. 1907 (F. Haimbach) [5]. Framingham, July 11, 1906 
(C. A. Frost) [1]. Bedford, July 1, 1907 [1]. " 

PENNSYLVANIA: Philadelphia, July 5-8, 1914 (F. Haim- 
bach) [2J. Lower Merion Township, Montgomery County, 
July 29. 1916 (F. Haimbach) [1J. 

XEW IERSEY: famesl)urg, )uly 4 (F. Haimbach) [1]. 
Brown's "Mills function, June 27, 1919 (F. Haimbach) [1]. 
Cape May Point, July 3. 1 ( U6, July 29, 1915 (F. Haimbach) 


OHIO: Cincinnati, August 3, 1907 (A. F. Braun) [1]. 
WEST VIRGINIA : "W. Va." [1J. 


MAINE: Orono [1]. 

UTAH : Vineyard, July 7-16, August 4, 1917 (Tom Spalding) 


NEVADA: Verdi, June 1-10 (A. H. Vachell) [Paratype]. 

Without data: |Type. A. N. S. P., no. 7286 and 1 Para- 

MASSACHUSETTS: Hyde Park. July 12 (F. Haimbach) |2|. 

PENNSYLVANIA: Roxboro, Philadelphia, June 13. 1915 (F. 
Haimbach) [2]. Hulmeville. Bucks Comity. June 26, 1'L'O 
(F. Haimbach) |2|. Kmilie, Bucks County, July 4. 1924 
(F. Haimbach) |6j. Laiighorne. [uly 2 and 22 (F. Haim- 
bach) [9]. Perkasie, June 18 (F. Haimbach) [4]. Pocono 


Lake, July 25 and 28 (G. M. Greene) [2]. Rockville, July 
5 and 22, 1915 (F. Haimbach) [2]. 

NEW JERSEY: Brown's Mills Junction, June 22, 1919 (F. 
Haimbach) [1]. 

MARYLAND: "Md." [1]. 

NORTH CAROLINA: Black Mountains, June 10 (\V. Beuten- 
muller) [2]. 

OHIO: Cincinnati, August 24, 1903 (A. F. Braun) [1]. 


PENNSYLVANIA: Smithtown, June 29, 1911 (F. Haimbach) 


NORTH CAROLINA: Black Mountains, July 6, 1912 (W. Beu- 

tenmiller) [1]. 

OHIO: Cincinnati, September 19, 1903 (A. F. Braun) [1].* 


LABRADOR: Crambus inornatellus Clemens [Type no. 7565]. 
Upper St. Augustine River, August 5, 1912 (H. G. Bryant) 


CANADA: Alberta, Calgary, August, 1907 (H. S. King) [2]. 

Saskatchewan, Lloydminster, July 31 [2]. Manitoba, Aweme, 
July 12, 1907 [1]. Cartwright, July 20-24, August 8-13, 1907 
(J. F. Heath) [5]. 

COLORADO: Platte Canyon (E. J. Oslar) [2]. 

MAINE: Greenville, July 21-29, 1919 (F. Haimbach) [4]. 
King & Bartlett Lake (P. Laurent) [1]. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE: June 17-19, 1929 (M. M. Gary) ; August 
10-30 (M. M. Gary and F. Haimbach) ; September 1-10, 1928 
(M. M. Gary) [16]. 


MAINE: Greenville, July 21-29, 1919 (F. Haimbach) [/]. 
MASSACHUSETTS: Hyde Park, July 13, 1910 (F. Haimbach) 


PENNSYLVANIA: Rockville, July 5, 1915 (F. Haimbach) [1]. 

VIRGINIA: Mountain Lake Park, July 26-31, 1906 (A. F. 
Braun) [1]. 

OHIO: Cincinnati, July 25, 1909 (A. F. Braun) [1]. 


Without data: [Type no. 7285 and 1 Paratype]. 
MASSACHUSETTS: Hyde Park, August 21, 1907 (F. Haim- 
bach) [1]. 

* This species was heretofore wrongly placed by me as pnsioncllus 


PENNSYLVANIA: Roxboro, Philadelphia, June 14-July 9 (F. 
Haimbach) [4]. Lower Merion Township, Montgomery 
County, June 26-July 24 (F. Haimbach) [/]. Swarthmore, 
September 9, 1915 ( E. T. Cres'son, Jr.) [2]. Langhorne, July 
11-29, August 14 and September 11, 1922 (F. Haimbach) "[5j". 
Edge Hill, June 25 (F. Haimbach) [1|. 

NEW JKKSEY: Five Mile Beach, July 9, August 20-27 (F. 
Haimbach) [3]. 

VIRGINIA: Hot Springs, July 17-26 and August 11, 1916 
(M. Hebard) [6]. 

WEST VIRGINIA : "W. Va." [1]. 


ARIZONA: So. Ariz. (Poling) [Lectotype, A. N. S. P., no. 
7192, by present designation]. 


Without data: [Type, A. N. S. P., no. 7289]. 
MASSACHUSETTS: Hyde Park, July 16-21 (F. Haimbach) 


NEW YORK: "N. Y." [3]. 

PENNSYLVANIA: Philadelphia, including Roxboro, Septem- 
ber 6-15 (F. Haimbach) [7]. Lower Merion Township, 
Montgomery County, September 5-15 (F. Haimbach) [2]. 
Swarthmore, September 5, 1915 (E. T. Cresson, Jr.) [2]. 
Elwyn, September 17 (C. S. Wells) [1]. Langhorne, Septem- 
ber 11, 1920 (F. Haimbach) [8]. 

NEW JERSEY: Lucaston, September 9 (F. Haimbach) [5]. 

TEXAS: October 17 [2]. 

OHIO: Cincinnati, September 3, 1902 (A. F. Braun) [1]. 

INDIANA: Blufrton, September 15, 1900 [1]. 

WISCONSIN: Crammoor, Wood Gmntv, August 25, 1907 
(C. B. Hardenberg) [1]. 

COLORADO: Clear Creek, August 22, 1907 (E. J. Oslar) [2]. 

UTAH: Vineyard, August 9-11, 1917 (Tom Spalding) [2]. 


CANADA: B. C., Kaslo, May, 1903 [1]. 

WASHINGTON: Pullman, July 7, 1898 (C. V. Piper [1 : omi- 
pared with type, H. G. Dyar]. 


COLORADO: Denver (E. J. Oslar) [3]. 

ARIZONA: Oracle, July 3, 1903 (E. J. Oslar) [1J. 


MASSACHUSETTS: Hyde Park, August 21-22, 1907 (F. Haim- 
bach) [5]. 


PENNSYLVANIA: Roxboro, Philadelphia, September 6, 1917 
(F. Haimbach) [3]. Lower Merion Township, Montgomery 
County, September 1-5 ( F. Haimbach) [3]. Castle Rock, 
September 16 (F. Haimbach) |lj. Langhorne, September 11. 
1922 (F. Haimbach) [1J. 

NEW JERSEY: Lucaston, September 7 (F. Haimbach) [1]. 
Anglesea, May 27. 1905 (F. Haimbach) [1J. 

OHIO: Cincinnati, September 2, 1903 (A. F. Braun) [1]. 

ILLINOIS: "111.", August 28-September 6 [3]. 

CRAM BUS RURICOLELLUS subspecies canadellus forma nov. 

Generally darker than nimotypical form, and the median 
lines of primaries form two distinct dark brown bars. E. Ches- 
ley Allen in his "Some notes on the Crambinae of Nova Sco- 
tia", refers to this dark form. The locality where I collected 
these specimens is within seeing distance of the Province of 
Ontario, for which reason I consider the name given an appro- 
priate one. 

MAINE: Greenville, July 21-29, 1919 (F. Haimbach) [c?: 
Type, A. N. S. P., no. 7186; 9 : same data, Allot y pc ; 3 Para- 
types; 8 other specimens]. 


Without data: Crambus cniiiurcllns Clemens [Type, A. N. 
S. P., no. 7296]. 

PENNSYLVANIA: Philadelphia, including Roxboro, June 3-29, 
July 26. August 2-20, September 10-12 (F. Haimbach) [19]. 
Lower Merion Township, Montgomery County, July 5-29, 
August 3-22, September 15 (F. Haimbach) [7]. Langhorne, 
May 29- June 7, July 20-29, September 8-11 (F. Haimbach) 

VIRGINIA: Hot Springs, August 11-12, 1916 (M. Hebard) 


WEST VIRGINIA: "W. Va." [1]. 

NORTH CAROLINA: Black Mountains, June 16-23, 1912 (\\ . 
Beutenmuller ) [ 3 ] . 

TEXAS: "Tex.", May 13, August 17, September 17-23 [12]. 


MASSACHUSETTS: Bedford, July 14, 1907 (L. W. Swett) 
12]. Hyde Park, August 29, 1907 (F. Haimbach) [1J. 

NEW YORK: Katonah, West Chester County, July 15 (\\. 
Beutenmuller) [1]. 

"Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Nova Scotia, 1917, pp. 


PENNSYLVANIA: Roxboro, Philadelphia, June 24, 1906 (F. 
Haimbach) [6j. Lower Merion Township, Montgomery 
County, June 16-July 5 (F. Haimbach) [10]. 

FLORIDA: Dunedin, March 23, 1920 (W. S. Blatchley) [1]. 

TEXAS: "Tex." [1]. 


COLORADO: Clear Creek, June 27, 1906 (E. J. Oslar) [1]. 
NEW MEXICO: Jemez Mountains, 6400 feet, July 14-15, 
1927; 6600 feet, September 4, 1915 (J. Woodgate) [3J. 


Without data: [Type, A. N. S. P., no. 7288; 1 Paratype]. 

MASSACHUSETTS: Framingham, July 16, 1906 [1]. 

NEW YORK: Katonah, West Chester County, July 15 (W. 
Beutenmuller) [2]. 

PENNSYLVANIA : Philadelphia, including Roxboro, June 2-29 
(F. Haimbach) [12]. Lower Merion Township, Montgomery 
County, May 30- July 5, August 14, 1917 (F. Haimbach) [8]'. 
Langhorne, June 5-8, July 29, 1922 (F. Haimbach) [7]. Honey 
Brook, Chester County, August 25, 1910 ( W. W. Climenson) 


XEW JERSEY: Holly Beach, August 12, 1906 (F. Haimbach) 
[1]. Cape May, June 30, 1907 (F. Haimbach) [2j. 

NORTH CAROLINA: Black Mountains, June 21, 1912 (W. 
Beutenmuller ) [ 2 ] . 

FLORIDA: Dunedin, March 15, April 17, 1920 (W. S. 
Blatchley) [2j. Homestead, May 14, 1915 (D. M. Castle) 
[1]. Enterprise, May 3, 1915 (D. M. Castle) [1]. 

TEXAS: April 27-29 [2]. 

MISSOURI: St. Louis (A. Busck) [1]. 

KANSAS: Douglass County, August (E. S. Tucker) [Ij. 

COLORADO: Denver (E. J. Oslar) [2J. 

UTAH: Vineyard, July 11, 1917 (Tom Spalding) [1]. 


. Colored drawing from type by National Museum artist. 


TEXAS: Galveston, May (F. H. Snow) [2]. 

TEXAS: Brownsville, Mav 9 and 31, 1904 (H. S. Barber) 



NEVADA: Verdi, June 23-30 (A. H. Vachell) [Lectotype, 
A. N. S. P., no. 7193, by present designation]. 

UTAH: Vineyard, July 7-11, 1917 (Tom Spalding) [2]. 


CALIFORNIA: San Diego, February 2, 1908 (W. S. Wright) 

CANADA: Manitoba, Cartwright, August 31-September 4 
(J. F. Heath) [9]. 

MASSACHUSETTS: Framingham, August 29, 1905 [1]. 

PENNSYLVANIA: Philadelphia, July 5, 1914 (F. Haimbach) 
[1]. Roxboro, Philadelphia, June 12, 1913 (F. Haimbach) 
[1]. Lower Merion Township, Montgomery County, June 
1-10, July 6-25, August 6-16, September 5-27' (F. Haimbach) 
[14]." Honey Brook, Chester County, August 25, 1910 (F. 
Haimbach) [1]. 

NEW JERSEY: Five Mile Beach, August 20 (F. Haimbach) 


VIRGINIA: Hot Springs, July 10 and August 15, 1916 (M. 
Hebard) [2]. 

OHIO: Cincinnati, October 8, 1904 (A. F. Braun) [1]. 

INDIANA: Wells County, May 22, 1900 [1]. Bluffton, May 
24, 1900 [1]. 

NEW MEXICO : Jemez Mountains, 6600 feet, August 30-Sep- 
tembei-9, 1915 (J. Woodgate) [4]. 

UTAH: Vineyard, August 11, 1907 (Tom Spalding) [2]. 


ARKANSAS: Washington County, July-August (A. J. Brown) 
[ Paraty pe ] . 
PENNSYLVANIA: Philadelphia (F. Haimbach) [1]. 


NEW MEXICO: Cloudcroft, June 17, 1902 (H. L. Viereck) 

Without data: [Type, A. N. S. P., no. 7283]. 

MASSACHUSETTS: Hyde Park, August 22, 1907 (F. Haim- 
bach) [1]. Framingham. August 15, 1905 [1|. 

NEW YORK: Katonah, West Chester County, June 25 (\\ . 
Beutenmuller) [6]. 


PENNSYLVANIA: Roxboro, Philadelphia, June 16-22. July 
3-10, August 2, 1915 (F. Haimhach) [14j. Lower Merion 
Township, Montgomery County, June 13-23. July 5-26, August 
9-15 (F. Haimhach) |11J. Langhorne, June 5-7, July 20, 
1922 (F. Haimhach) [4|. Weaver, July 21, 1917 ( F. Haim- 
bach) [1]. 

NEW JERSEY: Wenonah. |uly 19 (F. Haimbach) [1]. Five 
Mile Beach, July 9-17 (F. Haimbach) [2]. Cape May Point, 
July 24. 1914 (F. Haimhach) [2]. 

VIRGINIA: Hot Springs, July 26, August 6, 1916 (M. He- 
bard) [2]. 

NORTH CAROLINA: Black Mountains, July 23, 24, 1912 ( \V. 
Beutenmuller) [2]. 


PENNSYLVANIA: Weaver, July 21, 1917 (F. Haimbach) 


NEW JERSEY: Holly Beach, August 2, 1906 (F. Haimbach) 


oino: Cincinnati, July 16. 17 (A. F. Braun) [2]. 

.MISSOURI: Kirkwood (Miss Murtfeldt) [1]. 
CRAM BUS MODESTELLUS Barnes and McDunnough. 

NORTH CAROLINA: Black Mountains, June 4-28, 1912 (W. 
I'icuteiimuller) [4]. 


.MASSACHUSETTS: Hyde Park, July 8-16, 1910 (F. Haim- 
hach) [2]. Framingham, July 21, 1906 [1 |. 

NEW YORK: Katonah. West Chester County, June- July 15 
(W. Beutenmuller) [4]. 

PENNSYLVANIA: Roxbom. Philadelphia, June 5-July 1 (F. 
Haimbach) [19J. Lower Merion Township, Montgomery 
County, June 17, July 1, 25 (F. Haimhach) [6]. Langhorne, 
June 7-]uly 16 (F. Haimbach) [12]. Weaver, July 21, 1917 
(F. Haimhach) [5]. 

XEW JERSEY: Wenonah. July 15 (F. Haimbach) [1|. Five 
.Mile Beach. June 28 (F. Haimbach) fl]. 

VIRGINIA: Hot Springs, August 12, 1916 (M. Hehard) fl]. 

NORTH CAROLINA: Black Mountains, July 5-26, 1912 (W. 
Beutenmuller) [2|. 

CRAM iii's LUTEOLELLCS var. CJLAE Cockerell. 

CANADA: Manitoba, Cartwright. Julv 27, 1908 (]. F. Heath) 

COLORADO: Golden. Chimney Gulch, July 15, 1904 (K [ 
Oslar) [1]. Clear Creek (E. J. Oslar) [2].' 



PENNSYLVANIA: Philadelphia, July 6 (F. Haimbach) [Para- 
type (Crambus placid dins}]. Lower Merion Township, Mont- 
gomery County, June 25-28, 1921 (F. Haimbach) [2]. Tully- 
town, July 9, 1922 (F. Haimbach) [2]. 

NEW JERSEY: Wenonah, July 27 (F. Haimbach) [Paratype 
(Crambus placidcllits) ]. Wenonah, July 28 (F. Haimbach) [1], 


PENNSYLVANIA: Lower Merion Township, Montgomery 
County, July 16-August 6 (F. Haimbach) [12]. 

XKW JERSEY: Wenonah, July 28 (F. Haimbach) [1]. Cape 
May Point, July 24-26 (F. Haimbach) [2]. 

GEORGIA: Kirkwood, July 23 [1]. 

NORTH CAROLINA: Black Mountains, July 22, 1912 (AY. 
Beutenmuller) [1]. 


COLORADO: Maniton, June 30 [1]. 

NEW MEXICO: Jemez Springs, June 24, 1916 (J. Woodgate) 
[1]. Temez Mountains, 6600 feet, July 15, 1915 (J. Wood- 
gate) [1]. 


COLORADO: Denver (E. J. Oslar) [5]. Clear Creek, July 
10, 1907 (E. J. Oslar) [4]. 


COLORADO: Puebla, September, 1899 [Lectotype, A. N. S. 
P., no. 7194, by present designation (Thaumatopsis colora- 


CANADA: Ontario, Rostrevor, September 3, 1907 (Arthur 
Gibson) [d 1 : Lectotype, A. N. S. P., no. 7195, by present desig- 
nation (Thaumatopsis gibsonella)}. Same locality and col- 
lector, September 5, 1907 [Paratype]. 


NEW JERSEY: Lucuston, September 9-15 (F. Haimbach) 


TEXAS: "Tex." [1J. 



CANADA: Manitoba, Cartwright, July 2- August 8 (J. F. 
Heath) [6]. 

COLORADO: Clear Creek, July 20, 1907 (E. J. Oslar) [1J. 

ARIZONA: San Bernardino Ranch, Cochise County, 3750 
feet, August ( ' F. H. Snow) fJ|. 

UTAH: Vineyard. July 11-16, 1917 (Tom Spalding) [2]. 
Stockton, September 2, 1904 (Tom Spalding) [1]. 


UTAH: Vineyard, July l<\ 1 ( '17 (Tom Spalding) [1]. 


NEW JERSEY: Lucastmi, < >ct<>ber 10, 1902 (E. Daecke) [c?: 
Lectotype, A. X. S. I'., no. 7188, by present designation]. Same 
locality and collector, October 7, 1905 [Topotype]. 

TEXAS: Brownsville, June, July [2]. 


ARIZONA: Huachuca Mountains, August 27, 1903 (E. J. 
Oslar) [5]. 


WASHINGTON: Pullman. July 12, 1898 (C. V. Piper) [2]. 
COLORADO: Clear Creek (E. J. Oslar) [3]. 
UTAH: Vineyard, August 7-11, 1917 (Tom Spalding) [4]. 
ARIZONA : San Bernardino Ranch, Cochise County, 3750 feet, 
August (F. H. Snow) [2]. 

NEW MEXICO: Albuquerque (E. J. Oslar) |lj. 


CANADA: Toronto [2|. 

MAINE: Greenville, July 21-29, 1919 (F. llaimbach) [1]. 
M onmouth. June 27, 1905 [1]. 

MASSACHUSETTS: Hyde Park, July 12. 1910 (F. Haimbach) 
| 1 |. Framingham, July 14, 1906 [1]. 

PENNSYLVANIA: Philadelphia, mostly at Roxboro. June 20- 
29 (F. Haimbach) [7]. Lower Merion Township, Mont- 
gomery County, June 29- July 17 (F. Haimbach) [3|. 

NEW IEKSEY: Five Mile Beach (F. Haimbach) [Ij. Cape 
May, June 30, 1907 (F. Haimbach) [IJ. 

VIRGINIA: Hot Springs, July 2-August 1, 1916 (M. He- 
bard) [6]. 


NORTH CAROLINA: Black Mountains, July 11-17, August 13, 
1912 (W. Beutenmuller) [4]. 

TEXAS: March 13 [2]. 

NEBRASKA: Omaha, June 20, 1920 ( R. A. Leussler) [1J. 
( )maha (F. H. Marshall) [3j. 

.\R(iYRIA ARGENTANA (Martyil). 

PENNSYLVANIA: "Pa." [1: Argvria niiinulalis Hiibner]. 

XEW JERSEY: Wenonah, July 22 ( F. Haimbach [4]. Sea 
Isle City, September 12, 1908 (F. Haimbach) |lj. Holly 
Beach, August 12, 1906 (F. Haimbach) [1]. Five Mile Beach, 
June 19, 1904, July 3, August 6 (F. Haimbach) [4]. Cape 
May, June 30, 1907 (F. Haimbach) [3]. Cape May Point, 
July 26, 1914 (F. Haimbach) [2]. 

FLORIDA: Dunedin, April 3-30 (W. S. Blatchley) [2]. Day- 
tona, March, 1907 (P. Laurent) [2]. 

NEBRASKA: Omaha, Inly 20, 1910 (R. A. Leussler) [1|. 
Omaha (F. H. Marshall) [3]. 


Argyria crilica Forbes, new syn. 

Forbes' description of critica agrees very well with Clemens' 
type of auratclla, on which there is no' trace of yellow on distal 
half of inner margin. Walker's description of palcliclla also 
makes no reference to the yellow marking on the distal, nor the 
inner, half of inner margin. Specimens which have this yellow 
marking along the inner margin are therefore a variety, which 
1 do not consider worthy of a name, as both forms are taken 
together. On July 21, 1917, I collected a large series of this 
species at Weaver, Pennsylvania (near Harrisburg) in which 
the two forms were equally divided ; the specimens were per- 
fectly fresh, and must have emerged on that day, evidently 
from one brood. It appears to me to be a grade of intensity in 
pigmentation. Specimens collected by me at Southern New 
Jersey shore points are marked more intensely than those 
taken in Pennsylvania and more Northern points. 

MASSACHUSETTS: "Mass." (S. H. Scudder, Jr.) [Type, A. 
N. S. P., no. 7284]. Framingham, August 8, 1907 (C. A. 
Frost) [1]. Hyde Park, July 8, 1910 ( F. Haimbach [1]. 

NEW YORK: Katonah, West Chester County, July (W. Beu- 
tenmuller) [1]. 

PENNSYLVANIA: Mount Airy, Philadelphia, July 28 (P. 
Laurent) [2 topotypes of Ar</vria crilica Forbes]. Weaver, 
July 21, 1907 (F. Haimbach) [4]. 

NEW JKKSKY: Wenonah, July 13-28 ( F. Haimbach) [2J. 


Holly Beach, July 26, 1899 (F. Haimbach) [1]. Five Mile 
Beach, August 4 ( F. Hainihach) |1J. Cape May Point, July 
24. 1915 (F. Hainihach) |1J. 


FLORIDA: Dunedin, March 21-31, April 15, November 28 
( \\. S. Ulatchley) [4j. 


OHIO: Cincinnati, July 11, 1904 (A. F. I'.raun ) |1]. 
FLORIDA: Melbourne, March (P. Laurent) [1J. Daytona, 
March (P. Laurent) [3], 


FLORIDA: Dunedin, March 29, 1921. April 28, 1920 (W. S. 

Blatchk'y) |2J. 


PENNSYLVANIA: Philadelphia, June 2, 1914 (F. Haimbach), 
August (H. \\". \Yenzel) [2]. Lower Merion Township. 
Montgomery County, July 7-23, September 5 (F. Haimbach) 

NEW JERSEY: Sea Isle City, September 12, 1908 (F. Haim- 
bach) [!]. 


PENNSYLVANIA : Lower Merion Township, Montgomery 
County, July 16-August 6 (F. Haimbach) [6]. Hulmeville, 
Bucks County, July 16, 1924 (F. Haimbach) [1]. 

TEXAS: May 20 [2]. 


ARIZONA: Carr Canyon, Huachuca Mountains, July, 1907 
(H. A. Kaeber) [4J. 


ARIZONA: Carr Canyon. Huachuca Mountains, July, 1907 
(H. A. Kaeber) [1]. 


PENNSYLVANIA: Philadelphia. June 4-11, September 4 ( F. 
Haimbach) [3]. Lower Merion Township, Montgomery 
County. August 14-29 (F. Haimbach) |4|. Tnllytown, I'.uck's 
County, July 9, ]'22 ( F. llaimbach) [1|. 



NEW JERSEY: Anglesea, July 10 (P. Laurent) [1]. 


FLORIDA: Dunedin, February 23, March 26- April 23 (W. S. 
Blatchley) [5]. 


MEXICO: Vera Cruz (Koebele) [1]. 


FLORIDA: Dunedin (W. S. Blatchley) [2]. 

ILLINOIS: Chicago [1]. 
TEXAS: Brownsville, June [2]. 


NEW MEXICO: Alamagordo, April 26, 1902 (Viereck & 
Rehn) [? : Allotype]. Same locality and collectors, April 26- 
May 4, 1902 [15 Paratypes]. 


CANADA: Cartwright, Manitoba, July 27, 1908 (J. F. Heath) 


UTAH: Vineyard, July 16-August 9, 1917 (Tom Spalding) 

COLORADO: Clear Creek, August 1, 1907 (E. J. Oslar) [1]. 

AUSTRIA: Vienna (Staudinger) [1]. 
Without data [2]. 


Pontresina, July 15, 16 (F. E. Lowe) [2]. Rochers de 
Naye, Jury 12. 1911 (F. E. Lowe) [1]. Courmayeur, July, 
1902 (F. E. Lowe) [2]. Engelberg, July 16, 1901 [2J. Preda 
Albula, P., July, 1913 ( F. E. Lowe) [!]. 


Pontresina, July 15-29, 1907 (F. E. Lowe) [4|. Steinen 
Alp, Berisal, July 25, 1911 (F. E. Lowe) [2]. Simplon, July 
23, 1911 [1].' Eclepeus, June 1907 (F. E. Lowe) [1]. 



Blightwell Heath, Suffolk, August 8, 1908 |1]. Miraborne, 
August, 1906 [/]. 


Vizzavona, July 19-30, 1914 (F. E. Lowe) f/|. Tattone, 
July, 1914 (F. E. Lowe) [2]. 


St. Peter Port, August 20, 1916 (F. E. Lowe) [1 |. Guern- 
sey, October 23-30 (F. E. Lowe) [/]. 

Without data [2]. 


Potsdam Str. [Ij. Without data [3J. 


Zermatt, August, 1898, at light [2]. 

Without data [11]. 

Harwich district, July, August (G. F. Mathew) [5]. 
CRAMBUS LUTEELLUS Schiffermuller. 

Breslau (Staudinger) [2]. 

Zermatt Str. [1]. 


Harwich district, [uly, 1910 (G. F. Mathew) [2]. Instow, 
July, 1907 (G. F. Mathew) |1]. Without data [12]. 


Harwich district, July 5. 1911 (G. F. Mathew) [1|. Wim- 
bonii', August. 1906 [1]. Instow, lime, 1W (G. F. Mathew) 
[1]. Rislcv Moss, Lanca, July, 1 ( H)3 |1|. 1 'ontresina, July 16- 
30, 1910 (F. E. Lowe) [2|. " 


Srisser Alp (Staudinger) [IJ. Penm-sina, [uly 16-30 (F. 
E. Lowe) [3]. 



Prague (Staudinger) [1]. Without data [2]. 

Without data [2]. 


Simplon, July 23, 1911 [4J. Laquinthal, July 14-22, 1911 
(F. E. Lowe) [1]. Pontresina, July 13-30 (F. E. Lowe) [2]. 
Steiner Alp, Berisal, July 25, 19*11 (F. E. Lowe) [1]. With- 
out data [2]. 


Risley Moss, Lanca, July, 1904 [8]. Without data [2]. 


Preda Albula, P., July, 1913 (F. E. Lowe) [1]. Laguinthal, 
July 14-23, 1911 (F. E. Lowe) [1]. Trafoi, July, 1903 [1J. 
Mt. Pilatus, July 9, 1901 [2]. 


La Grave, July 25-August 1, 1909 (F. E. Lowe) [1]. 
CRAMBUS CONCHELLUS Schififermiiller. 

Rochers de Naye, July 12, 1911 (F. E. Lowe) [2]. Engel- 
berg, July, 1901 [2]. Laquinthal, July 14-22, 1911 (F. E. 
Lowe) [2]. Val Tiniere, June, 1907' (F. E. Lowe) [1]. Mei- 
zingen, July 6, 1904 [1]. No. 63 5/56, (Boll) [2]. 


Nr. Wimborne, August, 1907 (G. F. Mathew) [8j. 

Without data [1J. 

(Staudinger) [1]. 


Trofoi, July, 1903 [1]. Laquinthal, July 14-22 (F. E. Lowe) 
|1]. Pontresina, July, 1907, 1912 (F. E. Lowe) [4J. 


Tattona, July, 1914 (F. E. Lowe) [2]. 


CRAM BUS FALSELLUS Schiffermuller. 

Camford, S. W., 1873 [1]. Cambridge, July [4]. Boroclen, 
Edleston (F. Bond) [2J. 


Pontresina, July 16-30, 1910 ( F. E. Lowe) [2]. 

Without data [S]. 

Without data [2]. 
CRAMBUS LUCELLUS Herrich-Schaffer. 

Bondol, Cote de Azur, June 11-20, 1913 (F. E. Lowe) [2]. 
La Ste. Baume, July 12-15, 1914 (F. E. Lowe) [4]. 


New Forest (C. Galliver) [7]. Unst., 1895 (P. M. Bright) 
CRAMBUS CULM F.LI, us Linnaeus. 

Unst., 1895 (P. Al. Bright) [5|. 

Digne. June 14-25, 1910, July 16, 1909 (F. E. Lowe) [4]. 
Ste. Baume, June 25-July 2, 1912 (F. E. Lowe) [1]. Mar- 
tigny, fune, 1907 (F. E. Lowe) [2]. Vernet-Piz : Or., June 
14-26, 1911 (F. E. Lowe) [1]. 


Lancashire Hodgk. (F. Bond) 161. New Forest (F. Bond) 


Pleinmont Cut.. July. 1915 (F. E. Lowe) [8]. 


Without data [4|. 1 labeled "Sienig." 


July 17, '57 \2\. \\'ithnut data [6|. 

Without data [3J. 



Barum, July, 1905 [3]. Instow, June 26, 1908 (G. F. 
Mathew) [1].' Wicken, June 30, 1902 [3]-. Beech Haven [1]. 
Neckar, Bischofsheim, B., June 25 (F. Weigand) [1J. 


Without data [12]. 

#31, August 31, '66 [3]. 

Without data [/]. 

Portsmouth, Moncraff, 1872 [4]. 


La Ste. Baume, June 22-29, 1913 (F. E. Lowe) [3]. Nans- 
Var., June 25-July 11, 1914 ( F. E. Lowe) [2]. Bondol, Cote 
de Azur, June 11 : 20. 1914 (F. E. Lowe) [lj. 

Centenary of the Entomological Society of France. 

The Entomological Society of France, founded in 1832, will 
soon celebrate its centenary at Paris and desires to give to 
this event all possible splendor. 

The official ceremony of the centenary, the celebrations and 
excursions which will be arranged for this occasion will occur 
at the same time as the Fifth International Congress of En- 
tomology, which will be held at Paris in 1932. Invitations 
will be sent to the entomological societies of the entire world 
and we hope that many delegates will take part in the festivi- 
ties, the program and date of which will be fixed later. 

But it seems to us that such celebrations should not be the 
only manifestation by our society on the hundredth year of its 
existence. It will be appropriate to crown the magnificent 
series of one hundred volumes of Annalcs ilc la Socictc cnto- 
rnologiquc dc France by the publication of an extraserial "Cen- 
tenary" volume, containing a history of our Society from its 
beginning and also original memoirs by our best French 
authors and the best known entomologists of foreign coun- 

Moreover, our Society wishes to publish a Catalogue raisonnc 
of the Coleoptera of France and to complete the general tables 
of the Annalcs, unfinished since 1890. 

It is evident that the realization of so extensive a program 
is dependent upon the resources which our Society will bave 


at its disposal. A subscription list has already been opened. 
It is hoped that all the members of our Society will impose 
on themselves the duty of subscribing and of rendering our 
centenary publications worthy of the efforts of our prede- 

A later notice will fix the sum at which subscribers will have 
the right to receive the Centenary volume. 
(Translated.) For the Centenary Committee: 

L. CHOPARD, Secretary. DR. R. JEANNEL, President. 

A Note on the Longevity of a Paralyzed Orthopteran 
(Locustidae; Hymen.: Sphegidae). 

On July 19, 1929, at Zion National Park, Utah, I surprised 
a large wasp (Chlorion ichneuinoniiiin (Linn.)) carrying an 
immature katydid (Microcentrum sp?). An attempt was made 
to capture them both but the wasp escaped, leaving its prey. 
This, upon examination, was found to have been paralyzed by 
the wasp. It was capable only of feeble movements of the 
antennae and palpi. Life processes evidently continued, as 
faeces were occasionally voided. It was placed in a cotton- 
stoppered vial which allowed circulation of air and prevented 
excessive evaporation. Note was made of its condition from 
day to day. It lived, as was evidenced by movements, from 14 
to 17 days. The last few days decomposition set in at the ex- 
tremities and on the 17th day it was definitely dead. LOWELL 
A. \YOODBURY, University of L T tah, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Notes on Corythuca pallipes Parshley, and Leptodictya 
(Locustidae; Hymen.: Sphecidae). 

The writer has been interested in the Tingididae for some 
time and has obtained two records which may be of interest. 
A rather large infestation of Corythuca pallipes Parshley was 
found in Garrett County, Maryland, feeding on its usual host 
plant, Bctiila lutea Michx. Heretofore the insect has not been 
reported south of New York. The infestation was near Bear 
Creek on the top of Keyser's Ridge, about 2000 feet above 
sea level. The insects were collected September 17, 1929. 

On October 5, 1929, specimens of Leptodictya siiuu: 
Heidemann were collected by Dr. E. N. Cory from IVkTsbi: 
Virginia. These insects occurred in large numbers on .Iriai- 
dinaria tecta (Walt.) Muhl., where they had caused consider- 
able damage. According to Blatchley's Heteroptera of /eastern 
North America, the host plant of this insect has never been 
reported. However, L. simulant should occur also on A. mac- 
rospcrma Michx. These are the only two species of the 15am- 
buseae native to eastern I'nited States as far north as Virginia 
and Maryland, where they grow in moist soil. L. I'. DIT.MAN, 
College Park, Maryland. 


International Society of Ipidologists. 

We note in the Canadian Entomologist for February, 1930, 
that a society by this name has been proposed by Dr. P. Spes- 
sivteff at a meeting of the International Congress of Forest 
Experiment Stations held at Stockholm, for the intensive study 
of the bark beetles. All those interested in bark beetles and 
desirous of joining the new society are requested to forward 
their names and addresses, with a statement of their more spec- 
ial interests, to Dr. I. Tragardh, Experimentalfaltet, Sweden. 

Some Coincidences in the Lives of Three Prominent New 
Zealand Entomologists of the Last Century. 

Three boys were born in England F. W. Hutton in 1836, 
Thomas Broun in 1838 and W. M. Maskell in 1840. All three, 
before they reached the age of twenty, entered the army. Mas- 
kell left England soonest, and went to New Zealand in 1860. 
Broun entered the army at the age of sixteen, during the 
Crimean War, and after the close of that war accompanied 
his regiment to Burma. Here he became attracted by the large 
size and brilliant colors of many of the tropical insects, and 
began to collect. Then came the outbreak of the Indian Mutiny 
and his regiment served in India during the whole period of 
the mutiny. He was present at the assault and capture of Delhi 
and at the relief of Lucknow. He retired from the army in 
1862, married, and went to New Zealand in 1863. Hutton 
as a boy served as a midshipman in the navy. Later he received 
a commission in the Royal Welch Fusiliers, saw active service 
in the Crimea and in the Indian Mutiny. He was a naturalist 
by instinct. In 1866 he went to New Zealand and eventually 
was Professor of Biology in Canterbury College and stayed 
there for many years. He was also Curator of the Canterbury 

Broun, when he got to New Zealand, found that the Maori 
War had broken out, and he was commissioned a Captain and 
served through the whole war. He was appointed .Government 
Entomologist in 1890 and held the post for several years. He 
worked with insects until his death. He knew the Hemiptera 
and the Orthoptera and had a good knowledge of most of the' 
other orders, but he was primarily a coleopterist. 

Captain Hutton's work covered a broad range of entomo- 
logical subjects, but in entomology he published over thirty 
papers of systematic importance. 

Mr. Maskell, after reaching New Zealand, was a slurp 
farmer for some years. Later he became Provincial Secretary 
and Treasurer of Canterbury Province, and toward the end 


of his life he was Registrar of the University of Xe\v Zealand. 
( )riginally a microscopist, he gradually hecame interested in 
the Coccidae, Aleurodidae and Psyllidae, at the same time work- 
ing with the Desmids in botany. His work on scale insects 
made him known to entomologists all over the world. 

That three boys born in England at about the same time 
should have become soldiers was not at all unlikely ; that two 
of these boys should have served in the Crimea and in the 
Indian Mutiny was not unlikely; that all three of them should 
have gone to New Zealand at about the same time was not un- 
likely ; but that all three of them added to these three coinci- 
dences a fourth coincidence that all became well known ento- 
mologists rounds out the story into something rather remarkable. 

L. O. HOWARD, Washington, D. C. 

Entomological Literature 


Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, 
however, whether relating to American or exotic species will be recorded. 

The numbers within brackets j ] refer to the journals, as numbered 
in the list of Periodicals and Serials published in the January and June 
numbers (or which may be secured from the publisher of Entomological 
News for lOc), in which the paper appeared. The number of, or annual 
volume, and in some cases the part, heft, &c. the latter within ( ) 
follows; then the pagination follows the colon : 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their 
first installments. 

*Papers containing new forms or names have an * preceding the 
author's name. 

(S) Papers pertaining exclusively to neotropical species, and not so 
indicated in the title, have the symbol (S) at the end of the title of 
the paper. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Rec- 
ord, Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied 
Entomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

jtJt^'Note the change in the method of citing the bibliographical refer- 
ences, as explained above. 

Papers published in the Entomological News are not listed. 

GENERAL. Borodin. D. N. Field insects of Russia, with 
special reference to insects introduced into America and 
their coefficient of injury. [Trans. 4th. Int. Cong. Ent. | 
982-991, ill. Brues, C. T. - The insect fauna of thermal 
springs. [Trans. 4th. Int. Cong. Ent.] 237-240. Carpenter, 
F. M. The lower permian insects of Kan>a>. I 'art 1. In- 
troduction and the order Alecoptera. [Hull. Alns. Coin]). 
Xool. Harvard Coll.] 70: 69-101. ill. Chapman, R. N.- 
Biotic potential, environmental resistance and insect abund- 


ance. [X. Cong. Int. Zool, Budapest] 1209-1218. ill. 
Chestnut, A. Insect hunter. [Nat. Mag.] 15: 176-178, ill. 
Cockerell T. D. A. The future of taxonomy. [68] 71 : 240- 
241. Collin, J. E. A protest against the use of abbrevia- 
tions in original descriptions. [Trans. 4th. Int. Cong. Ent.] 
303-305. Corporaal, J. B. Forum on problems of taxo- 
nomy: Determinations. [Trans. 4th. Int. Cong. Ent.] 795- 
796. Corporaal, J. B. The share of the Netherlands in the 
development of entomology in past centuries. [Trans. 4th. 
Int. Cong. Ent. | 357-360. Cresson, E. T., Jr. Index to the 
literature of the species of insects. [Trans. 4th. Int. Cong. 
Ent.] 484-488. Edwards, F. W. An account of a collecting 
trip to Patagonia and Southern Chile. [Trans. 4th. Int. 
Cong. Ent. j '416-417. Efflatoun, H. C. The development 
of entomological science in Egypt. [Trans. 4th. Int. Cong. 
Ent.J 737-742. Estable, C. Observaciones sobre algunos 
insectos del Uruguay. [An. Mus. Hist. Nat. Montevideo] 
3 : 57-92. Flanders, S. E. The mass production of Tricho- 
gramma minutum and observations on the natural and arti- 
ficial parasitism of the codling moth egg. [Trans. 4th. Int. 
Cong. Ent.] 110-130, ill. Felt, E. P. Insect inhabitants of 
the upper air. [Trans. 4th. Int. Cong. Ent.] 869-872. Felt, 
Cockerell & Troxell. Scientific names. [68] 71: 215-218. 
Heikertinger, F. --The principle of continuity in nomen- 
clature. [Trans. 4th. Int. Cong. Ent.] 481-483. Holland, 
W. J. Forum on problems of taxonomy : Types. [Trans. 
4th Int. Cong.] 688-694. Holland, W. J. The mutual re- 
lations of museums and expert specialists. [Trans. 4th. 
Int. Cong. Ent.J 278-285. Horn W. On the splitting in- 
fluence of the increase of entomological knowledge and on 
the enigma of species. [Trans. 4th. Int. Cong. Ent.] 500-507, 
ill. Horn, W. - -The future of insect taxonomy. [Trans. 
4th. Int. Cong. Ent.J 34-51. Jablonowski, J. - - The black 
locust-tree-scale, Lecanium robiniarum and the European 
corn borer, Pyrausta nubilalis, a biological parallel. [Trans. 
4th. Int. Cong. Ent.] 455-462. Jeannel, R. -- Forum on 
problems of taxonomy: Collections. [Trans. 4th. Int. Cong. 
Ent.] 797-800. Kennedy, C. H. The theory of nomencla- 
ture. [Trans. 4th. Int. Cong. Ent. | 665-672. Lamborn, 
W. A. The remarkable adaptation by which a dipterous 
pupa (Tabanidae) is preserved from the danger of fissures 
in drying mud. [Proc. R. Soc., London] 106, (B) : 83-87, 
ill. Le Cerf, F. Une technique simplifiee pour la colora- 
tion cles genitalia. [59] (B, III) 3: 147-152. Martini, E.- 
Kliina und seuchen vom stamlpunkte des entomologen. 
[Trans. 4th. Int. Cong. Ent.J 403-477. Martynov, A. B. 


Permian entomofauna of North Russia and its relation to 

that of Kansas. [Trans. 4th. Int. Cong. Ent.] 595-599. 

Melander, A. L. The selection of family names. [Trans. 
4th. Int. Cong. Ent.] 657-664. Muir, F The role of func- 
tion in taxonomy and its relationship to the genitalia in 
insects. [Trans. 4th. Int. Cong. Ent.] 600-604. Pictet, A. 

Quelques considerations decoulant d'experiences dc ge- 
m'-ti(|iK' en rapport avec la systematique. [41] 14: 17n-178. 
Reiser, O. -Naiurwissenschaftlicher bericht iiber den ver- 
lauf der von der K. Akademie der Wissenschaften in \Yien 
1903 unter leitung von weiland hofrat Dr. F. Steindachner 
nach Nordost-Brasilien entsendeten Sammel-Expedition. 

[Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien] 43: 1-73, ill. Roepke, W.- 
A new method of making microscopic aphid preparations. 
[Trans. 4th. Int. Cong. Ent.] 917-918. Rozanova, M Von 
den niedersten taxonomischen einheiten. [Jour. Soc. J>ot. 
Russie] 13: 341-342. Saalas, U. Ueber die anwendung der 
linien-abschatzung bei der frequenzbestimmung von forstin- 
sekten. [Trans. 4th. Int. Cong. Ent.] 646-656, ill. Schilder, 
F. A. Einiges iiber "Bestimmungstabellen." [2] 25: 194- 
196. Silvestri, F. - - The relation of taxonomy to other 
branches of Entomology. [Trans. 4th. Int. Cong. Ent.] 
52-54. Stiles, C. W. The future of zoological nomencla- 
ture, with an appendix: history of rules re designation of 
genotypes. [Trans. 4th. Int. Cong. Ent.] 622-645. Trag- 
ardh, I. - - Investigations of the fauna of a dying tree. 
[Trans. 4th. Int. Cong. Ent.] 773-780, ill. Van Diizee, E. P. 

-The regional museum and one of its problems. [Trans. 
4th. Int. Cong. Ent.] 1003-1004. Van Duzee, E. P. Re- 
marks on the insect collections in the museum of the 
California Academy of Sciences. [Trans. 4th. Int. Cong. 
Ent.] 801-802. Van Dyke, E. C. - - The influence which 
geographical distribution has had in the production of the 
insect fauna of North America. [Trans. 4th. Int. Cong. 
Ent.J 555-566. Verity, R. On the necessity of a revision 
of the rules of entomological nomenclature concerning 
groups of lower rank than the specific one. [Trans. 4tn. 
Int. Cong. Ent.J 479-480. Wade, J. S. Vignettes of Henry 
Edwards and John Muir. [76] 1930: 240-250. Waterstori, 
J. Forum on problems of taxonomv: Discussion on tvpc^. 
[Trans. 4th. Int. Cong. Ent.| 695-699. Wheeler, W. M.- 
Two interesting neotropical myrmecophytes (Cordia nodosa 
and C. alliodora). [Trans. 4th. Int. Cong. Ent.| 342-353. 
Wolff, M. Vom missbrauch des geset /(.'.> der kausalitat in 
der hi ..logic. [34] 86: 175-179. 



Variability of the honeybee tongue biometrically investi- 
gated, and practical questions connected with the problem 
of the selection of the honeybee. [Trans. 4th. Int. Cong. 
Ent.] 1010-1019, ill. Bodenheimer and Samburski Ueber 
den warmeausgieich bei insekten. [34] 86: 208-211, ill. 
Burnside, C. E. Septicemia of the honeybee. [Trans. 4th. 
Int. Cong. Ent.] 757-767. Eastham, L. E. S. The forma- 
tion of germ layers in insects. [Hiol. Rev. & Biol. Pro. 
Cambridge Phil. Soc.] 5: 1-29. Eidmann, H. Influence of 
temperature on the number of eggs in lepidoptera. [Trans. 
4th. Int. Cong. Ent.] 355-356. Francis, E. Arthropods in 
the transmission of Tularaemia. [Trans. 4th. Int. Cong. 
Ent.] 929-944, ill. Gerould, J. H. History of the discovery 
of periodic reversal of heart-beat in insects. [68] 71 : 264- 
265. Gerould, J. H. - - Periodic reversal of heart-beat in 
Bombyx and other moths. [Trans. 4th. Int. Cong. Ent.] 
516-522. Graham-Smith, G. S. -- Further observations on 
the anatomy and function of the proboscis of the blow-fly 
Calliphora efythrocephala. [Parasitology] 22: 47-115, ill. 
Hannes, F. Ueber die verschiedenen arten des "Lernens" 
der honigbiene und der insekten iiberhaupt. [89 1 47: 89- 
150. Heikertinger, F. -- Ueber das mimikryproblem und 
sein schwesterprobleme. [Trans. 4th. Int. Cong. Ent. | 821- 
831. Henriksen, K. L. Contribution to the interpretation 
of the cephalic segments of Arthropoda. [Trans. 4th. Int. 
Cong. Ent.] 589-594. Imhof, O. E. - - Berichtigungen zur 
kenntnis des baues von insektenflugeln. [Trans. 4th. Int. 
Cong. Ent.] 793-794. Keilin & Nuttall. - - Iconographic 
studies of Pediculus humanus. [Parasitology] 22: 1-10, ill. 
Leiby, R. W. Polyembryony in insects. [Trans. 4th. Int. 
Cong. Ent.] 873-887. Martini & Achundow. Beeinflussung 
der farbe von miicken und ihren larven. [Trans. 4th. Int. 
Cong. Ent.] 478. Miller, J. M. The relation of windfalls 
to barkbeetle epidemics. [Trans. 4th. Int. Cong. Ent.] 992- 
1002, ill. Mukerji, R. N. The "Nucleal Reaction" in Apan- 
teles sp., with special reference to the secondary nuclei and 
the germ-cell determinant of the egg. [Proc. R. Soc., 
London] 106, (B) : 131-139, ill. Parfentjev, J. A. -- Re- 
searches in insect toxicology. [Trans. 4th. Int. Cong. Ent.] 
857-864, ill. Parker, J. R. Some effects of temperature and 
moisture upon the activities of grasshoppers and their re- 
lation to grasshopper abundance and control. [Trans. 4th. 
Int. Cong. Ent.] 322-332. Patterson, J. T. Proof that the 
entire chromosome is not eliminated in the production of 


somatic variations by x-rays in Drosophila. [85J 15: 141- 
149, ill. Patterson, J. T. Somatic segregation produced by 
x-rays in Drosophila melanogaster. [Pro. Xat. Acad. Sci. 
U. S. A.] 16: 109-111. Portier & Rothays. -Mode de \.1 
des insect* et charge alaire par unite de surface. [69 1 190: 
399-400. Poulton, E. B. -- Adaptations which hinder or 
prc\ cut inbreeding in insects. [Trans. 4th. Int. Cong. Ent.[ 
582-588. Rensch, B. Das prinzip geographischer Rassen- 
kreise und das problem der Artbiklung. 206 pp., ill. 
Ronzoni & Bishop. Carbohydrate metabolism in the honey 
bee larva. [Trans. 4th. Int. Cong. Ent.] 361-365. Roubaud, 
M. E. Suspension evolutive et hibernation larvaire obliga- 
toire, provoquees par la chaleur, chez le moustique commun. 
Culex pipiens. Les diapauses vraies et les pseudo-diapauses 
chez les insectes. [69J 190: 324-326. Rudolfs, W. Envi- 
ronmental factors and mosquito breeding. [Trans. 4th. Int. 
Cong. Ent.] 945-959, ill. Taylor, T. H. - - The blowfly's 
mouth. [31] 125: 238, ill. Watanabe, K. On the relation* 
between the color of silkworms and the environment. 
[Trans. 4th. Int. Cong. Ent.] 372-373. Watson, L. R. - 
Instrumental insemination of queenbees. [Trans. 4th. Int. 
Cong. Ent.] 976-977. Yung-Tai, T. Stir les mitoses multi- 
polaires dans les cellules epitheliales de 1'intestin posterieur 
de Galleria mellonella pendant la metamorphose. [77] 103: 


Some poisonous arthropods of North and Central America. 
[Trans. 4th. Int. Cong. Ent.] 418-438. *Chamberlin, J. C. 
-A synoptic classification of the false scorpions or chela- 
spinners, with a report on a cosmopolitan collection of the 
same. Part II. The Diplosphyronida (Chelonethida). [75] 
5: 1-48, ill., cont. Elliott, F. R. An ecological study of the 
spiders of the beech-maple forest. [43] 30: 1-22. Fischel, 
W.--Wachstum und hautung der spinnen. 2. Mitteilnng: 
\\ eitere beobachtungen an retitelen und vaganten aranecn 
[94] 136: 78-107, ill. 


A. N. --Ueber Calopteryx splendens und ihre Hi. .tvpen. 
besonders die westasiatischen. [89] 58: 521-540. Ca'lvert, 
P. P. The significance of < Monate larvae for insect phylo- 
geny. [Trans. 4th. Int. Cong. Knt.J 919-V25, ill. Emerson, 
A. E. Communication among termite*. [Trans. 4th. Int. 
Cong. Kni.| 712-727. Enderlein, G. Ueber den laut-apparat 
der ll(,he. [Trans. 4th. Int. Cong. Knt.| 771-772, ill. Jordan, 


K. On some problems of distribution, variability and vari- 
ation in North American Siphonaptera. [Trans. 4th. Int. 
Cong. Ent.] 489-499. ill. Silvestri, F. On postembryonal 
development of Japygidae (Thysanura). [Trans. 4th. Int. 
Cong. Ent.] 905-908, ill. Spencer, G. J. - - The fare brat, 
Thermobia domestica (Lepismidae) in Canada. [4] 62: 1-2. 
Tillyard, R. J. - The evolution of the order Odonata. 
[Trans. 4th. Int. Cong. Ent.] 543-545. Walley, G. S.- 
Review of Ephemerella nymphs of western North America 
(Ephemeroptera). [4] 62:. 12-20, ill. 

ORTHOPTERA. Karny, H. H Revisione dei Grilla- 
cridi dei musei cli Geneva e Torino e clella collezione Griffini. 
[Mem. Soc. Ent. Italiana] 7: 154pp., ill. *Menozzi, C. - 
Diagnosi di cinque nuove specie di Dermatteri. (S). [Mem. 
Soc. Ent. Italiana] 8: 8-18, ill. 

HEMIPTERA. *Jaczewski, T. Notonectidae from the 
state of Parana. [An. Mtis. Zool. Polonici] 7: 121-136. 
King, W. V.- -The cotton flea hopper (Psallus seriatus). 
[Trans. 4th. Int. Cong. Ent.] 452-454. Severin, H. H. P.- 
Life-history of beet leafhopper, Eutettix tenellus in Califor- 
nia. [67] 5: 38-88, ill. Spencer, G. J. The status of the 
barn swallow bug, Oeciacus vicarius. [4] 62: 20-21. Taka- 
hashi, R. - - List of the aphid genera proposed as new in 
recent years. [10] 32:24pp. Thomsen, M. Sex-determina- 
tion in Lecanium. [Trans. 4th. Int. Cong. Ent.] 18-24, ill. 
de la Torre-Bueno, J. R. - - Records of Heteroptera from 
Nova Scotia. [4] 62: 6-7. Vayssiere, P. - - Note comple- 
mentaire sur les coccides monophleboides. [Trans. 4th. Int. 
Cong. Ent.] 81-86, ill. 

LEPIDOPTERA. Bouvier, E. L. -- Observations sys- 
tematiques sur les Saturnioides Americains. [Trans. 4~th. 
Int. Cong. Ent.] 909-916, ill. Corti, A. Ueber die prapara- 
tion des fliigel-geaders bei Lepidopteren. [41] 14: 180-181. 
Fenton, F. A. -- Biological notes on the pink bollworm 
(Pectinophora gossypiella) in Texas. [Trans. 4th. Int. 
Cong. Ent.] 439-447. *Hampson, G. F. New genera and 
species of Phycitinae (Pyralidae). [75] 5: 50-80. *Meyrick, 
E. - - Exotic Microlepidoptera. 545-576. Vogeler, B. - - Die 
zucht von Rothschildia aurota speculifera. (S). [141 43: 

DIPTER A. --Alexander, C. P.-- A comparison of the 
systems of nomenclature that have been applied to the radial 


field of the wing- in the Diptera. [Trans. 4th. Int. Cong. 
Ent.] 700-707. *Bau, A. Cnterebra conflans uncl subbuc- 
cata, spec, novae, sowie bemerkung itber C. schroederi. 
(Oestridae). (S). [60] 90: 303-307, ill. *Cordero, E. H.- 
Contribucion al estudio de los Dipteros del Uruguay. I. 
Lophornyidium uruayense n. gen. n. sp. Nueva Ceratopo- 
gonina Hematofaga. [An. Mus. Hist. Xat. Montevideo] 3: 
93-107, ill. *Curran, C. H. Xe\v species of Diptera belong- 
ing to the genus Baccha. (Syrphidae). New species of 
Lepidanthrax and Parabombylius ( Bombyliidae). Xew 
Diptera belonging to the genus Mesogramma (Syrphidae). 
[40] 403: 16pp.; 404: 7pp.; 405: 14pp. Herms," W. B. - 
Anopheline mosquito investigations in California. [Trans. 
4th. Int. Cong. Ent.| 708-721. ill. *Krober, O. Die taba- 
nidenuntergattung Phaeotabanus. (S). [34] 86: 273-300, 
ill. *Krober, O. - - Ergebnisst- einer zoologischen sammel- 
reise nach Brasilien, insbesondere das Amazonasgebiet. 
Tabanidae. [Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien] 43: 243-255, ill. 
*Krober, O. - - Nachtrage zu den kleinen gattungen der 
siidamerikanischen Tabanini. [34] 86: 248-265, ill. *Lind- 
ner, E. - - Ergebnisse einer zoologischen sammelreise nach 
Brasilien, insbesondere das Amazonasgebiet. Stratiomyi- 
dae und Rhagionidae. [Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien] 43: 
257-268. ill. Mercier, M. L. Variation de certaines pieces 
de 1' armature genitale male de Pollenia rudis (Calliphor- 
inae) ; importance de cette variation pour la notion d'espece 
chez les Myodaires superieurs. [69] 190: 320-322, ill. 
Montschadsky, A. Die stigmalplatten der Culicidenlarvcn. 
[89] 58: 541-636, ill. Root, F. M. - -The present status of 
our knowledge of the Nyssorhynchus group of Anopheline 
mosquitoes. [Trans. 4th. Int. Cong. Ent.J 316-321. 

COLEOPTERA. Barnes, T. C. An enquiry concerning 
the natural history of the white-pine weevil (Pissodes 
strobi). [Trans. 4th. Int. Cong. Ent.] 412-413. *Brown, 
W. J.-- Studies in the Scarabaeidae (IV). [4] 62: 2-0. 
Dobzhansky, T. - -The origin of geographical varieties in 
Coccinellidae. [Trans. 4th. Int. Cong. Ent.] 536. d'Orchy- 
mont, A. --Remarks on the morphology and geographical 
distribution of \Yohydrophilus i 1 lydrophilidae ) , especially 
the American species. [Trans. 4th". Int. Con--. Knt.J 1024- 
KLX ill. *Fisher, W. S. New West fndian Buprestidae 
and Cerambycidac. [4| 62: 7-11. *Fletcher, F. C. Xott-s 
on Neotropical Pselaphidae, with descriptions of new 
species. [75] 5: 95-100. Greeves-Carpenter, C. F. - - The 


beetle family. [Nat. Mag.] 15: 171-172. Hovasse, M. R.- 
Un mode de symbiose nouveau chez les Cochenilles. [69] 
190: 322-324. Hustache, A. -- Curculionides de la Guade- 
loupe. [Faune Col. Franchises] 3:165-267.' ill. Kolbe, H. 
Ueber einige iibergangsformen (Transifupaussus, Manica- 
nopaussus u. a.) zwischen den primitiven und superioren 
artengruppen der myrmekophilen Coleopterengattung Paus- 
sen. [60] 90:253-258. 

HYMENOPTERA. Buckle, J. W. Croesus va'rus. [4] 
62: 21-22. Carpenter, F. M.--The fossil ants of North 
America. [Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard Coll.] 70: 
66pp., ill. *Cockerell, T. D. A. Descriptions and records 
of bees. [75] 5: 108-115, 156-163. Imms, A. D. Observa- 
tions on some parasites of Oscinella frit. [Parasitology] 
22: 11-36, ill. Kryger, J. P. Some remarks on the keys of 
the European chalcids. [Trans. 4th. Int. Cong. Ent.] 1020- 

SPECIAL NOTICES. Fourth International Congress 
of Entomology. Ithaca, August 1928. Vol. 2. Transactions. 
Containing titles of 148 papers. Monographic der palaarkt- 
ischen arten des subgenus Dystroma (truncata-citrata- 
gruppe) der gattung Cidaria (Geometrid). By F. Heyde- 
mann. [Mitt. Muncher Ent. Ges.] 19: 207-302, ill. [AUho 
treating of the palaearctic species its monographic nature 
makes this paper valuable to students of other faunae]. 

General Editor. H. M. Parshley, Managing Editor. Fascicle 
Hongrois, pp. (8-f-) 15. Price, 50 cents. Fascicle III. PYRRHO- 
CORIDAE by ROLAND F. HUSSEY, Sc.D., New York City. With 
bibliography by ELIZABETH SHERMAN, A.B., Mt. Vernon, N. 
Y. 144 pp. Price, $1.50. Published by Smith College, North- 
ampton, Mass., U.S.A., 1929. 

The first fascicle, on the Membracidae, by Dr. W. D. Funk- 
houser, appeared in 1927 and was noticed in the NEWS for 
October, 1927, pages 254-255, where some general information 
on this series will be found. Fascicle II, in the At'unt propos, 
gives a history of the family Mesoveliidae as a taxonomic unit, 
taken from Dr. Horvath's Monographic of 1915. Hie catalog 
proper occupies pp. 1-7 and lists the two genera and 14 species 
known from the entire world today, with their geographical 
distribution. One genus and three species: M exordia hisif/nala 
Uhler, M. cryptopliihi Hungerford, M. doin/Iuscnsis Hunger- 


ford, are recognized from North America. Pp. 8-14 contain 
a bibliography. 

The Introduction, pp. 3-6, of Fascicle III, contains, inter 
alia, some interesting remarks on the geographical distribution, 
affinities and subdivisions of this family. "About one-third of 
all the known [360] species and more than half the genera 
[43] of the Pyrrhocoridae occur in the Indo-Malayan region, 
which thus appears to be the primary centre of distribution of 
the family." It is Dr. Husscy's belief that the two subfam- 
ilies, "the Euryophthalminae and the Pyrrhocorinae, are each 
worthy of elevation into distinct family rank, the two thus 
constituting the superfamily Pyrrhocoroidea", but for the pres- 
ent he retains "the family Pyrrhocoridae in its standard sense". 
Two new tribal names, Euryophthalmini and Physopeltini, are 
suggested and defined (p. 5) as subdivisions of the Euryoph- 
thalminae. Page 7 gives in tabular form the Systematic Ar- 
rangement adopted under subfamilies, tribes and genera, show- 
ing the number of species of each genus in eleven geographical 
divisions of the earth. Thus in North America 2 subfamilies, 
7 genera and 23 species are known. The catalog occupies pp. 
9-106; Appendix A, genera wrongly included in the Pyrrho- 
coridae, pp. 107-108; Appendix B, List of the Pyrrhocoridae 
described under generic names now assigned to other families, 
together with their present nomenclature, pp. 109-110; Appen- 
dix C, List of Pyrrhocorid species transferred by various 
authors to genera other than those under which they appear 
in this catalogue, pp. 111-113. The bibliography by Miss 
Sherman is on pp. 114-137. Finally there are two alphabetical 
indexes, one to genera and higher groups and one to species, 
pp. 138-144. 

This is a catalogue which also serves as an index to the lit- 
erature of the species of Hemiptera. It is, however, basically 
systematic in its structure ; and unfortunately such structures 
are subject to serious changes when the status of the species are 
changed on account of Revisions, Monographs, etc., which are 
continually being proposed. This will, in time, necessitate 
reprinting the text in accordance with the new arrangement, 
which in turn will require rewriting and resetting of the type 
for the extensive bibliographical references. Thi> will not <m1y 
involve expense, but will open again the chance of errors 
creeping in. A new method of indexing the literature of thr 
species of insects, which will obviate this reprinting and reset- 
ting was proposed by K/.ra T. Cresson, Jr.. at the Fourth Inter- 
national Congress of Entomology.* P. P. CALVERT. 

*Trans. 4th Intern. Cm-. Km., p. 4X4-487, (1929). 


VARY; 4to., 112 pages, 11 plates, 67 text figures. 1929 Szeged 
(Ungarn) "Studium" Verlag, Budapest iv., Muzeum-Korut 21. 
Text in two parallel columns on each page, Magyar and Ger- 
man. 38 Reichsmarks. The object of the present work, says 
the author, is to fill some gaps in Hungarian Zoological litera- 
ture and to complete the monograph of the Hungarian spider 
world which Otto Herman began by his treatise on spiders. He 
therefore presents us with this account of the Opiliones, or 
daddy-longlegs. It is of interest to others than students of the 
Hungarian fauna by virtue of the large amount of space which 
it devotes to the external morphology (21 pages), internal anat- 
omy (30 pages) and mode of life (23 pages) of these Arach- 
nids, as contrasted with 23 pages to the faunistic part. The 
author claims that it contains many details lacking in C. Fr. 
Roewer's Die Weberknechte dcr Erde (Jena, 1923, Verlag G. 
Fischer) and, offers several new interpretations of this group of 
animals, largely due to his own studies on their morphology and 
anatomy. The more important results of his investigations 
which, the author believes, he has established are : a detailed 
description of the various kinds of spines found on the body 
surface and whose function is to secrete a. thickish substance 
which, mixed with foreign particles, serves as a mechanical 
protection ; the function and discharge of the stink-glands ; ex- 
planations of the retractile chitinous tube of the male sexual 
organs, of the pseudotracheal chitinous canal and of the dif- 
ferent development of the two sorts of intestinal contents ; a 
reconstruction of the tracheal system from microscopic prepara- 
tions and a new nomenclature for the same; the modes of life 
with special mention of juvenile individuals. The account of 
the internal anatomy is based chiefly on longitudinal and trans- 
verse serial microscopic sections of Opilio paricthnis and on 
reconstructions made therefrom. Descriptions of the glands of 
the body surface, digestive, circulatory, respiratory, muscular, 
nervous and reproductive systems are given. The topics treated 
of in the chapter on modes of life are: distribution, dwelling 
places, relations to environment, food, pairing, egg-laying, 
ontogeny, phylogeny, migration, parasites and correlation be- 
tween psychic and corporeal peculiarities and the account is 
based entirely on the author's personal observations and experi- 
ments. The plates show, on large scale, a dorsal view of the 
body, a profile of the head (or of the eyes only) and a more 
highly enlarged chelicera for each of 22 species ; the text figures 
illustrate principally morphological and anatomical details. P. 


MAY. 1930 


Vol. XLI No. 5 



Gunder North American Institutions Featuring Lepidoptera XIV . 147 

Frost A Suggestion for Relaxing Small Insects 152 

Robertson Proterandry and Flight of Bees (Hymen. : Apoidea) 

Second Paper 154 

Taylor Notice on Parasitic Hymenoptera 157 

Bequaert Tsetse Flies Past and Present (Diptera : Muscoidea) . . . 158 
Crosby and Blauvelt A European Beetle Found in New York (Coleop.: 

Curculionidae) ... 164 

Entomological Literature 165 

Claassen Recent Publications on Stoneflies 172 

Obituary Stephen Alfred P'orbes . . 175 

Obituary Frank Haimbach 178 


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the cost of printing plates. Information as to the cost will be furnished in 
each case on application to the Editor. Blocks furnished or paid for by 
authors will, of course, be returned to authors, after publication, if desired. 

Stated Meetings of The American Entomological Society will be held 
at 7.30 o'clock P. M., on the fourth Thursday of each month, excepting June, 
July, August, November and December, and on the third Thursday of 
November and December. 

Communications on observations made in the course of your studies are 
solicited ; also exhibits of any specimens you consider of interest. 

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Plate XIII. 






VOL. XLI. MAY, 1930 No. 5 

North American Institutions featuring Lepidoptera. 

XIV. Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass. 

By J. D. GUNDER, Pasadena, California. 

(Plates XIII-XVI). 

The Museum of Comparative Zoology is maintained by 
Harvard University and holds first place among American 
college museums. It is not confined to zoology, as the name 
might imply, but covers the entire field of natural history. 
As the result of being planned and built to originally house 
only exhibits of scientific nature for research and college in- 
struction, its public rooms are smaller and less ornate then 
those of many of the more modern museums, but during the 
last few years, under the direction of Dr. Thomas Barbour, 
many changes have been made, so that to-day the institution 
is much more attractive to the general public than formerly. 
The new Alexander Agassiz Coral Reef Room with its beau- 
tiful models of some coral islands and its selection of fish and 
invertebrates of the characteristic fauna is of special interest. 
The mineralogical collection dates back to 1793 and is probably 
the oldest in America, while the botanical section includes the 
famous Gray Herbarium. 

The nucleus of the University's collection was Louis Agas- 
siz's private cabinet of natural history objects which was pur- 
chased for $12,000 in 1852. By 1858 the quantity of study 
material had so grown that the school made an allowance for 
its maintenance. Fortunately in the year following, the State 
of Massachusetts took an active interest in the institution and 
appropriated $100,000 for its increase. Additional large private 
subscriptions about this time made possible the start of con- 
struction on the present museum building. In 1876 the State 
relinquished all its rights to Harvard College and since that 
time the Museum has been controlled by the University, al- 
though the great increase in its collections was principally due 



to the liberality of Alexander Agassiz who expended over 
$1,000,000 for that purpose. It is rightly said that there would 
have been no Harvard Museum had it not been for Louis 
Agassiz, whose ambition and energy founded the institution, 
and for Alexander Agassiz, his son, whose successful com- 
mercial enterprises made possible its greater development. 

Louis Agassiz, 1807-73, was a native of Switzerland and 
the son of Protestant minister of Motier. He received his 
degrees of Doctor of Philosophy, and of Doctor of Medicine 
at Munich. While a professor of natural history at Neuchatel, 
he became interested in the study and classification of extinct 
fishes and early in life made an excellent European reputation 
for himself. Upon coming to United States in 1846 to fill a 
course of lectures, Dr. Agassiz decided to remain and accepted 
a professorship of geology at Harvard. That was in 1848, and 
from that time on he began his cherished plan of establishing 
at Harvard a great center of research in zoology which would 
more than compare with those he had known so well in Europe. 
Prof. Agassiz discouraged knowledge from text books and was 
wont to say, "If you study nature in books, when you go out 
of doors, you cannot find her", and that was one of the reasons 
why he desired large college collections for research. His pupils 
always had first-hand knowledge of what they were studying. 
Dr. Agassiz was principally interested in marine life and was 
America's first real student of ichthyology, making a well- 
financed trip to Brazil in 1865, and to California in 1871, espe- 
cially to collect fishes. His son, Alexander, was likewise a 
specialist on oceanic life and took up his father's work, being 
curator of the Museum from 1874 to 1885. Unfortunately 
he died at sea on the "Adriatic," bound for U. S., in 1910. 

A Department of Entomology was set aside at the Museum 
in 1867 with H. A. Hagen, the neuropterist, as curator. For 
a while later on, Mr. Samuel Henshaw, the coleopterist, held 
the position and since 1916, Mr. Nathan Banks has been in 
charge. He is considered one of the few well-known author- 
ities on Arachnicla. Everybody likes Mr. Banks, and I think 
it is because there can always be found a kindly twinkle in his 
eyes ! He asked me to work up the following notes as best I 
could, but I imagine that to leave them as they are will give 


Plate XIV. 








Plate XV. 




everyone a better insight into the entomological activities of 
the Museum and into the splendid character of this man who 
is one of America's foremost curators of insect life. 

"The 13th has always been unlucky for all spiders and bugs 
which get in my way. Perhaps it is because I was born at 
Roslyn, New York, on the 13th of April, 1868; however, be 
that as it may, Roslyn still remains a good town ! Like all boys 
of a kind, I collected and my first book was Wood's Insects 
at Home. Graduated from Cornell in 1889 and thought so 
much of the school and the studying with Prof. Comstock that 
I took the postgraduate course the year following. Was em- 
ployed in the old Division of Entomology at Washington under 
Riley from July, 1890, till September, 1892, when the Demo- 
cratic Congress (bless their free-trade on insects) reduced 
appropriations and the young men were fired, or rather kissed 
goodbye. Went home to Sea Cliff, New York, where I carried 
on my insect studies, collected and began to publish largely on 
spiders. In 1896 was again appointed to the Government's 
Division of Entomology under the orderly regime of Dr. How- 
ard with work on biblography, ticks, mites, dipterous larvae, 
etc., until 1916, when I left to come up here. In the meantime 
had built up a good private collection of Arachnids and also 
Neuroptera. Have eight children and one helps as preparator in 
the Museum. Live twenty-five miles out of Cambridge at Hol- 
liston, on a ten-acre place, where the collecting is good and I 
sometimes find new spiders in the back yard. Don't know 
which of my published articles to recommend now, can't find 
that out till after I'm dead!" 

Regarding the Museum's collections of insects, Mr. Banks 
writes : "The Museum has about 4800 glass-topped drawers, 
15x18 inches, arranged in four rooms on the second floor. 1 
These are mostly new with celotex bottoms. Our rooms aver- 
age 25x30 feet, and there is a fifth room, nearly as large, which 
houses the entomological library. The Lepidoptera portion oc- 
cupies about 1200 drawers and contains in the neighborhood of 
1000 types. The Samuel H. Scudder collection of butterflies 

1 Author's note The character and arrangement of some of these 
drawers is shown to the back of the group on Plate XIII. 


was taken out of his old cabinets and put in with the general 
collection by Mr. Henshaw before I came, otherwise I prob- 
ably would have left it separate. The micros, with material of 
Chambers, Dietz and Zeller,. the geometrids of Packard and 
Sweet, and the butterflies of Scuclder contain the bulk of the 
type material. The noctuids of Thaxter and Treat contain 
some of Grote's types. The bulk of the Jacob Doll collection 
was presented to us by Mr. Cassino and the A. Loveridge 
collection of East African butterflies was purchased by Dr. 
Barbour for the Museum and consists mostly of named material. 
Aside from the above there is a large amount of both native 
and exotic specimens which have been added throughout the 
years. In other groups we have extensive collections as fol- 
lows: Neuroptera (Hagen and Banks); Orthoptera (Scudder 
and Morse) ; Diptera (Loew, Osten Sacken, Johnson) ; Cole- 
optera (Leconte, Melsheimer, Dietz, Bowditch, Blanchard, Hay- 
ward, E. D. Harris) ; Myriopoda (Chamberlin, Attems) ; 
Arachnida (Emerson, Peckham, Banks, Bryant) and fossil 
insects (Scudder). Types are not kept separate, but certain 
collections are. A generic card index system is being made to 
include all the collections, and the boxes in each order are 
numbered for ready reference. The Myriopods, Arachnids and 
Neuroptera have already been tabulated." 

Massachusetts has produced many, many well-known ento- 
mologists in the past and today its record for numbers of good 
men remains unbroken. I wish the front plate (XIII) of this 
article could have included the portraits of W. M. Wheeler, 
of H. C. Fall, of L. W. Swett, but it is difficult to get a large 
group all together at one time for one photograph. Mr. A. P. 
Morse is curator of the Peabody Institute, at Salem, and has 
written many papers on Orthoptera. Mr. Arthur Loveridge, 
though employed in the reptile department of the Museum, is 
interested in butterflies and lived for over ten years in East 
Africa where he collected Rhopalocera and all of these are now 
in the Museum. Dr. C. T. Brues needs little introduction, 
being editor of Psyche since 1909. Dr. E. T. Learned is a 
practicing physician, specializing in Lepidoptera, particularly the 
Apantesis group. F. H. Carpenter works at the Museum under 
a Research Council fellowship, studying fossil insects and Neu- 


Plate XVI. 


roptera. C. W. Johnson is an authority on certain Diptera and 
has been for years a steady contributer to Psyche ; he is curator 
of the Boston Society of Natural History. Miss E. B. Bryant 
is permanently employed in the Entomological Department as 
an assistant and works mostly on spiders under Banks. Every- 
one knows Dr. Joseph Bequaert who specializes on Vespidae 
and Tabanidae. The Harvard Medical College is lucky to have 
him on their staff in the School of Tropical Medicine. He, as 
well as Dr. Wheeler and Dr. Brues, is now an Associate Cura- 
tor of the Entomological Department and each has a room in 
the Museum. I understand Dr. Wheeler has moved all his 
books and collections over there. 

The entomologists of the country owe a great debt of thanks 
to Samuel E. Cassino for his continual publication of the Na- 
turalist's Directory. Imagine the number of amateur, and even 
professional, entomologists, who since 1877 (53 years to date), 
have had occasion to refer to those directories ! I often wonder 
what motive there is, if any, or what brand, of self-esteem there 
can be, which prompts a minority to leave their names and 
addresses out of a directory when insertion is conveniently solic- 
ited and scot-free? Mr. Cassino makes a special study of 
Geometrid moths and is attempting to work them out by gen- 
italic classification. To date, he has made over six thousand 
slides for that purpose. His collection consists of two cabinets 
containing ninety-six drawers. Mr. Cassino was born in Salem, 
Massachusetts, January 4, 1856, and became interested in Lepi- 
doptera under the guidance of A. S. Packard in 1874, when he 
drew and made the original engravings for the "Monograph of 
Geometrids". Most of Mr. Cassino's descriptions and notes 
appear in the Lepidoptcrist. a little entomological publication 
which he personally owns. 

Andrew Gray Weeks is accumulating one of the few, really 
very large collections of exotic Lepidoptera in this country and 
to date they occupy forty-five cabinets. A good feature of the 
Weeks' collection is that everything is neatly labeled and named 
up-to-date. Some day, some museum will benefit by that col- 
lection. Mr. Weeks has described many new species and his 
two volumes, Illustrations of Diurnal Lepidoptera I'nkno-i^n to 


Science, are works of art in colored illustration. He was born 
in Boston, October 2, 1861, and graduated from Harvard Col- 
lege in '83. Since 1901, upon retiring from active business as 
head of the firm of Weeks & Potter, wholesale druggists, he has 
devoted himself to entomology and not without result. A good 
lepidopterist and a genial fellow to know. 

After much persuasion I succeeded in getting my friend, 
Dr. B. Preston Clark, to send me a photograph of himself for 
this article. That specialization pays is certainly proved by 
what Dr. Clark has accomplished with the Sphingidae and I 
believe it can be safely said that he is the world authority on 
these moths. His list of desiderata shows only a few of all the 
known species and forms. Lately in his will, Dr. Clark has 
given his collection to the Carnegie Museum at Pittsburgh and 
the major portion, some 20,000 specimens, is already housed 
there. He still retains in Boston some 3000 examples needed 
for future study. 

In the February, .1924, number of Psyche there is a very 
comprehensive history of the early entomological clubs of Mas- 
sachusetts with notes on the beginning of Psyche, which was 
given its name by Scudder. It seems unnecessary to repeat or 
to add further to Mr. J. H. Emerton's well written article. 

A Suggestion for Relaxing Small Insects. 

By S. W. FROST, The Pennsylvania State College. 

It often happens that one has occasion to relax a large num- 
ber of small insects from different localities and with data 
which must be kept intact with the specimens. In rearing leaf- 
mining insects and other small species, the writer found it un- 
desirable to kill the insects as soon as they emerged but allow 
them to obtain their full color. Under such conditions the 
insects frequently die in their rearing chambers and relaxing is 
necessary before pinning. 

A small box made after the following description has been 
found very convenient for relaxing such insects. A large 
number of these paper boxes can be placed in a single relaxing 
jar with no danger of 'confusing records. The same sort of 
paper box has been used by morphologists for imbedding 

xli, '30] 



sections in paraffin. They can lie quickly folded and prepared 
without the use of glue or paste. For general purposes a piece 
of paper 2%" x 4" and a small wooden block iy 4 " x 1/4" : V 4 " 
(Figs. 1 and 2) serve best. Place the block in the center of 
the paper as in (3) with the longest dimension of the block 

parallel with the longest side of the paper, bend the two sides 
of the paper around the edges of the bind-.. Then fold the ends 
up as in (4), making neat creases. The projecting folds arc' 
then turned back as in (5). After all the folds are turned 
back, the ends can be turned down as in (0), which completes 
the box and prevents the ends from unfolding. In using the 
boxes, labels or data can be written on the ends of the boxes. 


Proterandry and Flight of Bees (Hymen. : Apoidea). 

Second Paper. 

By CHARLES ROBERTSON, Carlinville, Illinois. 
This paper is to give details of the table in the article on the 
Proterandry and Flight of Bees, in ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 
29:341. Further observations have found the females last in 
162 cases. And the figures in the table were changed as fol- 
lows : 

Males Females 

precede follow Females Species 

Osmiinae 28.4 62.1 72.7 

Other Euceridae 10.6 60.4 

Total bees 62.1 71.2 

$ first, 9 last (109). 
Prosopis (3). 

PROSOPIS PYGMAEA $ April 20-Oct. 2, 9 May 7-Oct. 11. 
SAYI $ May 4-Aug. 26, 5 May 7-Oct. 7. 
ZIZIAE $ May 4-Sept. 28, 2 May 18-Oct. 10. 

Colletes (7). 

COLLETES AMERICANUS $ Aug. 18-Oct. 15, ? Aug. 20-Oct. 30. 
ARMATUS $ Aug. 17-Sept. 28, 9 Aug.'23-Oct. 7. 
BREVICORNIS $ May 29-June 17, $ June 7-29. 
COMPACTUS $ Aug. 26-Oct. 8, 9 Sept. 4-Oct. 21. 
EULOPHI $ May 27-Sept. 28, ? June 13-Oct. 30. 
INAEQUALIS $ March 20-May 5, 9 March 21-May 31. 
LATITARSIS $ June 13-Sept. 29, 2 June 16-Oct. 1. 

Andrenidae (16). 

ANDRENA DUNNINGII $ April 4-24, 2 April 24-June 3. 

ERYTHROGASTRA $ April 11-May 17, 2 April 12-May 


ERYTHRONII $ March 21-April 27, 2 April-2-30. 

GERANII $ May 3-27, 2 May 11 -June 19. 

PRUNI $ April 12-29, 2 April 18- June 8. 

SAYI $ April 4-May 4, 2 April 10-May 29. 

OPANDRENA CRESSONII $ March 21-May 25, 2 April 2-June 13. 

PTERANDRENA ASTERIS $ Sept. 8-Oct. 15, 9 Sept. 15-Oct. 21. 

HELIANTHI d" Aug. 27-Sept. 28, ? Sept. 3-Oct. 


KRIGIANA <S May 10-June 1, ? May 12-June 15. 

PULCHELLA <$ Aug. 15-Sept. 10, ? Aug. 17-Oct. 


RUDBECKIAE c? June 10-July 14, ? June 12-Aug. 



PTILANDRENA G. MACULATI <S April 25-May 11, ? May 1-24. 
TRACHANDRENA CRATAEGI d 1 April 26-May 22, ? April 27- 

July 1. 

FORBESII 3 March 17- April 25, ? March 31- 

June 9. 

RUGOSA c? March 21-May 18, ? March 22- 

June 1. 

Other short-tongued bees (7). 

HALICTOIDES MARGINATUS c? Aug. 27-Sept. 10, ? Aug. 31-Oct. 3. 
MACROPIS STEIRONEMATIS <$ June 12-July 7, ? June 16-July 18. 
PARANOMIA NORTONII <S June 26-Aug. 2, ? July 3-Sept. 9. 

PSEUDOPANURGUS coMPOsiTARUM <$ .Aug. 27-Oct. 4, $ Sept. 6- 

Oct. 29. 

LABROSIFORMIS c? Aug. 3-Sept. 8, ? Aug. 15- 
Sept. 25. 

LABROSUS c? Aug. 1-30, $ Aug. 3-Sept. 28. 
RUGOSUS <? July 29- Aug. 22, ? Aug. 2-Oct. 1. 

Osmiinae (10). 

ALCIDAMEA SIMPLEX $ May 3-June 15, $ May 8- July 26 
CENTROSMIA BUCEPHALA d April 11-29, 5 April 19-May 28. 
CERATOSMIA LIGNARIA <S March 21-May 4, ? April 11-June 1. 
MONILOSMIA CANADENSIS c? May 7-21, ? May 11- June 11. 
NEOTRYPETES TRUNCATUS <$ May 28-Sept. 7, ? June 6-Oct. 18. 
OSMIA ATRIVENTRIS $ March 25-June 3, $ April 14-June 20. 

COLLINSIAE c? March 25-May 9, $ April 21-June 14. 

CORDATA 3 May 3-25, $ May 7- June 17. 

ILLINOENSIS $ April 25-May 14, $ April 30-May 25 

PUMILA c? March 23-May 18, ? March 25-June' 24. 

Megachilinae ( 10) . 

ANTHEMOIS CENTUNCULARIS d 1 May 11-Aug. 1, ? May 12- Sept. 

CHELOSTOMOIDES RUFIMANUS c? June 10-July 19, 9 June 17- 

July 24. 

CYPHOPYGA MONTIVAGA <$ May 28- Aug. 6, ? May 31-Aug. 24. 
MEGACHILE ADDENDA d June 6-July 5, ? June 15-|uly 13. 

BREVIS <? May 15-Oct' 11, ? May 21-Oct. 22. 

GENEROSA C? June 12-Aug. 12, ? July 4-Sept. 28. 

SEXDENTATA c? June 14-Aug. 18, $ June 16-Sept. 



OLIGOTROPUS CAMPANULAE <$ June 25-Aug. 22, ? July 5-Sept. 


SAYAPIS PUGNATA c? June 5- July 14, 5 June 7- Aug. 3. 
SAYI <$ July 3-Aug. 8, ? July 6-Oct. 5. 

Coelioxys (4). 

COELIOXYS GERMANA c? June 25-Aug. 14, 5 July 3-Oct. 3. 
MODESTA 3 June 25-July 16, 5 July 10-Aug. 23. 
OCTODENTATA 3 May 11-Oct. 9, ? May 29-Oct. 19. 
TEXAN A c? June 25-Aug. 1, ? July 4- Aug. 14. 

Stelididae (3). 

ANTHIDIUM PSORALEAE <$ June 6-July 9, ? June 19- July 22. 
MICROSTELIS LATERALIS <$ May 9-Juiie 14, ? May 19-June 20. 
STELIDIUM TRYPETINUM <$ June 6-Sept. 3, ? July 7-Oct. 18. 

Nomadidae (11). 

CENTRIAS AMERICANUS c? April 29-June 21, ? May 4-July 16. 
GNATHIAS CUNEATUS c? March 21-May 5, ? April 7-June 11. 
OVATUS c? April 4-May 18, ? April 17- June 8. 

HEMINOMADA OBLITERATA c? April 24-May 10, $ April 25-May 

HOLONOMADA SUPERBA <^ April 20-May 28, ? May 1-June 24. 

VINCTA <? Aug. 27-Sept. 26, $ Sept. 3-Oct. 2. 
NOMADA DENTICULATA c? April 9-May 11, ? April 21-June 13. 
ILLINOENSIS d 1 April 4-May 11, ? April 17-June 1. 
SAYI <? March 26-May 10, $ April 9- June 9. 
PnoR INTEGER c? April 10-May 5, $ April 17- May 24. 
XANTHIDIUM LUTEOLUM <S April 8-25, ? April 9-May 12. 

Epeolidae and Melectidae (11). 

BOMBOMELECTA THORACiCA <S April 18-May 2, ? April 27- 
May 28. 

EPEOLUS AUTUMN ALIS d 1 Aug. 29-Sept. 20, ? Sept. 8-Oct. 13. 
BIFASCIATUS c? June 12-Sept. 6, ? June 26-Oct. 3. 
INTERRUPTUS c? May 29-June 16, ? June 6-19. 

TRIEPEOLUS CONCAVUS c? June 26-Sept. 22, $ July 4-Sept. 28. 
CONCOLOR c? July 3-Sept. 3, ? July 9-Sept. 19. 
CRESSONII <$ July 13-Sept. 29, $ July 29-Oct. 11. 
DONATUS c? Aug. 7-Sept. 29, ? Aug. 23- Oct. 11. 
LUNATUS c? July 12- Aug. 16, ? July 24-Sept. 3. 
PECTORALIS 5 1 Aug. 30-Sept. 29, ? Sept. 6-Oct. 21. 
SIMPLEX c? July 13-Aug. 7, ? July 16-Sept. 4. 


Tetralonia (4). 

TETRALONIA BELFRAGEI d 1 April 8-May 18, ? April 14- June 4. 
DILECTA <S April 18-June 20, ? April 20- July 4. 
DUBITATA c? April 13-28, $ April 17-May 2. 
ROSAE <$ May 18-June 14, ? May 21 -June 25. 

Other Euceridae (18). 

ANTHEDON COMPTA <3 July 10- Aug. 26, ? July 15-Aug. 28. 
CEMOLOBUS IPOMOEAE c? July 13-Aug. 30, $ July 15-Sept. 2. 
EPIMELISSODES OBLIQUA d 1 June 26-Sept. 28, ? July 4-Oct. 1. 
FLORILEGUS CONDIGNUS cT July 1-Aug. 23, July 5-Sept. 8. 
MELLISSODES AGILIS $ June 14-Oct. 5, 9 July 11-Oct. 16 

AUTUMNALIS <3 Aug. 21-Oct. 6, ? Aug. 26-Oct. 22. 

BIMACULATA c? June 25-Aug. 30, ? July 2-Sept. 24. 

CNICI c? July 21-Sept. 9, ? Aug. 4-Sept. 21. 

COLORADENSIS c? July 10-Sept. 21, ? Aug. 5-Oct. 5. 

COMPTOIDES <S July 12-Aug. 26, 9 July 13-Sept. 4. 

COREOPSIS <$ June 13-29, ? June 14-July 8. 

NIVEA c? Aug. 14-Sept. 24, ? Aug. 31-Oct. 21. 

SIMILLIMA c? Aug. 8-Sept. 25, ? Aug. 17-Oct 21. 

VARIABILIS c? June 20-Aug. 3, ? July 3-Aug. 20. 

VERNONIANA c? July 10-Sept. 20, 2 July 25-Sept. 24. 

VERNONIAE c? July 27-Sept. 8, ? Aug. 4-Sept. 10. 
PEPONAPIS PRUINOSA d 1 July 3-Sept. 14, $ July 15-Sept. 29. 

XENOGLOSSA STRENUAC? July 11-Sept. 21, ? July 29-Sept. 28. 

Other long-tongued bees (5). 

ANTHEMOESSA ABRUPTA <S May 7-June 26, $ May 10-July 29. 
ANTHOPHORA URSINA c? April 8-May 28, ? April 18-June 22. 
EMPHOR BOMBIFORMIS <$ July 21-Sept. 2, ? July 29-Sept. 11. 
MELITOMA TAUREA <$ June 24-Sept. 26, $ June 27-Oct. 7. 
XYLOCOPA VIRGINICA c? May 5-June 24, ? June 1-July 5. 

Notice on Parasitic Hymenoptera. 

Compilation of a list and bibliography of the parasitic H\- 
mcnoptera of North America has been started. Reprints, citing 
parasites by name past and future will be appreciated. R. 
L. TAYLOR, Bar Harbor, Maine. 


Tsetse Flies Past and Present (Diptera: Muscoidea). 

By J. BEQUAERT, Harvard University Medical School, 
Boston, Massachusetts 

In this age of memorial celebrations and this year's crop of 
such "post-mortems" promises to be quite heavy entomologists 
might well stop and consider ways and means of commemorat- 
ing the Centennial of the Tsetse-Fly. For the year 1830 wit- 
nessed the birth in entomological science of the genus Glossina 
(described by Wiedemann) as well as that of its most notorious 
member, G. pal palls (described by Robineau-Desvoidy). 

As to the festivities most appropriate to the occasion, my 
entomological friends would probably differ as widely as any 
committee on centennials. The taxonomists, who might still be 
the majority, would, I suppose, insist upon erecting memorials 
at the type-localities of the several species of Glossina ; but, be- 
ing unable to agree as to just how many of their species are 
"valid," they could hardly hope to carry the meeting. The 
anatomists, the physiologists, the students of animal behavior 
and ecology, the protozoologists, and even some stray botanists 
would all want to have a voice in the matter. As the meetings 
of the committee would be dragging on like a Peace or Dis- 
armament Conference the entomologists would discover to 
their dismay that a number of "outsiders" had wormed their 
way in, or perhaps I should say, had crashed the gates; these 
outsiders being, of course, veterinarians, medical men, and even 
a sprinkling of game wardens and colonial politicians. The din 
of the discussion would now reach a high pitch, and shortly 
afterwards the committee would adjourn sine die. 

I hope the reader will pardon the foregoing fantasy, which, 
moreover, has a serious purpose. The point I want to make is 
that, in the course of a century, the Glossina has grown from 
a mere curiosity in the cabinet of two taxonomic entomologists 
to a problem of first magnitude in colonial politics. Measured 
by the standards in vogue in the Western Hemisphere, the 
tsetse-flies have been highly "successful," for they have cer- 
tainly succeeded in keeping their names in the public prints. 


Only a few months ago they even invaded the daily news- 
papers, when a Middle-\\'este'rn medical "authority" made the 
startling discovery that the tsetse-fly was a deadly menace to 
American Civilization. I hasten to dispel any misgivings that 
might he abroad in the matter : there is not the faintest prob- 
ability that the tsetse will ever depopulate North America or 
even check the overcrowding of our happy land. 

To simply compile a bibliography of all the writings dealing 
directly or indirectly with the tsetse would take weeks of monk- 
ish labor. With the many diverse ramifications of the subject, 
such a list would easily include between 1,500 and 2,000 titles. 
Few could, of course, ever hope to have the time or opportunity 
to consult all these publications in the original a good illustra- 
tion of the appalling problem with which the working entomolo- 
gist is now daily confronted. Luckily for the student of tsetse- 
flies, an unusually energetic Belgian, my friend Mr. Emile 
Hegh, of the Belgian Colonial Office, has appointed himself the 
official chronicler of all doings in Glossinology. In the Bulletin 
of the Brooklyn Entomological Society for June 1923, I re- 
viewed a pamphlet on Glossina by Mr. Hegh and Major Austen, 
published in 1922. Mr. Hegh has since been working at a much 
more ambitious project, namely that of reproducing in full, but 
in a French translation, every important bit of information pub- 
lished on the tsetses, arranging these extracts under a few gen- 
eral headings. The first volume of this imposing undertaking 
was issued a short time ago. 1 I shall use it as a basis for a brief 
review of our present knowledge of the genus Glossina. 

To use a French colloquialism, the early history of tsetse-flies 
loses itself in the night of time. That indefatigable student of 
fossil insects, Professor Cockerell, has described from the Mio- 
cene shales of Colorado four apparently quite distinct species of 
flies, which unmistakably belong to the genus Glossina. A 
glance at the two fine photographs in Mr. llegh's book ( Figs. 

1 Les Tse-Tses. Tome Premier. Generalities. Anatomic. '"ma- 

ti(|iie. Reproduction, (iites a Pupes. Knnemis Predateurs et Para:-itcs. 
By Emile Hegh. (Brussels, 1929). One volume, large octavo, of 
xiv-f-742 pp., with 15 color plates and 327 text figures. 


9 and 10) will convince the most skeptical. In structure these 
extinct species are surprisingly like the living forms. Since the 
tsetses are among the most specialized of the higher Diptera, 
well worthy to form a family of their own, it is evident that 
the Miocene forms must have had a long history back of them. 
It is safe to assume that their pedigree will eventually be traced 
at least to the Cretaceous, if not to the Middle Mesozoic. Not 
the least astonishing feature of some of the Miocene Glossinae 
is their large size. With a wing length of 16 mm. and a probos- 
cis of 6.5 mm., they surpass anything now alive. In the largest 
living species, G. fusca and G. nigrofusca, the wing reaches 
only 12 to 13 mm. and the proboscis 4 to 5.3 mm. It would 
seem that the Glossinae are now on the wane. Perhaps the 
Tertiary Epoch should be called the "Age of Tsetses" as well 
as that of Mammals. 

The history of Glossinology makes fascinating and instructive 
reading. Happily Mr. Hegh devotes to it over 100 pages of his 
Introduction (pp. 19-65) and of his chapter on Taxonomy (pp. 
167-229). Moreover, for most topics the author uses the his- 
torical method of presentation, which is always captivating. In 
some respects he has given us an epitome of the progress of 
Entomology during the past century. At any rate, his account 
reflects unusually well the rapid evolution of our Science, from 
the narrow attitude of the purely descriptive taxonomist, to. the 
broader outlook of the general biologist, and the latter-day 
emphasis on the relations of insects to human welfare. The be- 
ginnings of our Science were slow and awkward. At- first ento- 
mologists were quite content to describe the stray tsetses 
brought home by travelers. Wiedemann established his genus 
Glossina without comments. Robineau-Desvoidy boldly added 
to his description of G. palpalis the remark that the proboscis 
was "innocuous," by which he evidently meant that the fly did 
not suck blood. Macquart embroidered this opinion. "It is 
probable," he says, "that this fly does not live on animal blood 
like the stable flies, but on the nectar of flowers. The two 
setae contained in the proboscis and forming the sucking appa- 
ratus are so fine that one can hardly conceive how they might 


be able to pierce the skin ; the weakness of this organ seems to 
be further shown by the modification of the palpi, which are 
lengthened and hollowed out into a sheath for the proboscis." 
This quotation might be pondered by those biologists who are 
prone to deduct the probable habits of an insect from some 
structural peculiarity. Indeed the proboscis of the tsetse-flies 
seems eminently adapted to the sucking of nectar; yet none 
of these flies has ever been stalked sipping a flower. Moreover, 
since there are horse-flies the female of which indifferently bites 
animals or sucks nectar, I for one would not be surprised if 
eventually some species of Glossina were observed visiting 

We shall not be delayed long by the purely taxonomic side 
of the tsetse problem. For one thing specialists disagree as to 
just how many Glossimic should be regarded as valid species. 
Mr. Hegh has cut this Gordian knot by giving in succession 
Major Austen's classification, which includes 17 species, and 
that sponsored by Professor Newstead, who recognizes 20. 
Moreover, one additional species, G. ue^'stcadi Austen, has 
been added within the past few months, since the publication of 
Mr. Hegh's book. One point of general interest is that, while 
the specific characters of the females are frequently obscure or 
unreliable, the external genitalia, or terminalia, of the males 
present very striking differences among the several species. 

The area occupied nowadays by Glossina lies strictly within 
the limits of what the old-fashioned zoogeographers call the 
"Ethiopian Region,"- viz., continental Africa south of the 
Tropic of Cancer and the extreme southwestern corner of 
Arabia. The occurrence of one species, G. tacliinoulcs. in south- 
western Arabia is especially noteworthy. Each species occurs 
over only part of the general area of the genus. \Yhile some 
of the species are apparently rare or at any rate restricted to 
a small area, the two most common ones are abundant and very 
widely distributed, although they seem to exclude each other. 
G. palpalis covers the Guinean or West African Subregion, be- 
yond which it extends but little along the wooded banks of the 
Larger rivers. (/". inorsitans, on the other hand, inhabits (to- 


gather with its race submorsitans) much of the Sudanese and 
East-and-South African Subregion, entering only the grasslands 
at the outer edges of the West African Subregion. Obviously 
the distribution of these two flies is at present regulated by 
ecological factors, even though such factors are insufficient to 
account for the distribution of the genus Glossina as a whole. 
Furthermore, G. inorsitans is clearly on the decline: within 
historic times it has receded from much of the territory it once 
covered in South Africa. It is no longer found, for instance, 
at its type locality, where it was discovered in 1846 by Oswell 
and Vardon. The rapid destruction during the nineteenth cen- 
tury of the vast herds of game that once roamed over South 
Africa, undoubtedly had much to do with the regression of this 

Some of the adventurous hunters and explorers of the first 
half of the nineteenth century have given us the first reliable 
accounts of the habits of Glossina. The word "tsetse" was 
introduced into the English language by R. Gordon Gumming 
(1850), in his Five Years of a Hunter's Life in the Far Interior 
of South Africa; but David Livingstone (1857) focussed the 
attention of the scientific world upon the ravages of the fly. 
The origin and meaning of the word "tsetse" has released a 
flood of printer's ink, although most of these writings belong in 
the realm of folklore or even of biblical exegesis. Originally 
the word was applied to the South African G. morsitans. It 
has often been stated that certain native tribes used it as an 
imitation, or onomatopoeia, of the buzzing noise the fly makes 
when in flight. In all the many years of my dealings with va- 
rious species of Glossina in the field, I have failed to notice any 
buzzing or other noise they might make while flying. As a mat- 
ter of fact, the silent manner in which they alight and leave 
their victim is one of the characteristics of these insects. All 
tsetses, however, make at times a high, shrill singing noise, 
when resting, before or after feeding, especially when sunning 
themselves. It is quite possible that, where G. morsitans is very 
abundant, this singing of the resting flies might have been attrib- 
uted to the many flying individuals. 


The early South African, observers reported that G. m or si- 
tans was not uniformly distributed, but that it swarmed in 
certain well-defined districts so-called "fly-belts"- while it was 
practically absent from the intervening areas. This peculiarity 
has led to much speculation and incidentally to a protracted 
discussion between live-stock breeders and sportsmen. The 
many field studies of the bionomics of tsetses during the past 
twenty-five years tend to show that the local distribution of 
these insects is regulated by a number of factors of about equal 
importance. Only two of these will be briefly touched upon 

Undoubtedly every species of Glossina prefers a particular 
type of country because of the fly's peculiar requirements for 
shade and moisture, either as adult or in the pupal stage. Per- 
haps the majority of the species can get along with a low rela- 
tive humidity and a prolonged dry season and will consequently 
be found in regions covered with one of the many types of open 
vegetation, which the botanists include under the general term 
"savannas." This group comprises, among others, G. morsi- 
tans, G. pallidipes and G. tachinoidcs. As a rule, though, these 
species avoid pure grassland, but prefer thickets of dense bush, 
wooded savanna, or parkland. The most xerophilous, or "bone- 
dry," of all is G. loiif/ipcnnis, which frequents thorny bush in 
some of the semi-desert parts of Northeastern Africa. On the 
other hand, G. pal pal is, G. palliccra, G. fusca, G. nigrofusca 
and a few others, thrive best in the moist rain forest country, 
where the rainfall is evenly distributed over the year. G'. pal- 
palis, the species carrying African Sleeping Sickness in man, is 
more hygrophilous than the others, being found along or close 
to water that is edged in by a dense growth of trees and bushes. 
The West African G. palliccra, though likewise a rain forest fly, 
roams much farther afield. There have also been attempts at 
correlating certain species of tsetse with definite species of 
plants, but it is doubtful whether such associations are of more 
than very local significance. At 4,000 feet above sea-level, all 
tsetse-flies become very scarce and I know of no reliable record 
of their occurrence at 5,000 feet or higher. 


Ecological conditions alone are, however, inadequate to ac- 
count for the local abundance or scarcity of tsetses. The feed- 
ing habits are at least equally important. In addition to shelter 
the Hies need food, and, being strictly hematophagous, they will 
thrive best where their favorite animal hosts are most plentiful. 
In the case of G. pa! pal is, there is every indication that the flies 
travel away from their breeding places to points where people 
gather along the shaded banks of rivers, where animals come to 
drink, or where crocodiles or other favorite hosts are partic- 
ularly numerous. For G. uiorsifans, the connection between the 
tly-belts and the game seems well demonstrated by the regres- 
sion of this species from much of the country it formerly occu- 
pied south of the Limpopo River, by its fluctuations in areas 
swept by rinderpest about 1897, and by it's disappearance from 
some parts of Katanga since the settlement of the country by 
whites some fifteen years ago. 

(To be continued) 

A European Beetle Found in New York (Coleop.: 


On December 11, 1929. we received five living specimens of 
Clconus pificr Scopoli from Branchpoint, New York, where they 
had been found among dried beans in storage. The specimens 
were determined by L. L. Buchanan. In February we visited 
the farm from which the weevils came and found more speci- 
mens in bags of beans stored in an unheated room of the farm 
house. The farmer stated that in hand-picking his crop of 
beans he had found more than a hundred of the beetles and had 
thrown them into the fire. Their association with the beans 
would seem to be purely accidental. Evidently the beetles had 
sought hibernating shelter in the piles of bean vines in the field 
and were brought into the barn with the crop. Many of them 

iped injury when the beans were threshed and being of 
about the same size and shape as the beans passed through the 
fanning mill with the grain. 

("Icmnis pi(/cr is reported to be a pest of sugar beets in 
Central Europe. Its other foods are said to be Carduus and 
Cirsiuui. C. R. CROSBY AND W. E. BLAUVELT, Cornell Uni- 
versity, Ithaca, New York. 


Entomological Literature 


Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, 
however, whether relating to American or exotic species will be recorded. 

The numbers within brackets [ ] refer to the journals, as numbered 
in the list of Periodicals and Serials published in the January and June 
numbers (or which may be secured from the publisher of Entomological 
News for lOc), in which the paper appeared. The number of, or annual 
volume, and in some cases the part, heft, &c. the latter within ( ) 
follows; then the pagination follows the colon : 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their 
first installments. 

*Papers containing new forms or names have an * preceding the 
author's name. 

(S) Papers pertaining exclusively to neotropical species, and not so 
indicated in the title, have the symbol (S) at the end of the title of 
the paper. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Rec- 
ord, Office of Experiment Stations. Washington. Also Review of Applied 
Entomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

TTf^Note the change in the method o/ citing the bibliographical refer- 
ences, as explained above. 

Papers published in the Entomological News are not listed. 

GENERAL. Belfrage, G. W. Pioneer scientist lies in 
unnamed grave. By S. W. Geiser. [Dallas Morning- News] 
Feb. 23, 1930, ill. Campos, F. Invertebrados del Ecuador. 
Nota entomologica sobre el genero Pepsis. [Rev. Col. Nac. 
V. Rocaf.] XI (38-39) : 11-14. Carter, W. Record of an in- 
sect migration in the Arkansas Valley, Colorado. [55] 6: 
133-134. Coquillett, D. W. Biographical note by L. O. 
Howard. [Diet. Am. Biog.] Vol. 4. Cresson, E. T. Bio- 
graphical note by L. O. Howard. [Diet. Am. Biog.] Vol. 4. 
Forbes, S. A. Obituary. A tribute. [68] 71 : 378-381. Fulda, 
O. Sammelreise quer durch Mexiko. [20] 45: 5. Gazulla 
& Ruiz. Los insectos de la Hacienda de "Las Mercede>". 
[44] 32: 288-305, ill. Headlee, T. J. Some tendencies in 
modern economic entomological research. [12] 23: 28-38. 
Hubbs, C. L. Scientific names in zoology. [68] 71 : 317-319. 
Jeffrey, E. C. Drosophila once more. [68] 71 : 315-317. Jul- 
lien, J. Obituary. By A. Pictet. [41] 14: 45-62, ill. Martin, 
C. J. Obituary notice. [19] 25:39. McColloch, J. W.- 
Obituary notice. [7] 23:195-196. Musgrave, A. Zoological 
nomenclature: Acarine or insect? [31] 125:414. Penecke, 
K. A. Ein mittel zur entfernung des erdigen ueberzuges 
von der oberflache von kafern. [Col. Centralblatt] 4:85-86. 
Porter, C. E. Entomologia Chilena. Primera lista de in- 
sectos de Panimavida. [44] 32: 221-225. Reverdin, J. L.- 
Obituary. By A. Pictet. [41] 14: 63-88, ill. Seitz, A. Herrn 


Prof. Dr. Adalbert Seitz zum siebzigsten geburtstage. [18] 
23 : 497-500, ill. de la Torre-Bueno, J. R. The use of Para- 
dichlorbenzene in the insect collection. [19] 25:27. de la 
Torre-Bueno, J. R. The function of a description. [19] 25: 



Phenotypical variation in body and cell size of Drosophila 
melanogaster. [92] 58:85-103, ill. Alpatov, W. W. Growth 
of larvae in wild Drosophila melanogaster and its mutant 
vestigial. [42] 56:63-71, ill. Baier, L. J. Contribution to 
the physiology of the stridulation and hearing of insects. 
[89] 47: 151-248, ill. Beling, I. Ueber missgebildete flieg- 
enpuppen. [34] 87: 171-175, ill. de Boissezon, P. Sur 1'his- 
tophysiologie de 1'intestin de la larve de Cutex pipiens. Sur 
1'histologie et 1'histophysiologie de 1'intestin de Culex pip- 
iens (Imago) et en particulier sur la digestion du sang. 
[77] 93:567-570. Cousin, G. La diapause de Lucilia seri- 
cata. [69] 190:651-653. Crampton, G. C. The head struc- 
tures of the orthopteron Stenopelmatus A contribution to 
the study of the external anatomy of Stenopelmatus. [55] 
6:97-110, ill. Crowell, M. F. The tracheal system of the 
mature larva of Pyrausta nubilalis. [5] 36:332-357, ill. 
Friederichs, H. F. Die fazettenaugen der Lepidopteren. 
[18] 23: 491-496, ill. v. Frisch, K. Versuche iiber den ge- 
schmackssin der Rienen. [88] 18:169-174. Prison, T. H.- 
Observations on the behavior of bumblebees (Bremus) : the 
orientation flight. |4] 62:49-54. Head, H. W. Sex attrac- 
tion in Lepidoptera. [9] 63:39-40. Hecht, O. Die hautre- 
aktionen auf insektenstiche als allergische erscheinungen. 
[34] 87:94-109, 145-157, 231-256, ill. Heymons & Lenger- 
ken. Studien iiber die lebenserscheinungen der Silphini. 
[46] 17: 262-274, ill. Isely & Schwardt. The tracheal sys- 
tem of the larva of Lissorhoptrus simplex. [7] 23: 149-152, 
ill. Janisch, E. Experimentelle untersuchungen iiber die 
\virkung der umxveltfaktoren auf insekten. I. Die massen- 
vermehrung der baumwolleule Prodenia littoralis in Aegvp- 
ten. [46 1 17: 339-416, ill. Jeffrey, E. C. The present status 
of Drosophila melanogaster. [31] 125:411. Jones, R. M. 
Some effects of temperature and humidity as factors in the 
biology of the bedbug (Cimex lectularius). [7] 23: 105-119, 
ill. Lienhart & Remy. Les derniers stigmates abdominaux 
des larves primaires des Sitaris (Meloidae). |77] 93:606- 
608, ill. Moody, D. L. The morphology of the repugnatory 
glands of Anasa tristis. [7] 23 : 81-99, ill. Morgan, T. H.- 
The apparent inheritance of an acquired character and its 


explanation. [90] 64:97-114. Oka, H. Untersuchungen 
iiber die speicheldruse der libellen. |46] 17: 275-301, ill. Rip- 
ley & Hepburn. Olfactory and visual reactions of the natal 
fruit-fly, Pterandrus rosa, as applied to control. [So. African 
Jour. Sci.] 26:449-458. Steiner, P. Studien an Panorpa 
communis. I. Zur biologic, morphologic- und postcmbryon- 
alen entwicklung des kopfeskeletts. [46] 17:1-67, ill. Stern, 
C. Ueber reduktionstypen der heterochromosomen von 
Drosophila melanogaster. [97] 49: 718-735, ill. Thomas, M. 
Discernement ou imagination? Instinct ou ... 
[Lambillionea] 30:31-36. Volker, U. Ueber artkreuzun- 
gen von Noktuiden und Geometriden. [18] 23:483-488, ill. 
Weyrauch, W. K. Untersuchungen und gedanken zur lich- 
torientierung von Arthropoden. [89] 47:291-328, ill. 


V. On some centipedes and millipedes from Utah and Ari- 
zona. [55] 6: 111-121, ill. *Kendall, J. Descriptions of four 
new forms of Eriophyes. [5] 36: 296-312, ill. *Porter, C. E. 
Cecidiologia chilena. Sobre una Zoocecidia del tilo. [44] 
32:314-315, ill. 


-A classification of the Psocidae. [5] 36:321-325. Ide, F. 
P. The nymph of the mayfly genus Cinygma. [4] 62:42- 
45, ill. Lestage, J. A. Contribution a 1'etude des larves dc-^ 
Ephemeropteres. VI Les larves dites fouissensc^. Le re- 
gime des larves. Les larves et les poissons. [33] 70: 79-S'i. 
*McDunnough, J. The Ephemeroptera of the north shore 
of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. [4] 62 : 54-62, ill. *Navas, R. 
P. L. Insecta nova. (S). [Mem. Pont. Accad. Sci., Roma] 
12: 15-32, ill. *Navas, R. P. L. Insectos del museo de 
Paris. (S). [Broteria] 26:5-24, ill. *Reed, E. P. Sobre 
Notiothauma reedi. (S). [44] 32:310-313, ill. Rosewall, O. 
W. The biology of the book-louse, Troctes divinatoria. [7] 
23:192-194, ill/ Wheeler, W. M. Is Necrophylus arenarius 
the larva of Pterocrocr storeyi. [5] 36:313-320. 

ORTHOPTERA. Beall, G. Observations on tlu- ant 
cricket. Mynnecophila oregouensis. |l'n>. Knt. Soc. llrit. 
Col.] 1929:44-46. Buckell, E. R. The Dermaptera of Can- 
ada. [Pro. Ent. Soc. Brit. Col.] 1929:9-23. da Costa Lima, 
A. Sobre dois mantideos pouco coiihecido^. (S). | Suppl. 
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz | 1929:295-296, ill. Griddle, N.- 
Life-history of the cow grasshopper ( Chrysoehraon abdomi- 
nalis) in Manitoba. [4] 62: 25-28, ill. Rehn, J. A. G. Xt-w 
or little known neotropical Blattidae. [1] 50 : 19-71, ill. 


HEMIPTERA. *Drake, C. J. Some Tingitidae from 
Brazil. [19] 25:25-26. Fletcher, R. K. A study of the in- 
sect fauna of Brazos County, Texas, with special reference 
to the Cicadellidae. [7] 23:33-54, ill. Glendenning, R.- 
Further additions to the list of aphids of British Columbia. 
[Pro. Ent. Soc. Brit. Col.] 1929: 54-57. *Hungerford, H. B. 
Concerning Velia inveruglas and related forms. (Velii- 
dae). (S). [7] 23: 120-124, ill. *Knight, H. H. New species 
of Pseudopsallus with an allied new genus described (Miri- 
dae). [19] 25:1-8. *Lawson, P. B. Two new Alconeura 
(Cicadellidae) with notes on other species. [19] 25:44-46. 
*Lawson, P. B. Three new leafhoppers from the south- 
west (Cicadellidae). [55] 6: 135-138. *Lawson, P. B. Some 
new Dikraneura (Cicadellidae) with notes on other species. 
[4] 62: 35-42, ill. *Morrison, H. An interesting new genus 
of Iceryine coccid. (S). [95] 43: 17-20, ill. Myers, J. G.- 
Observations on the biology of two remarkable cixiid plant- 
hoppers (Homoptera) from Cuba. [5] 36: 283-292. Prell, 
H. On the nomenclature for the broods of periodical in- 
sects. [7] 23:27-32. Schrader, F. Observations on the 
biology of Protortonia primitiva (Coccidae). [7] 23:126- 
132, ill. de la Torre-Bueno, J. R. Records of Anthocoridae, 
particularly from New York. [19] 25: 11-20. *Usinger, R. 
L. Two new species of Vanduzeeina from California (Scu- 
telleridae). [55] 6: 131-133. Venables, E. P. Observations 
on the woolly aphis of the apple. [Pro. Ent. Soc. Brit. Col.] 
1929: 28-33. Walley, G. S. Note on the validity of Corixa 
(1762) (Corixidae). [19] 25:49. 

LEPIDOPTERA. Balduf, W. V. The cycles and hab- 
its of Phlyctaenia tertialis (Pyralidae). [10] 32:31-36. Bell, 
E. L. Notes on Ancyloxypha nitedula. (S). [19] 25:48-49. 
Bell, E. L. Copaeodes minima from Florida. [19] 25:8. 
Bouvier, E. L. Quelques observations sur les Papillons 
saturnioides de la famille des Ceratocampides. [69] 190: 
552-555. *Braun, A. F. Notes on new species of Micro- 
lepidoptera from the Mineral Springs region of Adams 
County, Ohio. [1] 56: 17pp. Breakey, E. P. Contribution 
to a knowledge of the spindle worm, Achatodes zeae. (Noc- 
tuidae). [7] 23: 175-191. Brower, A. E. Catocala junctura 
in the Ozark region. [19] 25: 36-38, ill. Campbell & Duran. 
-The egg of Laphygma exigua. [10] 32:48, ill. Cockerell, 
T. D. A. Variation in lepidoptera. [19] 25:9-10. *Doudo- 
roff, M. A new aberration of Euchloe ausonides. [55J 6: 
143, ill. Downes, W. The cherry fruit worm (Grapholitha 
packardi). [Pro. Ent. Soc. Brit. Col.] 1929:39-43, ill. *Hol- 


land, W. J. New species and vnrietu Xorth American 

butterflies. [3] 19: 155-160. Holland, W. J.- \ T otes on some 
American butterflies, mainly relating to their classification 
and nomenclature. Part I. Papilionidae, Pieridae. Xympha- 
liclae (Danainae). [3] 19: 185-204, cont. The Macrolepidop- 
tera of the World. Vol. IX. Fauna Americana. Part 208. 
Just published beginning the family Saturnidae. By M. 
Draudt. Nuss, K. Ein ausflug in die umgebung New York. 
[14] 43:302. *Ragonot, M. Aberrations de Lepidopteres. 
(S). [Lambillionea] 30: 18-19, cont. Schultz, V. Was sind 
Androkonien? [18] 23:512. Seitz, A. Wir wollen klar 
sehen. (S). [17] 47:7-8, cont. Verity, R.- -Notes on the re- 
lationship between the Melitaeidi and particularly between 
those of the athalia group. [21] 42:29-31, cont. 

DIPTERA. Aldrich, J. M. Notes on synonymy of Dip- 
tera, No. 4. [10] 32:25-28. * Alexander, C. P. The genus 
Sigmatomera with observations <m the biology by Ray- 
mond C. Shannon. (S). [59] 5, (B) : 155-162, ill. *Alexander, 
C. P. New or little-known species of the genus Tipula 
from Chile (Tipulidae). [44] 32:276-286, ill. Campos, F.- 
Existe la niosca del Mediterraneo en el Ecuador? | Rev. 
Col. Nac. V. Rocaf.] NI (38-39) : 15-18. Campos, F. Caso 
raro de parasitismo de la mosca azul (Dermatobia cyani- 
ventris) en las vecindades rectal es de un raton. [Rev. Col. 
Nac. V. Rocaf.] XI (36-37) : 79-80. Campos, F. Un am. 
a caza de criaderos de mosquitos por los pantanos de Guaya- 
quil y Alrededores. (S). [Rev. Col. Nac. V. Rocaf.] XI ( 
37) : 17-62. da Costa Lima, A. Sobre alguns anophelineos 
encontrados no Brasil. [Suppl. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz] 
1929:275-293. da Costa Lima, A. Sobre algumas espe< 
de Mansonia encontradas no Brasil. [Suppl. Mem. Inst. ( >^- 
waldo Cruz] 1 929 : 297-300, ill. :|: Curran, C. H.- Xew sp< 
of Eristalinae with notes ('Syrphidae). Xe\v Syrphidae from 
Central America and the West Indies. (S). [40 \ 411:27pp; 
416: llpp. *Curran, C. H. -Xew species of Volucellinae 
from America (Syrphidae). New l)i]>tera from Xorth and 
Central America. [40] 413: 23pp.. ill.; 415: 16pp., ill. Drake 
& Jones. The pigeon 11 v and pigeon malaria in Iowa. 
[Iowa State Coll. Jour. Sci.| 4:253-261, ill. *Engel, E. O. 

Die ausbeute cler deutschen Cliaco-Expedition l ( ;25-i 
Asilidae. (S). [56] 8:457-474, ill. *Falcoz, L.--Dip 
pupipares du museum national d'histoire nalurelle de I'ari^. 
(S). [59] 5, (B) : 27-54, ill. -Ferris, G. F. Some new world 
Hippoboscidae (Pupipara) [4] ' 62 : 62-70, ill. *Fluke, C. L. 

High-altitude Syrphidae with descriptions of new species. 


[7] 23:133-144, ill. Hearle, E. A remarkable simuliid 
pupa. Notes on Simulium virgatum in British Columbia. 
[Pro. Ent. Soc. Brit. Col.] 1929:48-54, ill. *Johnson, C. W. 
Notes on the Syrphidae collected at Jaffrey and Mount 
Monadnock, N. H., with a description of a new species. [5] 
36:370-375. *Krober, O. Die untergattungen Macrocornus 
und Chlorotabanus. (S). [34] 87:1-18, ill. *Kroeber, O.- 
Die Stenotabaninae und die Lepidoselaginae Siidamerikas. 
[59] 5, (B): 101-154, ill. Lengersdorf, Fr. Les Sciarides 
(Lycoriidae) de la collection de J. W. Meigen. [59] 5, (B) : 
55-61, ill. Molina, G. Las moscas del genero "Sarcophaga". 
(S). [Rev. Col. Nac. V. Rocaf.] XI (36-37) : 9-12. Parent, 
O. Etudes sur les Dolichopodides. II. Description d'une 
nouvelle espece du genre Mesorhaga et cle des especes des 
regions nearctiques et neotropiques. [59] 5, (B) : 1-18, ill. 
Porter, C. E. Entomologia Chilena. Diptero que no figura 
en los catalogos. (S). [44] 32:230. *Townsend, C. H. T.- 
New species of humid tropical American Muccoidea. (S). 
[44] 32:365-382. *Van Duzee, M. C. Three new Dolicho- 
pids from California and Colorado. [55] 6: 123-126. 

COLEOPTERA. *Arangua, E. V. Contribucion al es- 
tudio de los Cicindelidae. Notas sobre las variedades de al- 
gunas especies de Cicindela del grupo formosa purpurea 
oregona. (S). [44] 32:231-251. * Arrow, G. J. A new fam- 
ily of Heteromerous Coleoptera (Hemipeplidae), with de- 
scriptions of a new genus and a few new species. (S). [75] 
5:225-231, ill. Barrett, R. E. A study of the immature 
forms of some Curculionidae. [67] 5:89-104, ill. *Bern- 
hauer, M. Neue Staphyliniden aus Mittelamerika. [48] 
46: 186-208. Blackwelder, R. E. The larva of Eubrianax 
edwardsi (Psephenidae). [55] 6:139-142, ill. *Blatchley, 
W. S. Notes on the distribution of Coleoptera in Florida 
with new additions to the known fauna of that state. [4] 
62:28-35. *Brethes, J. Contribution pour la connaissance 
des Chrysometides du Chili. [44] 32:204-220. Brisley, H. 
R. -Occurrence of the weevil Phyrdenus muriceus in Ari- 
zona. [55] 6:127-128. Burke, H. E. A buprestid new to 
the Yosemite. [55] 6: 138. Campos, F. Sobre el apareami- 
ento del Zophobas morio. (Tenebrionidae, sec. Heterom- 
era). (S). [Rev. Col. Nac. V. Rocaf.] XI (36-37) : 13-16. 
*Chapin, E. A. Canthonella, a new genus of Scarabaeidae. 
(S). [40] 409: 2pp. *Chapin, E. A. New species of Hali- 
plus. (S). [95] 43:9-12. *Chittenden, F. H. A new species 
of Notaris (Curculionidae). [10] 32:48-49. Cooper, K. W. 
A list of Coleoptera found at Flushing and new to Long 


Island. [19] 25:21-24. Dallas, E. D. Los Calosoma chi- 
lenos y su actual posicion sistematica. (S). [44] 32: 256-258. 
Dallas, E. D. Caso teratologico extraodinario. Un Ceram- 
dycidae con tres antenas. [44] 32:270-275, ill. Darlington, 
P. J. Notes on the habits of Amphizoa. Habits of the 
staphylinid beetle Dianous nitidulus. [5] 36: 383-386. *Dar- 
lington, P. J. On the dryopid beetle genus Lara. [5] 36: 
328-331, ill. Frost, C. A. Cis frosti. Ludius fulvipes. Ad- 
dicted to strong-waters, Agabus erythropterus. Epiphanis 
cornutus. Stenus retrusus. [19] 25:41, 46, 53. Hickman, 
J. R. Life-histories of Michigan Haliplidae. [Pap. Michi- 
gan Acad. Sci. Arts & Letters] 11:399-424, ill. Marcu, O. 

Beitrage zur kenntnis der stridulations-organe der Cur- 
culioniden. [34] 87:283-289, ill. *Martin, J. O. Notes on 
the genus Diodyrhynchus with a description of a new spe- 
cies. [55] 6: 129-130. *Omer-Cooper, J. The British species 
of Gyrinus. [8] 66:64-72, cont. Park, O. Studies in the 
ecology of forest Coleoptera. Serai and seasonal succession 
of Coleoptera in the Chicago area, with observations on cer- 
tain phases of hibernation and aggregation. [7] 23:57-80, 
ill. Pierce, W. D. Notes on the canafistula weevils of the 
genus Phelomerus (Mylabridae). (S). [10] 32:37-48, ill. 
Porter, C. E. Nota acerca de tin Cerambicido sud-ameri- 
cano. [44] 32:287. Spessivtseff, P. Memorandum to the 
forest entomologists and other entomologists who are inter- 
ested in the study of bark-beetles. [21] 42:22-23. Stuardo, 
C. Notas Entomologicas. Breves anotaciones sobre Apion 
tenebricosum. (S). [44] 32:226-229, ill. Van Dyke, E. P.- 
The correct names of certain species of North American 
Meloe (Meloidae). [55] 6: 122. *Voss, E. Die unterfami- 
lien Attelabinae u. Apoderinae. (18. Beitrag zur kenntnis 
der Curculioniden). (S). [60] 90:161-242. *Wendeler, H. 

Neue exotische Staphyliniden. (S). [Neue Beit. Syst. 
Insekten.] 4: 181-192, cont. 

HYMENOPTERA. *Banks, N. Four new species of 
Psammocharidae. [5] 36:326-327. Bequaert, J. Some ad- 
ditional remarks on the masarid wasps. [5] 36:364-369. 
*Cushman, R. A. A revision of the North American spe- 
cies of ichneumon-flies of the genus Odontomcrus. [50] 77, 
Art 3: 15pp., ill. Custer, C. P. Notes on cocoons and para- 
sites of Melissodes obliqua and nests o!~ Pt-rdita opuntiae 
(Apoidea). [5] 36:293-295. Ebel, P. G. El Syntomaspis 
laetus. (S). 1 44] 167-170, ill. *Friese, H. Ueber "Gold- 
bienen"-Euglossa cordata und verwandte (Apid.). (S). 


[89] 59: 131-138, ill. *Gallardo, A. Notas sobre las Dori- 
linas argentinas. [An. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat., Buenos Aires] 
36:43-48. Graenicher, S. Bee-fauna and vegetation of the 
Miami region of Florida. [7] 23: 153-174. Hammer, H. K. 

Ueber Mutilliden mit besonderer beriicksichtigung der in 
der wiener ungebung bisher aufgefundenen arten. [26] 10: 
61-64, cont. *Kinsey, A. C. The gall wasp genus Cynips. 
A study in the origin of species. 577pp., ill. Pate, V. S. L. 

Additions to the New York State List of insects. [19] 
25:40-41. Rau, P. The nesting habits of Emphor bombi- 
formis. [19] 25:28-34, ill. *Roman, A. Oxford University 
Expedition, 1928. Ichneumonidae collected by R. W. G. 
Kingston on the Oxford University Expedition to Green- 
land, 1928. [75] 5:281-288. *Roberts, R. Descriptions of 
five new species of vespoid wasps. [5] 36: 358-363. Schmie- 
deknecht, O. Opuscula Ichneumonologica. Supp. Bd. Genus 
Ichneumon, p. 433-450. Genus Amblyteles. p. 1-64. Tulloch, 
G. S. The proper use of the terms parapsides and parap- 
sidal furrows. [5] 36:376-382. *Weld, L. H. Three new 
gall-flies from Arizona (Cynipidae). [10] 32:28-31. * Wheel- 
er, W. M. The ant Prenolepis imparis. [7] 23:1-26, ill. 
Wheeler, W. M. A new Emeryella from Panama. [Pro. 
New England Zoo. Club] 12:9-13, ill. 

SPECIAL NOTICES. Die Fliegen der Palaearktischen 
Region. Ed. by E. Lindner, Stuttgart, 1924-. This work, 
although treating of the palearctic species only, should be 
valuable to serious students of diptera. Forty numbers 
(Lieferungen) have been issued with many colored plates. 

Recent Publications on Stoneflies. 

NOIS. By THEODORE H. FRISON. 111. Nat. Hist. Sur. Bull. 
Vol. XVIII, Art. II pp. 345-409, 1929, with 77 text figures. 
"In this paper are presented the results of an investigation of 
the biological and systematical characteristics of five genera, 
comprising eleven species, of. the little known fall and winter 
stonefiies occurring in Illinois. It has been found that these 
species differ biologically from one another in respect to their 
seasonal adjustments, the habitats they prefer, in position, and 
in many other details of their life histories. In opposition to 
general ideas concerning the food habits of the order as a whole, 
the adults as well as the nymphs were found to be herbivorous." 

"Because of a previous erroneous designation of a genotype, 


it has been necessary to replace the generic name of Ncphclop- 
tcryx Klap with Taeniopteryx Pict. (Scnsu str.), revive the 
name Brachyptera for another generic complex, substitute 
Tacnioucnui for a Nearctic complex, and erect a new Nearctic 
genus Strophopteryx, and three species new to science have 
been described (Allocapnia niystica, A. forbcsi and Lcnctra 
claasseniy . 

The above summary indicates the thoroughness with which 
Dr. Prison has pursued the detailed study of these small stone- 
flies. So painstakingly has he searched the large and small 
streams of the state that it seems quite unlikely that any addi- 
tional species of the fall and winter forms will soon be discov- 
ered in Illinois. 

Except for Newcomer's * observation on the feeding habits 
of Taeniopteryx (sen. lat.) and Wu's - comprehensive study of 
Nemoura valllcularia practically nothing has been published in 
North America on the biology of the Nemouridae and Cap- 

Dr. Prison has, with considerable detail, studied the biology 
of the nymphs and adults of the following six species : Taeniop- 
teryx nivaiis Fitch, Strophopteryx fasciata Burm, Allocapnia 
invstica Prison, A. recta Clsn., A. granulata Clsn., and A. 
I'h'ipara Clsn. In addition to these, both nymphs and adults are 
described of : Taeniopteryx paruula Bks., Lcnctra claasscni 
Prison, and Allocapnia pygmaca Burm., and the adult of A. 
forbcsi Prison as well as an adult female Capnia sp. 

Keys are included for separating the species of both nymphs 
and adults. The figures depict the genital and other structural 
characters, photographs of nymphs, adults and habitats. 

Mem. Coll. Sci., Kyoto Imp. Univ. Ser. B. Vol. IV, No. 2 (Art. 
4) pp. 97-155. 1929, with one plate and 26 text figures. "In 
the present paper are chiefly recorded well-defined nymphs rep- 
resenting the fourteen known genera and a curious nymph of 
the new genus Scopura. Besides these immature forms here 
recorded are added descriptions of six adult stoneflies which 
seem apparently to be of new species." 

A little more than a page is devoted to the discussion of 
"Habitats and Distribution." This is followed by a key to the 
genera of nymphs found in Japan and by descriptions and inci- 

1 Newcomer, E. J. Some Stoneflies Injurious to Vegetation. Jr. Agr. 
Res. Vol. XIII, No. 1, pp. 37-42, 1918. 

" Wu, C. F. Morphology, Anatomy and Ethology of Nemoura. Bull. 
Lloyd Libr. No. 23, Ent. Ser. No. 3, pp. 1-81, 1923. 


dental observations on the behavior of some of the nymphs and 
adults. The illustrations are excellent. Most interesting is the 
description of a nymph which Ueno christens Scopu-ra lontja 
and appears to be related to Ptcronarcys and Lcptopcrla. This 
nymph possesses a ring of copious gill tufts which surround 
the entire tenth abdominal segment and which are said to be 
retractile. The subanal lobes are extremely long and slender. 
Unfortunately the adult of this species is not definitely known 
so that its affinities can be ascertained with certainty. 

State College of Forestry, Roosevelt Wild Life Annals, Vol. 2. 
No. 2. pp. 155-240, 1929. (b) THE FOOD OF TROUT STREAM 
MUTTKOWSKI and GILBERT M. SMITH; Above publication, pp. 
242-263. On page 186-190 of the first of the above papers, 
notes are given on the occurrence and behavior of the stoneflies 
which were found in the streams in Yellowstone Park. Ptcro- 
narcys californica Newpt. and Acroneitria pacifica Bks. were 
found to be most abundant and the discussion centers largely 
around these two species. Of Ptcronarcys californica Mutt- 
kowski says : "Strange to say they eat plant food almost en- 
tirely, differing in this respect from other perloid nymphs/' As 
a matter of fact only the species belonging to the family Per- 
lidae (except Pcltopcrla] are carnivorous, all the rest being 
herbivorous in food habits. 

In the second paper, on the Food of Trout Streams, tabulated 
data are given (pp. 246-249) on the food of the nymphs of 
Ptcrnarcys californica Newpt., Acroncuria pacifica Bks. and 
Pcrla vertically Bks., showing that of these three species only 
P. californica is essentially an herbivore while the other two 
species are mainly carnivorous. The mistakes which have crept 
into the "List of References" at the end of the second paper 
and into the introduction of the first paper are not sufficiently 
serious so as to be misleading. 

It is gratifying to know that within the last few years the 
stonefly fauna of China has begun to receive some attention. 
Both Dr. C. F. Wu of Yenching University, Peiping, and Mr. 
Y. T. Chu of St. Johns, Shanghai, have published several pa- 
pers in The China Journal, describing new species of Plecoptera 
from China. 

Mention should also be made of the papers which Mr. R. 
Despax has published, in Bull. Soc. D'Hist. Nat. de Toulouse, 
on the Nemouridae, during the past year. 


A. B. Martynov, of de Gorsky Institute Agronomique, in 
1928, published a paper on Plecopteren des Kaukasus, in Tra- 
vaux de la. Sta. Biol. du Caucase du Xord, in which he de- 
scribes 17 new species and 2 new forms of Nemoura and 

Within the next few months the reviewer hopes to publish a 
manuscript on the immature stages of the stoneflies of North 
America in which will be included descriptions, figures and 
biological notes of some 70 species. 



May 29, 1844 March 13, 1930 

Exceeding by more than fifteen years the biblical allotment, 
a long life of unusual influence and productiveness ended on 
March 13, 1930, with the death of Dr. S. A. Forbes, chief of 
the State Natural History Survey and professor of entomology, 
emeritus, in the University of Illinois. Doctor Forbes was one 
of the outstanding entomologists of that pioneer group who 
wrote the first chapter of America's entomological history in 
such strong and enduring fashion. 

Born May 29, 1844, in Stephenson County, Illinois, IK> spent 
his early years on his father's farm. Reviewing his subsequent 
accomplishments, one is astonished to learn that his earl}- school- 
ing was much neglected, that he never graduated from a col- 
lege, and that he never took a formal college course in any of 
the many subjects he subsequently taught. 

Fatherless from the age of 10, he enlisted as a private in the 
7th Illinois Cavalry in 1861 at the age of 17, and advanced to 
a captaincy at 20. He spent four months in a Confederate 
prison. After recovering from the diseases there contracted, 
he returned to his regiment and continued in active service 
until the end of the war. Following the war he studied in 
Beloit Academy and nearly finished the course in medicine at 
Rush Medical College; but, changing his plans, he began the 
independent study of natural history while a teacher in the 


public schools of Illinois. By private study he also mastered 
French, Spanish and Italian and learned to read Greek. 

His public service began with his appointment, in 1872, as 
curator of the museum of the State Natural History Society, 
at Normal, Illinois. Five years later the museum became, by 
legislative enactment, the State Laboratory of Natural History 
with Mr. Forbes as director. Five years later (1882) he was 
appointed by the governor to succeed Cyrus Thomas as the 
fourth State Entomologist of Illinois. In 1884 Forbes became 
professor of zoology and entomology at the University of 
Illinois, and the offices of State Entomologist and director of the 
State Laboratory of Natural History were moved to Urbana. 
In 1888 he was made Dean of the College of Science, which 
position he rilled for sixteen years. In 1909 the department of 
entomology was organized separately from zoology, with Pro- 
fessor Forbes as Head. Without interrupting his fifty-six year 
period of service to the State and the University, his title was 
changed in 1917, when the State Laboratory of Natural History 
and the State Entomologist's office were merged into the 
Natural History Survey, a Division of the State Department of 
Registration and Education, with Dr. Forbes as its chief. He 
became emeritus professor of entomology in 1921, but con- 
tinued as chief of the Survey until his death. 

His publications in natural history, begun in 1870 in the 
American Entomologist and Botanist, numbered at the time of 
his death over 500 titles, of which about 400 dealt with various 
phases of entomology. His most important papers are to be 
found in his eighteen Reports on the Injurious and Beneficial 
Insects of Illinois, in the Bulletin of the State Laboratory of 
Natural History, later the Bulletin of the State Natural His- 
tory Survey and in his Final Reports on the Biology of Illinois. 
Some of the best known of his entomological publications deal 
with the insects of Indian corn, of strawberries, of sugar beets, 
the chinch bug, Hessian fly, white grubs, San Jose scale, corn 
root aphid, army worm, codling moth, black flies and insect 
diseases. In all of these subjects, and others, he made funda- 
mental contributions to economic entomology and ecology, 


which have endured and are today models of clarity, originality 
and completeness. His writings are characterized by their re- 
markably simple and lucid expression, their excellent illustra- 
tions, their intensely practical, economic nature, and reveal a 
deep appreciation of fundamental biological principles and of 
the importance of the interrelations of insects with their en- 
vironment and with other living things. 

Those who know only his entomological writings, may be 
surprised at the wide variety of his biological interests, and to 
know that his publications dealt in masterly fashion with such 
diverse subjects as birds, fishes, Crustacea, leeches, bacteria, 
rotifers, the parasites of swine, museum methods and pedagogy. 
His most intimate friends and associates marveled at his interest 
in, and depth of understanding of other fields of knowledge: 
history, music, art, politics, languages, literature, agriculture, 
horticulture, world affairs, the social sciences he studied them 
all in order to relate his own work most effectively to the mate- 
rial and intellectual progress of his state. 

Although his nearly sixty years of public service in a single 
broad field of knowledge and in one state, is almost without 
precedent, Professor Forbes found time to do many other 
things. He took a deep and active interest in civic and charit- 
able affairs. He maintained to the end of his career a profound 
interest in the teaching of natural science, especially in the 
high schools. One of the last big tasks that he accomplished 
was a comprehensive plan for making available to the high 
schools of the State hundreds of sets of the publications of his 
department, each set comprising over 5,000 pages of printed 
matter and illustrations on the native insects, birds, fishes, trees 
and other forms of life. In his earlier years he made a num- 
ber of scientific surveys outside of Illinois as a special agent 
for the United States Fish Commission. He managed in 1893, 
an unusually comprehensive and original exhibit at the 1 World's 
Columbian Exposition in Chicago. He was an American dele- 
gate to the third international entomological congress, at ( )x- 
ford in 1912. He was one of fifteen entomologists who have 
been named as Honorary Fellows in the Entomological Society 


of America, and in 1928 was elected as one of two honorary 
members of the fourth international congress of entomologists 
held at Cornell University. He was a member of the National 
Academy of Sciences and of the American Philosophical 
Society. Many other honorary and scientific organizations have 
given him the highest distinction at their command. He twice 
served as president of the American Association of Economic 
Entomologists, and has also held the highest office in the 
Entomological Society of America, the Ecological Society of 
America, and the Illinois State Academy of Science. 

He was affectionately called "the dean of American Eco- 
nomic Entomologists", "the first economic ornithologist in 
America", "the founder of the science of ecology". He was 
credited with having laid the foundation of taxonomic work on 
American Crustacea and was a recognized authority on con- 
servation, particularly fresh water biology and stream pollution. 
In 1884 Indiana University conferred upon him the degree of 
Doctor of Philosophy, and in 1905, at the conclusion of his long 
service as Dean, he was given the honorary Doctorate of Laws 
by the University of Illinois. 

Professor Forbes maintained his physical vigor and tireless 
industry and enthusiasm until about two weeks before his death. 
Clara Gaston Forbes, who became his wife in 1873, preceded 
him in death by less than two months. 

Fearless, eternally youthful, unostentatiously confident and 
inspiring, never seeking favor or preferment but continually 
in demand by recognition of his worth, this man was revered 
by his peers and colleagues for his breadth and clarity of vision, 
his kindly, helpful criticism and sympathy, his infectious en- 
thusiasm, his brilliant intellect and impregnable strength of 
character, and his loyal and genial friendship. 


FRANK HAIMBACH, lepidopterist, secretary and treasurer of 
The American Entomological Society, died April 1, 1930. A 
notice of his life and work will appear in a later number of 
the NEWS. 

JUNE, 193O 


Vol. XLI 

No. 6 



Gunder North American Institutions Featuring Lepidoptera XV. . 179 

Fender A New Butterfly Aberration (Lepid.: Nyraphalidae) 182 

Hebard Type Fixation 183 

Rau Behavior Notes on the Yellow Jacket, Vespa germanica (Hymen- 

optera : Vespidae) 185 

Parshley Gall Wasps and the Species Problem 191 

Calvert Dynastes tityus (Scarabaeid) in Pennsylvania and the Rath- 

von and.Auxer Collections of Coleoptera 195 

Bequaert Tsetse Flies Past and Present (Diptera : Muscoidea) . . . 202 

Hay ward Notes on Utah Vespidae (Hymen.) 204 

Weber A New Textbook of Entomology 205 

Haimbach On the Seventieth Birthday of Dr. Adelbert Seitz 'joti 

Cockerel!, Knight and Swaine Preliminary Report on Nomenclature 

Proposals 207 

Entomological Literature ' 210 

Obituary Dr. William Barnes 214 


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Plate XVII. 




VOL. XLI. JUNE, 1930 No. 6 

North American Institutions featuring Lepidoptera. 

XV. Entomological Branch, Department of Agriculture, 
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. 

P>y J. D. GUXDKK, Pasadena, California. 
(Plates XVII. XVIII). 

Most friendly relations have existed for many years between 
the entomologists of the United States and Canada. There is 
little natural barrier between the countries and their questions 
of economic and systematic importance are similar. An ex- 
ample of the mutual and beneficial co-operation in the matter 
of insect control is shown by the conferences which have been 
held during recent years to devise ways and means of fighting 
the European corn borer and other pests. Fortunately the offi- 
cial entomologists of both countries have been men of high 
character and free from certain stupid personalities of excessive 

Canada first appointed a special entomologist in 1884. but the 
real development and expansion of the work did not begin until 
about 1909 when the dreaded brown-tail moth was found in 
shipments of nursery stock from France. This necessitated the 
passing of special legislation in 1910, giving the Agriculture 
Department power to inspect plant products entering Canada, 
and to take such means as were considered advisable to .prevent 
the spreading of harmful insects already prevalent. P.v 1 () 14 
entomology bad developed to such an extent that a separate 
sub-department of the Government's Department of Agriculture 
was set aside under the title of Kntomological P.rancb and head- 
quarters were established in the Hirks I'uilding 1 at Ottawa 

1 This six-story building is <l<>\vn-tu\vii in UK- business section and the 
offices of the Branch occupy the upper floors, the lower floors being de- 
voted to various commercial businesses and shops. Although the loca- 
tion is convenient, there is alwa\s that ha/anl of lire which would destn>\, 
not only departmental records, but insert o>ll<rtinns as well. If types are 
at least separated into separate drawers or cabinets, they can perch. m< > 
be carried out in time. I have in mind the destruction by fire of the 



where they remain today. The present divisional organization 
consists of the following well-known officials : Arthur Gibson, 
Dominion Entomologist and Head of Branch; J. M. Swaine, 
Associate Dominion Entomologist and administrator of the Di- 
vision of Forest Insects; H. G. Crawford, Chief of the Division 
of Eield Crop and Garden Insects; L. S. McLaine, Chief of the 
Division of Foreign Pests and Suppression ,and J. H. McDun- 
nough, Chief of Division of Systematic Entomology. 

Mr. Arthur Gibson was born in Toronto in 1875 and has been 
in the service of the Canadian government for over thirty years. 
He entered the Federal Department of Agriculture in 1899 as 
assistant in the division of botany and entomology at the Ex- 
perimental Farm, Ottawa and in 1908 was promoted to the 
position of chief assistant entomologist. Upon the death of Dr. 
Hewitt in 1920, Mr. Gibson was made Dominion Entomologist 
and head of the Entomological Branch, a position which corre- 
sponds to that at present held by Dr. Marlatt and formerly by 
Dr. L. O. Howard. Mr. Gibson is a very able organizer and a 
thorough entomologist and Canada is fortunate to have had for 
so many years such a capable executive in office. 2 

Dr. fames H. McDunnough is known to practically every 
entomological student in this country and abroad because of his 
splendid work in the Order Lepidoptera. Few systematists 
have had the chance, or the ability, to accomplish as much as 
he has. I think he deserves to be called a builder of great Lepi- 
doptera collections. 

From 1909 to March 25, 1919, Dr. McDunnough was curator 
of the William Barnes collection at Decatur, Illinois and he was 
the first man to systematically arrange this largest of boreal 
American collections. One of the results was the Barnes ev 
McDunnough Check List of 1 ( >17. This list was not a repro- 

Academy of Sciences in San Francisco which was similarly located. Had 
the lepidopterous types of Behr and others been separated out of the 
main collections, they could have heen saved. Certain insect types which 
were separated, WERE SAVED. I call Mr. Gibbon's attention to the point 
of type-separation and also, for example, to the arrangement for valuable 
types which the American Museum has inaugurated. 

" Photo Plate XVII, showing Mr. Gibson at his desk, was unfortunately 
reversed in the original making. Mr. Gibson is not left-handed and also 
he is much better looking than the photo would give him credit for being ! 


Plate XVIII. 



duction, like many of the older lists, but was original in revision 
and today the moth, or lleterocera, portion continues to be the 
latest available compilation. While at Dccatur he also revised 
the Cossidae and the Olcnc group of moths, in addition to writ- 
ing many smaller papers with Dr. Barnes. Mr. Foster II. 
Benjamin once told me that working on Lepidoptera under Dr. 
Barnes was "like taking a post-graduate course, you really began 
to make fewer mistakes". 

When Dr. McDunnough went to Ottawa, in April, 1919, to 
take charge of Canada's budding National Collection of Insects 
and to devote himself to its systematic study, he found plenty 
to do. There were many thousands of insects in unclassified 
condition which had to be sorted into families and genera ; the 
specimens needed systematic transfer into additional steel 
cabinets in order to have them available for future study and 
there was only a small entomological library, scarcely suited to 
the demands of a systematise How rapidly Canada's collections 
have been built up is noted in a recent article by Dr. McDun- 
nough, when he says "I am proud to say that today we have a 
National Collection of Insects which ranks among the leading 
collections of the North American continent and a taxonomic 
library which is not only one of the finest specialized libraries in 
Government service, but also probably the best of its kind in 

The insects are housed in more than 30 steel cabinets which 
contain approximately 1600 drawers apportioned as follows: 
625 for Lepidoptera ; 250 for Coleoptera ; 225 for Diptera ; 200 
for Hymenoptera ; 50 for Hemiptera ; 50 for Orthoptera ; 75 
for Odonata ; 50 for Ephemeridae and 25 drawers for various 
Neuropteroid insects. There are also several cabinets contain- 
ing alcoholic material of Arachnida, Odonata and Ephemerida 
and slide-cabinets for material in plant-lice, fleas, thrips, etc. 
The following Lepidoptera collections of note contribute to- 
wards the general collection: Dr. James Fletcher collection, 
excluding types which were deposited in Washington, D. C. ; 
Capt. Gamble Geddes collection consisting of general material 
collected in the vicinity of Sudburv and Trenton; C. H. .Young 
collection purchased in 1913 and the result of twenty years' 


collecting near Ottawa, being rich in Microlepidoptera and con- 
taining some paratypes in the Pyralidae and Tortricidae ; Arthur 
Gibson collection of general Lepidoptera with many bred speci- 
mens ; F. H. Wolley-Dod collection, especially good in western 
Noctuidae and the J. W. Cockle collection (purchased) from 
Kaslo, British Columbia, consisting of Mr. Cockle's moths and 
all of his types. 

Up to the present 'and since being with the Entomological 
Branch, Dr. McDunnough has published in the neighborhood of 
100 taxonomic papers and has described nearly 250 new Lepi- 
doptera and p]phemerida (may-flies). The types of nearly all 
of these are deposited in the National Collection. Each sum- 
mer, as time permits, the Doctor makes profitable field trips into 
western districts and unexplored territories. Much of north- 
western Canada remains virgin to the entomologist and he hopes 
to work out these areas. 

Dr. McDunnough has been editor of the Canadian Entomolo- 
gist since 1921. He was born at Toronto, Ontario on May 10, 
1877, receiving an A. M. at Queens College (Canada) and his 
Ph.D. at Berlin in 1909. 

Everybody would like to see published, a Check List (if pos- 
sible, annotated) of Canadian Lepidoptera and such a list is 
very much needed. A well-edited catalogue on where to go, 
when to go and what to collect in Canada would be a most 
valuable contribution as published by the Entomological Branch. 
Such a paper might be the means of renewing interest in Lepi- 


A New Butterfly Aberration (Lepid.: Nymphalidae). 

By K. M. FENDER, McMinnville, Oregon. 

PHYCIODES MYLITTA (Edw.), n. aberr. macyi. 

I have caught an aberration of mylitta that 1 shall call niacyi. 
the main difference between this and iiiylitta being on the under- 
side of the secondaries. All the spots in the limbal area are 
fused into one broad silvered line. Macyi has the same expanse 
as mylitta. 

Type: McMinnville. Oregon, one specimen, September 6, 
1929, in the author's collection. 


Type Fixation. 

By MORGAN HEBARD, Academy of Natural Sciences, 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

In the January ENTOMOLOGICAL \K\vs 1 appeared a caustic 
attack by W. S. Blatchley on the fixation of single types of two 
of his species by T. M. liuhhell. I'.latchley has well denned a 
"type" in the modern restricted sense now generally accepted, 
but evidently does not appreciate the vast difference between 
marking a specimen as such and its valid published first fixation. 

The unique type (sometimes termed holotype) is all important 
we agree, and Hlatchley's present trouble is entirely due to his 
failure to designate such types in his descriptions of new species 
published in his "Orthoptera of North-Eastern America" in 
1919. Such action he knew at that time to be generally consid- 
ered of the utmost importance, indeed it has been a requisite in 
all publications of the American Entomological Society since 

I fe now says he has expected to publish fixations of the types 
of all his species in a single paper, but as eleven years have 
passed since the description of the species discussed, we are not 
nearly as surprised as he to find that someone else is first in 
making these selections. That he had labelled a specimen of 
each species "type" in his collection might have been a factor 
in choosing the proper specimen as type, but more than one 
specimen of the original series of a species has aften been lab- 
elled "type" in the past and labels can be removed or shifted. 
The fact remains that, until the single type of a new species 
hits been designated in print, each specimen included without 
(liter \ in the originally descril>ed series must he considered a 
cot y pc. ~-tny such specimen may he chosen as type and the first 
published designation of such (hy the author of the species or 
anyone else) fixes the type of that species irre-rocuhly. 

As Hubbell's is the first fixation of the type of the species 
Ceitthophiliis davisi and C'eiithopliilns rehehi (described by 
Blatchley in 1919) and is based in each case on a cotype in tin- 
Davis Collection (from which the original series came), that 

1 Volume XLI, pages 17 to 19. 


action is valid and is not in any way affected by Blatchley's be- 
lated attempt to fix as these types specimens in his own collec- 
tion, made paratypes for all time by Hubbell's earlier and first 
published fixation. 

Whether he likes or not, Blatchley's negligence has forced 
another to select these types and if the type of a species has not 
been indicated in the original description and a specimen, in- 
cluded without query in the originally described scries, is subse- 
quently indicated in print as the type of t/iat species, all subse- 
quent type designations are thereby invalidated and have no 
significance whatever. 

Blatchley states that he neither knows nor cares what the 
ruling of the Entomological Code may be in a situation such as 
his present dilemma. We are satisfied that Hubbell has obeyed 
the rules for single type selection and that his action will be 

As a matter of fact, as the selector has the right to choose any 
cotype, has not Hubbell made the wisest choice in each case in 
taking a specimen from the series of cotypes belonging to the 
collection which was the source of that entire series, rather than 
from one of the cotypes given to the describer in return for 
the work he had done? Such is indeed the almost universal 
practice today between institutions or between individuals. 

We have asked James A. G. Rehn for any further comments 
he might have on this matter and he has furnished the fol- 
lowing : 

Mr. Blatchley in his arguments evidently declines to admit 
that an individual author has no more control over a species 
once published by him than any other student. Once given to 
the world, a species is world property without prior lien, and 
if the original author failed to indicate a single type and he or 
anyone else has not done so in the intervening time, any investi- 
gator can designate any one of the originally studied series as 
the single type, no matter where it may be located, provided that 
it was before the describer at the time of description. Mr. 
Blatchley's contention would return to Philadelphia quite a few 
insect types which have since been fixed in the collections of 

xli, '30 1 I'XTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 185 

other Institutions, although the main series on which the species 
were based, and so labelled "type", are in the Academy of Nat- 
ural Sciences. Therefore our remarks are not inspired by oppo- 
sition, but instead by the practice of entomologists at this time, 
and the universally recognized right of any of the original 
material to be selected as the single type by any investigator, 
the published fixation being the court of last resort. 

Behavior Notes on the Yellow Jacket, Vespa 
germanica (Hymen. : Vespidae). 

By PHIL RAU, Kirkwood, Missouri. 
(Plate XIX.) 

While no opportunity has presented itself to make a complete 
study of this widely distributed wasp, these desultory notes 
on certain aspects of its behavior may be of interest in making 
us better acquainted with this already familiar little terror of 
summer picnics, commonly known as the yellow-jacket. That 
it is a familiar figure, we all know ; that it is of general dis- 
tribution is evidenced by the reports that it is common through- 
out the United States, in Europe and Canada. 

One colony of / '. germanica was discovered at Wickes, 
Missouri, on September 2, 1920. A hole in the ground, three- 
fourths inch in diameter, went down to the roof of this nest, 
which was two and one-half inches below the surface of the 
ground. The burrow containing this nest was almost apple- 
shaped, four inches deep and three to three and one-half inches 
in diameter. The whole nest had probably been covered, or the 
pocket in the ground lined, with ;i layer of paper, like the cov- 
ering of a / '. niuciilata nest, for many scraps of this material 
lay at the bottom, but people had poured water into this hole 
and otherwise tried to exterminate the wasps, and this mal- 
treatment had probably broken up this covering sheath. The 
nest itself consisted of three combs, one atop the other, and 
connected by strong props or pedicels. 

The nest was opened at 9 a. m. and a cyanide jar placed in 
the opening. During the next two hours, about twenty wasps 
returned; this gives an indication of the number out of the 


nest at that hour in the morning. In opening the nest forty- 
nine workers and one queen were found ; this makes an adult 
population of approximately 69 workers and one queen ; no 
males were found at that date. During the next two hours, no 
workers returned, so one can safely place the population of 
this colony at 70 individuals. Besides this, 64 sealed cells, 
25 large larvae and 20 eggs composed the well-filled nest. Both 
the top and the bottom tier of cells were almost empty; 95 
per cent, of the life was in the middle comb. 

The nest was taken home and placed in a cage. Within the 
next two days, 10 workers emerged, quite active, despite the 
inverted position of the nest. They ate honey greedily, and 
were often found with their heads inserted deep, into the 
empty cells. They were quite friendly, and soon came like pets 
after molasses. Later a large stable fly was crushed and placed 
on the nest ; soon it was found that the thorax was completely 
eaten out but the head and abdomen remained untouched. Thus 
they were fed daily on molasses and grape jelly and seemed 
contented ; they walked about on the nest, always active and 
alert, but never attempted to fly out. 

Two nests were excavated a-t the end of the season, and 
figs. 1 and 2, Plate XIX, show the full-sized nests just before 
the disbanding of the colony. The nest in fig. 1 was built in 
a depression in a terrace facing a busy street; the hollow was 
enlarged from time to time by the wasps carrying out pellets 
of dirt in their jaws and dropping them while in flight. This 
nest, inverted in the figure to show construction of the cells, 
was 5^4 inches high and had six large combs, and in addition 
a small one 2x2 inches at the bottom (not shown in fig.). This 
nest was unique in that the papery covering, which usually 
envelopes the entire nest, was thin and sparse everywhere 
except the place where it was needed most, the portion of the 
nest exposed to the street. Here not only was it heavy, thick 
and well constructed, but it was colored a light yellow to match 
beautifully the clay of the terrace. < nlicr nests of this species 
were made of a dark gray material very unlike this one in color. 
It was so difficult to distinguish the nest from the bank that in 


Plate XIX. 



taking the nest 1 jabbed my trowel into the nest thinking it 
was the terraee. Figure 3 shows this clay-colored paper-wall 
with opening in the center amid the surrounding bank and 
shows an ideal condition of protective coloration. One can 
hardly give the wasps credit for consciously making this color 
selection. Very likely the whole fabric was accidental, or at 
least got its start that way. The wasps probably fell heir to a 
light-colored wood pulp and in addition, in their duties of carry- 
ing out mud pellets, some mud may have gotten mixed with 
the saliva, or pulp. 

While most nests have round combs, as in fig. 2, nest in 
figure 1 had each comb indented at the same point, so as to 
form a sort of stairway from comb to comb making it quite 
easy of access to the workers. 

The nest in fig. 2 was unearthed by Mr. A. F. Satterthwait of 
Webster Groves, Missouri. The height of the nest was 5 2 
inches and had 5 large combs, and in addition a small one of 15 
cells at the very bottom. 

This nest too was taken at the end of the season, and there- 
fore was a full-grown nest. This nest was reached by the in- 
habitants through a hole in the flat surface of the earth, and had 
its enormously thick paper sheets, not at the side of the nest as 
in fig. 1, but at the top where it would serve better for protec- 
tion from the elements. The thickness of this papery roof was 
in excess of one inch. 

The wasps seem not to know when ibe season nears its close, 
and there is an enormous waste of immature life when cold 
weather approaches. At the end of the season one often finds 
many cells in course of construction, and enormous numbers of 
eggs and larvae, which can never reach maturity. 

It is well known that these little creatures are scavengers. 
but I have not been sure heretofore that they attack and kill 
other insects for food. At last one morning at an early hour 
I saw one of them in the road attacking a red-winded moth; 
hence it seems that this wasp, besides picking up bits of dead 
animal remains, also gets live prey by direct attack. In this case 
the wasp evidently had attacked prey that was in torpid condi- 
tion due to the chill of the night. When I crept near and ex- 


amined it, I found a goodly chunk had been bitten out of the 
side of the thorax, with the fore-wing and leg still attached. 
The wasp proceeded to bite off the wing and then the leg, and 
discarded them ; it then took up the fleshy part of the portion 
bitten out, mounted into the air in a flight of orientation and 
flew to a tree near by, thence away. Since she had taken her 
flight of orientation, I expected her to return, so I stealthily 
examined her moth ; it was still soft, and beside it lay the 
discarded wing, and also the head which she had amputated. 

True to my expectations, she returned after five minutes, 
flew direct to her moth, removed the left hind wing and then 
struggled to get rid of the right ones. She then removed a 
large mouthful of choice meat from the abdomen, flew to the 
tree as before and away to the northwest. After just four 
minutes she again returned, flew direct to the carcass and got 
another portion with a leg still attached to it ; with this she 
repeated her course, to the tree and thence away again to the 

During her absence of five minutes, I thought to do a little 
experimenting. All this time I had been sitting on the ground 
about eighteen inches from her morsel, and my paraphernalia 
less than a foot from it. 1 suspected that she had associated me 
and mine with the location of her property ; therefore I removed, 
bag and baggage, six feet to the north. My removal must have 
caused some confusion, for it took her five minutes to find what 
she sought. She took her morsel and departed by her estab- 
lished route. After six minutes she returned. In the interval 
I had placed a green leaf over the abdomen of the moth and 
moved its bright-colored wings an inch away. Upon returning, 
the wasp flew to the wings, examined them and tried to bite 
off a tiny bit of muscle tissue at the base, walked away a mo- 
ment, returned and again scrutini/.ed the wings and surround- 
ings, this time more excitedly, until quite by chance she discover- 
ed the carcass under the edge of the leaf. She began to bite off 
another portion as before, when an accident occurred which 
added to the interest of the experiment. A dog ran past and 
put her to flight. She flew away in a huff, and fluttered about 
in the vicinity for two minutes, and when she returned she 
again came to the bright wings, bit at them and examined them 


just as before and flew away, came back and explored the 
region on foot repeatedly and for twenty minutes seemed to try 
her utmost to locate her lost property. She had left without 
a flight of orientation after she had found it under the leaf, 
and although she was absent only two minutes before she tried 
to come back to it, she could not tell where it lay. Then 1 re- 
moved the leaf, whereupon she found it almost at once and 
proceeded to get her morsel. These disturbances and tricks 
may have taxed her patience too much, or her wants may have 
been satisfied; at least she returned no more. The moth proved 
to be a female heavily laden with eggs ; this is the first intimation 
I have had that this little wasp, commonly regarded as an 
enemy, may be of economic value. 

Another /'. ycnnatuca was found early in the morning feed- 
ing on a grasshopper, DCJHCKS Carolina. The victim often 
moved its wings violently, showing it had just been stung. It 
was an adult hopper, many, many times as large as the assail- 
ant, but the cold night had made it sluggish and hence easy 
prey to an alert hunter. Another was seen to sting an adult 
hopper, follow it in its agonized flight and sting it repeatedly 
until lost from view. These wasps were at other times seen 
crowding around a grasshopper carcass enjoying the flesh for 

Several V . gcrmanica came to a cedar tree in the yard early 
one September morning, evidently in search of food. While 
watching them, I saw a / '. macnhita pounce upon one of them. 
The pair struggled violently for several seconds; then I placed 
them in a test tube. Kvc-n there the / '. inacula/n continued the 
angry onslaught, and when at last they became separated, the 
little victim gave a few feeble kicks and was dead. I )espite the 
severe sting, / . germanica occasionally tails prey to the dip- 
terous robber fly. On September 10, a yellow species of robin r 
fly was seen flying from plant to plant with a worker was]) of 
(jcnminica dangling from its legs, and 1'romlev records ( I'svche 
21: 194, 1914) having taken 17 specimens of this wasp from 
Proctocantlms pliihtdclpliicus. 

As late in the season as October 19, more than a hundred of 
these workers were congregated on a dry picnic plate trving to 
derive some invisible food therefrom. Xear by lay some blue 

1 90 E N TO M O LOt; I C A L N K \V S | J U 1 1C . ' 30 

grapes, untouched and intact. I split the skins of these and put 
them on the plate, and in a minute all the wasps were eagerly 
crowding over each other to get at the dainties. It is surprising 
that these famished workers did not see, or having seen they 
could not break through the tough skins of the fruit to get at 
its juices. 

There has been some discussion as to whether ants, bees and 
wasps can communicate with one another ; especially whether, 
if one insect finds a store of good things, it is able to communi- 
cate with others and advise them of its location. Lubbock 
proves that ants have this power, but if this wasp can do like- 
wise, I failed to see evidence of it in a case that came under 
my observation. For two days I watched an individual come 
to the clay bank in quest of prey and leave each time with a 
chalcid parasite in her mouth. She would come and go, and 
never did I see more than that one there. If she had made 
known this supply to the others, they surely would have come in 
numbers, but only this one appeared at intervals of ten or 
fifteen minutes. This one followed a regular system in her 
hunting; she would alight at one end of the bank near the top, 
and then fly sidewise, close to the bank and facing it, directlv 
to the other end, bobbing up and down on the wing all the way. 
Occasionally she would dodge down, searching crevices or bur- 
rows for a moment, or leap at her prey in midair; if unsuccess- 
ful, she would repeat the search in the same way. The chal- 
cids were so abundant here that she had little difficulty in 
finding them ; her main trouble seemed to be that they were 
so minute that they could easily get away. Sometimes she 
took her prey direct to her nest, but more often she clung to 
the wall and went through the motions of turning it over and 
biting it a performance which appeared absurd on account of 
the small size of the prey. 


Figs. 1 and 2. Nests of / 'cspu germanica. 

Fig. 3. The nest shown in Fig. 1 in the terrace showing how 
the hollow was walled up with paper sheets resembling in color 
and roughness the surrounding soil. 


Gall Wasps and the Species Problem. 1 


\\ e all describe new species and presumably know what we 
are doing and what we are dealing with; and yet. to quote a 
favorite remark of my old friend Charles \Y. Johnson, the way 
to start a hopeless and endless argument is to ask any group of 
taxonomists the simple question: What is a species? Since 
Darwin explained the origin of species and De Vries wrote 
about elementary species, the science of genetics has grown up 
and made plain a whole realm of knowledge that was largely 
unknown and unsuspected by those investigators and which, it 
is fair to say, remains unknown or at least unused by a ma- 
jority of modern taxonomists. Meanwhile geneticists have come 
to agree as a matter of course that the evolution of species has 
occurred and is occurring by means of mutations, while old 
school naturalists, when they refer to mutations at all, are wont 
to deny that these, the only known hereditary modifications, 
produce new forms that can be given specific rank. Tt appears 
that true species arc supposed to contain some vague essence 
apart from mutational characters, and hence remain contro- 
versial and indefinable though recognizable to the initiated eye. 

This situation has given rise to the academic dogma that 
species are groups of organisms demarked for "purposes of 
convenience." Young students are customarily informed that 
the lofty and forbidding structure of taxonomy is just a filing 
system, arbitrarily divided into more or less orderly compart- 
ments into which, "for convenience", the infinitely varying and 
eternally overlapping items of nature are more or less reason- 
ably assorted. If a student observes two related species which 
nevertheless seem to be perfectly distinguishable, he is reminded 
that somewhere or sometime intermediate forms undoubtedly 
might be found, that the law (or rather the dogma) may he 
fulfilled. There has been in the mimK of taxonomists an uneasy 
feeling that somehow a clean distinction between two groups 
is in a sense immoral, that apparent limits of variation muM 

'Contributions from the Department of Zoology, Smith College, Xo. 


be illusory. All this, of course, represents the enduring and 
often unconscious effect of early teachings in Darwinian evolu- 
tion by infinitesimal gradations, an effect which persists in 
spite of what is definitely known about mutation. As a matter 
of fact, there is not the slightest reason to suppose that groups 
of organisms, whether species or higher categories, must always 
merge into each other by insensible graduations, either in space 
or in time ; and it is now certainly in order to repudiate this 
dogma and to cease from imposing it on students and applying 
it to the materials of taxonomic study. Species are natural 
segregations, when properly understood, as distinct in nature 
as they are in our cabinets and catalogues. 

That the adoption of this principle does not at once solve all 
problems is abundantly shown in Dr. A. C. Kinsey's recent book 
on the species of the genus Cynips;- but this monograph shows 
with equal clearness how illuminating this principle is when ap- 
plied thoroughly to adequate materials. Here is a highly special- 
ized group of insects, occurring over a wide area of the earth's 
surface, extremely numerous and accessible to the collector, and 
possessing available characters of a physiologic as well as of a 
morphologic nature. It should be said also that in Professor 
Kinsey the group has a remarkably assiduous and discerning 
student. Now what emerges as the result of this unusual com- 
bination of mind and matter? 

In the first place, the material basis of this study is adequate 
beyond that of almost any other taxonomic work you may 
choose to compare with it. The pinned specimens of the insects 
numbered more than 17,000 (of which 16,899 are in the author's 
possession and available for qualified inspection), the galls about 
54,000. In twelve years the author has traveled more than 
32,000 miles to collecting specimens and geographic data, and 
he has employed an efficient system in taking true and repre- 
sentative samples. More than 100 collectors in Kurope and 
America have contributed their findings. ( hit of 93 forms the 
author has examined the holotypes of 80. 7 not being in exist- 

~ The Gall Wasp Genus Cynips, A Study in the Origin of Species. In- 
diana University Studies, Vol. XVI, Nos. 84, 85, 86 ; Waterman Institute 
for Scientific Research Publications No. 42. 577 pp., 429 figs. 1930. 


ence. His descriptions, including agamic and bisexual forms, 
literature, synonymy, distribution, inquilines, parasites, discus- 
sion, etc., average perh'ops four pages each; and there are 42 ( ) 
figures, including maps, whole insects, galls, and morphologic- 
details. There is a key, lists of pre-occupied names and ex- 
cluded species, general and special bibliographies, and an index. 
All done with the highest regard for honesty and accuracy and 
without regard for expense of time, trouble, or money. 

Many specialists in other groups will want to examine the 
descriptive portion of the work with minute care and will be 
sure to find something of value for their own investigations and 
methods of expression; but I venture to say that all biologists 
who are at all interested in evolution, genetics, and species for- 
mation will do well to study and reflect upon the introductory 
essays in Part I. These deal especially with the origin of 
species, the taxonomic method, the species concept, mutations, 
physiologic species, the isolation of species, hybridization, and 
phylogeny. They are highly condensed and I do not propose to 
do them the injustice of further compression here, but shall con- 
tent myself with the statement of a few of the main ideas. 

The taxonomic method would soon be restored to dignity if 
Kinsey's principles were to find general application. The^c 
include intensive treatment of restricted phylogenetic units re- 
gardless of arbitrary geographic or national limits; the use of 
numerous specimens collected to show real ranges; consideration 
of physiologic as well as morphologic variations, with especial 
effort to distinguish mutations; careful regard for the various 
degrees of relationship; and an intelligent use of findings from 
other fields of scientific research. Such principles cannot be 
employed in hasty "revisions" and certainly have no application 
in the haphazard description of novelties about which practically 
nothing is known. And it is the common absence of these qual- 
ities that has marked out ordinary taxonomic work for the scorn 
of biologists in general. 

Systematic xoologists will observe with interest the rather 
curious predicament in which Kinsey finds himself, admittedly, 
as a result of his work with gall wasps. He has arrived at a 


definite understanding of the species concept, but his nomen- 
clatorial problem is not solved, as he frankly admits (page 24). 
After remarking that individuals show variation and that also 
"there are many more points of uniformity than of variation 
among individuals taken from a given locality and habitat," 
he says 

Finally, the limits of variation of any character prove to be 
strikingly uniform throughout the great populations which we 
propose to call species. Whenever we have taken a reasonably 
large sample from any point over the usually considerable range 
of a species, the biometric data have not proved fundamentally 
different from the data for any other fair sample from any other 
point in the range. 

This leads to the genetic definition of a species as "a popula- 
tion with common heredity." Such a population, having a com- 
mon store of genes which express themselves as mutant charac- 
ters and the graded variations caused by multiple factors, must 
constitute a genuine taxonomic entity "which is more than a few 
cabinet specimens or a bottle full of experimental material or 
a Latin binomial in a textbook"- and by no means the arbitrary 
unit of "convenience" of which we have heard so much. And 
now for the unsolved problem. 

The word "species," as just defined, refers to the biologic 
species, the fundamental category of living things which are 
biologically identical and thus constitute a single "kind." But 
hybridization between these real species, and various degrees 
of relationship among them, give rise to a number of categories 
that must be recognized between the lowest and what in ento- 
mology is ordinarily called a genus. Kinsey talks of his 93 
"species" when engaged in biological discussion, but in IT'S de- 
scriptive section and in his checklist he gives 26 nomenclatorial 
species, under which the rest are listed as "varieties." This is 
simply and solely a concession to existing customs and codes, 
which is made only because Professor Kinsey hesitates to pro- 
pose a new taxonomic category with a new name between the 
true species (temporarily called variety by him) and the genus. 
The reader must keep in mind this predicament ; and if he does 


so, no confusion need arise while we wait for some one to 
answer the author's call with a proposal "that will coordinate 
hiologic concepts of species with questions of convenience in 
systematic botany and zoology." 

Reading this magnificent piece of scientific work, all who have 
published monographs of similar general .character must feel 
a deep sense of admiration and an even deeper sense of their 
own short-comings, as I most certainly have in comparing my 
Essav on the American Species of Anidns with the "Gall 
\Yasps." But each one will doubtless know how to justify his 
course with some degree of satisfaction. In truth, the "species" 
of certain groups (of Aradus, for example, I tend fondly to 
imagine) may well correspond in large part to the biologic 
species that Kinsey has so clearly demonstrated in Cynif>s. And 
certainly it would be impossible, in many groups, for the investi- 
gator, however able and zealous, to discover the body of data on 
mutations, hybridization, reproduction, and physiology which 
makes Professor Kinsey's work take on at once the proportions 
of a classic. But there it stands, along with Dunn's Plctlw- 
dontidac and a few other works, an example of what can be 
done, and must be done, if taxonomy is to be anything more 
than a convenient means toward efficiency, if it is to take a 
respectable place as a branch of modern biology . 

Dynastes tityus (Scarabaeid) in Pennsylvania and 

the Rathvon and Auxer Collections 

of Coleoptera. 

By PHILIP P. CALVERT, University of Pennsylvania, 


Several years ago, when bringing together data on the zoo- 
logical significance of eastern Pennsylvania and New Jersey, 
my attention was attracted to the following passage, by Prof. 
S. S. Haldeman, in the Section on Zoology of Charles B. 
Trego's Geography of Pennsylvania, 1S4.\ page 7 () : 

Pennsylvania is the northern limit of Scarabaeus tityus, the 
largest beetle found here, which is about two inches in length, 
of a yellowish gray colour, spotted with black. \Ye have met 
with but one native specimen. 


I was interested to learn the records of this species in Penn- 
sylvania and the present paper gives the results of my search. 
I am greatly indebted to Mr. Charles Liebeck of Philadelphia 
and, through him, to Mr. A. B. Champlain, of the Bureau of 
Plant Industry, at Harrisburg, for references to the literature, 
and to both of them, to Professors R. C. Schiedt, H. H. Beck 
and M. Carroll, of Franklin and Marshall College, and to Mr. 
\Y. S. Fisher, of the United States National Museum, for 
reading the manuscript of this paper and suggesting improve- 
ments in it. 

The earliest record of Scarabacns ( Ilyuaslcs) tityns as occur- 
ring in this state seems to be the inclusion of the species in 
Fred. Val. Melsheimer's A Catalogue of Insects of Pennsyl- 
vania Part First, Hanover, York County, 1806. On Page 1, 
"Tityus, Fabr." l appears as the ninth species of the list, under 
the third genus Scarabacus. No locality is given for this or 
any other species. Mr. Banks has kindly informed me that in 
the Melsheimer Collection, now in the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, at Cambridge, Massachusetts, there is only one speci- 
men of tityus and it has no locality label. Mr. Warren S. 
Fisher writes that the United States National Museum is 
"fortunate in having a copy of Melsheimer's Catalogue from 
the Melsheimer library. In this copy are a great many hand- 
written notes, probably made by one of the Melsheimers, but 
these notes do not give any additional information on D. tityus." 

The second record, that published by Thomas Say in Volume 
I of his American Entomology, 1824, in connection with Plate 
IV (pages not numbered) is much more definite. He says of 
Scvrabaeus tityus: 

This insect is so extremely rare in Pennsylvania, that the late 
Rev. F. V. Melsheimer, the parent of Entomology in this coun- 
try, and a very industrious collector, found but two individuals 
in eighteen years. An instance has however occurred, in which 
the appearance of a considerable number of them occasioned 
no little surprise in the neighborhood where they were discov- 
ered. A mile or two southward of Philadelphia, and near the 

1 So Melsheimer, but the species was first described by Linnaeus, Syst. 
Nat., (12th edit.), II. p. 542, Nr. 5, 1767. "Habitat in America septen- 


river Delaware, an old cherry-tree was blown down by a violent 
current of wind, and my informant saw the remains of numer- 
ous individuals, in and about a cavity of the tree, laid open by 
the shock of its fall. That there might be no mistake as to the 
species, he exhibited the thorax of a male he had chosen from 
the mutilated fragments. 

As to the precise locality from which Say's specimens came, 
Mr. Liebeck writes to me : "After due reflection, based on the 
city's possible southern limit in 1824 and the then natural en- 
vironment, I judge the specimens were found somewhere be- 
tween South and Mifm'n Streets, which was all natural elevated 
ground above tide- water effects and more in conformity with 
the breeding habits of an insect of this kind." In the last 
quarter of the nineteenth century, the southern part of Phila- 
delphia, where it was not built up, was the scene of the collect- 
ing labors of Mr. Liebeck, the late Henry \Y. YYenzel and 
other well-known coleopterists. Xone of them ever found tit y us 
in this region, as Mr. Liebeck assures me, and I have a memo- 
randum that Mr. Wenzel told me on August 8, 1924, that he 
knew of no other Pennsylvania record than that of Haldeman 
which I showed to him. 

The next specimen observed in point of time may have been 
that referred to by Prof. Haldeman in the Geography of 1843 
quoted above, or it may have been one of those seen by Dr. S. 
S. Rathvon, of Lancaster, as related in a manuscript communi- 
cation published by Dr. J. A. Lintner in 1S91. 3 

The first specimen of I), tityns I ever saw (a female) was 
in the possession of the late Judge Libhart of Marietta, Pa., in 
1839, and was captvired near Wrightsville, York County. I 'a. 

2 William Allen's "Plan of the City of Philadelphia and Adjoining Dis- 
tricts in 1828" (Library, Histor. Soc. Penna.) supposedly shows the 
built-up parts of the city by shading, and the southern limits of buildings 
thus indicated are: between Swansnn and Front Streets, down to, but not 
south of, the Navy Yard, which occupied the area between Prime and the 
present Wharton Sts., Front St. and the Delaware River; between Front 
St. and Moyamensing Road, to the line of Johnson's Lane, which, as a 
lane, extended from Moyamensing Road west to Fifth St. between Whar- 
ton and Reed Sts. ; west of Moyamensing Road, not south of Carpenter 
St., except for a few scattered buildings. 

3 Seventh Rept. on the Injurious and other Insects of the State of New 
York, Albany, p. 253. 


Twenty years later, I received a male specimen that was cap- 
tured in the same county opposite Marietta which is about three 
miles above Wrightsville ... In 1859 or 1860 a large willow 
tree was blown down by a storm at the village of Safe-Harbor 
in the county of Lancaster. The trunk, inside, was much de- 
cayed, and in it were found about twenty specimens, and a num- 
ber of larvae. T did not learn of this for a week or ten days 
thereafter, and was only able to secure a single pair, from a 
person in Lancaster city who obtained them on the spot. ... I 
subsequently came into possession of a female which had been 
captured near New Holland about ten miles east of Lancaster. 
The largest specimen that I have ever seen from this state was 
taken within our city limits in 1870. This one, a male, I kept 
alive in a wire cage for several days, but he eventually forced 
some of the wires apart and made his escape and was never re- 
covered. In 1873, in a wood about three miles northeast of 
Lancaster city . . . under the bark in the rotten wood, I se- 
cured three very large specimens of larvae which I believed to 
belong to Dynast cs." [These larvae were lost on his way home.] 

Dr. Asa Fitch mentioned in 1859 4 that he had specimens of 
tityus from Pennsylvania; one is tempted to conjecture that he 
may have received them from the sources which supplied Rath- 

The Reverend Daniel Ziegler collected Coleoptera at or near 
Kraeutz Creek, six miles from York, Pennsylvania, and doubt- 
less at other localities in York County. He was born at Read- 
ing, Pennsylvania, in 1804, and died at York, in the same State, 
in 1876. With Haldeman, E. F. Melsheimer and John G. Mor- 
ris, he composed the Entomological Society of Pennsylvania 
of 1842 and succeeding years. PI is collection also is now in 
the Museum of Comparative Zoology, and Mr. Banks writes 
that in it are three specimens of Dvnastcs litvus "and one ot 
them has the usual blue label with the word tityus across the 
top, and below that on the right the initial F for the author and 

4 Noxious Insects of New York, Kept. 3, p. 49. Mr. K. F. Chamber- 
lain, Assistant State Entomologist, writes from the New York State 
Museum at Albany (March 11, 1930) : "We have your letter of Feb- 
ruary 25 regarding Pennsylvania records of Dynastcs fityns in the collec- 
tion of Dr. Asa Fitch. I regret very much that we cannot confirm these 
records since we do not have any of the Fitch Coleoptera. Some fifty or 
sixty types of Hemiptera together with a few butterflies represent all of 
the Fitch material that we have." 


on the left the male sign. Below that is the word Pa., which 
indicates, of course, Pennsylvania." 5 

Dr. John Hamilton, in his Catalogue of Colcoptcra of South- 
western Pennsylvania of 1895 states that tityns was found at 
Jeannette, Westmoreland County, by 11. Klages, and Mr. Cham- 
plain wrote that "a specimen is in our collection labeled 'Jean- 
nette, Pa., H. G. Klages June'." 

Lastly, Mr. Warren S. Fisher writes (March 15, 1930) : 
"There are no Pennsylvania specimens of Dynastcs tit\its in the 
U. S. National Museum collection, but about 1904 I collected a 
single specimen of this species at my home, Highspire, Dauphin 
County, Pennsylvania. Unfortunately 1 can not give you the 
exact date as my collection was destroyed by fire. It was the 
only specimen I found, although I collected in that vicinity for 
many vcars." 

To ascertain whether any of Rathvon's specimens of tityns 
were still in existence, the writer made a visit, on June 29, 1925, 
to Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, 
where Rathvon's collection is preserved. Thanks to Prof. 
Mitchell Carroll, of the Department of Biology, and Prof. Her- 
bert H. Beck, of the Department of Chemistry, I was enabled to 
examine the collection at my leisure and with the following 

The collection occupies one hundred boxes in cases on the 
top floor of the College Museum. The boxes measure 25.3 x 33 
x n.75 cm., have glass tops and are tight-fitting. Thirty-six of 
them are in a case marked "Div. \Y". which was constructed to 
hold one hundred ; the remaining sixty- four are in flat museum 
cases. On the end of one of these cases is the inscription: 
"The S. S. Rathvon Collection of Beetles. Presented by Dr. 
Henry Bobb of East Greenville. Pa., in memory of his son 
Fugene. an honored alumnus of F. & M." Most of the speci- 
mens bear a circular blue label, 4 mm. in diameter, without any 

" Hagen has a biographical sketch of Xiegler (Can. Ent. 17:132-133, 
1885, reprinted in 16th Ann. Kept. Ent. Soc. Ontario, p. 22, 1886). For 
Ziegler's collection, see Hagen, Can. Knt. 16:196-197, 1884. For the 
Entomological Society of Penna., see Morris, Anier. Jour. Sci. (2) i : 27, 
1846; Can. Ent. 13: 186, 1881. 

* Trans. Anier. Ent. Soc., xxii, p. 337. 


lettering upon it. Some have a circular green label of the same 
size. Many specimens also bear numbers, e. g. 

Tetraopes basalis 1492 circular blue label 

Tetraopes annulatus 5161 " 

Tetraopes ornatus 2954 green " 

Dorcadion fuliginosum 2079 

Cicindela duodecemguttata 19 blue 

Cicindela dorsalis 9 

Cicindela modesta 1935 

Other specimens bear locality labels, as some of those now to be 
quoted. In box No. "44 Dynastidae," I found the following 
specimens of Dynastcs titvns: 

(1) 9 45 mm. long, ms. label "Dynastes tityus 9 fnd 
near Wrightsville, Yk. Co., Pa.,'! ins. label "Georgia, also 
round blue label. 

(2) $ 47 mm. long, ms. label "York Co. Pa.," also round 
blue label. 

(3) 9 42 mm. long, ms. label "York Co., Pa.," also round 
blue label. 

(4) $ ms. label "Dynastes tityus Ken. [ ?] 863", also 
round blue label. 

(5) 9 ms. label "Dynastes tityus 9 Ken [ ?] 863", also 
round blue label. 

(6) $ ms. label "Georgia", also round blue label. 

(7) 9 ms. label "Dynastes tytius $ [sic] Lin 862, also 
round blue label. 

(8) $ Printed label "L T." 

(9) 9 no labels. 

(10) 42 mm. long, label "863 Va." 

I was not sure that the handwriting of the first label quoted 
above for specimen No. ( 1 ) is the same as the handwriting of 
the label "Georgia" of the first specimen and of the labels of 
specimens (2) and (3) ; these last three labels were surely writ- 
ten by the same hand. 

Mr. Fisher comments thus : "The numbered specimens in the 
Rathvon Collection are probably the numbers assigned to the 
specimens by Rathvon for his numerical catalogue cited below, 
which was probably only partially completed and lost after his 
death. I have tried to check up these numbers but they do not 


correspond to any of the numbers used in the published cata- 

On comparing this list of specimens with Rathvon's com- 
munication to Lintner, one is tempted to believe that the first 
specimen is Judge Libhart's female of 1839 and that the addi- 
tional label "Georgia" has been carelessly transferred from 
another specimen ; that the second is the male "captured in the 
same county opposite Marietta", received ''twenty years later" 
Here, however, the possibilities of identification apparently 

A catalogue of the Rathvon Collection is preserved at the 
Museum. It was not accessible at the time of my visit, but 
Prof. Beck, Director of the Museum, gave me the following 
information concerning it in a letter of July 14, 1925: 

Rathvon's "Catalog" is an alphabetically constructed list of 
the cases in which the different species are stored. There is at 
the beginning a brief history of the collection (by S. S. R.). 
He started collecting in 1842. The cabinet contains a portion 
of the collection of Prof. Hentz, late of Alabama, begun by him 
about 1815. Hentz sold his collection to Prof. Haldeman (in 
1840). The small colored disks attached to the pins of all the 
insects are general indications of locality, blue North America, 
purple South America, green Europe, yellow Asia, etc. The 
historical account ends with: "A few State localities are at- 
tached to some of the insects, but this is more fully detailed in 
a numerical catalogue of species which in due time will be made 
to accompany the cabinet." This was probably never made. 

At another point S. S. R. says: "The insects from Pennsyl- 
vania in this collection were mainly obtained along the south- 
western margin of Lancaster County and the X. E. border of 
York C. A few were obtained from northwestern Pennsyl- 
vania but the larger number from the State are from the valley 
of the Susquehanna, near Marietta and the hills on both sides of 
the river from Bainbridge to McCall's Ferry. During the last 
ten years (from 1865) some additions were made to the col- 
lection from the vicinity of Lancaster City and the Conestoga.' 

There is no further information about numbers 862 and 863 
which Dr. Carroll had asked me to search for particularly. 

(To be continued.) 


Tsetse Flies Past and Present (Diptera: Muscoidea). 

By J. BEQUAERT, Harvard University Medical School, 

Boston, Massachusetts 

(Continued from page 164.) 

I believe that the psychology of the flies should also be con- 
sidered. Of course, my mentioning "psychology" in connection 
with tsetses cannot fail to elicit a smile from those of my 
readers to whom all animals and especially insects are pure 
mechanisms, some kind of glorified alarm-clocks. Yet I claim 
that the tsetse is an animal with what Professor Forel would 
call "a well-balanced mind." To be sure, it might fail miserably 
if subjected to any of the "intelligence tests" devised by modern 
psychologists for army recruits or terrestrial snails. But in 
tropical nature, with its many contingencies and hazards, our 
Glossina moves about fearlessly and manages to thrive notwith- 
standing the handicap of extremely slow reproduction. During 
the many tedious hours which I have spent travelling up and 
down the African rivers, I have had plenty of opportunity to 
watch the behavior of G. palpalis. What impressed me most 
was the unobtrusive, yet deliberate manner in which it stalks a 
prospective victim. 

There are many features in the external and internal anatomy 
of tsetses showing the high degree of specialization to which I 
have alluded before. Unfortunately it is not possible to enter 
into many anatomical details. The mouth-parts, the digestive 
tract, and the reproductive organs offer perhaps the most strik- 
ing peculiarities, some of which are of importance in connection 
with the role of the flies as vectors of disease. In the proboscis, 
the mandibles and maxillae have disappeared, the labrum and 
labium forming together a slender, needle-like tube, which en- 
closes the very long hypopharynx. At rest the proboscis is 
placed horizontally between the palpi ; but, when about to bite, 
it is lowered into a vertical position, the palpi remaining in the 
original place. The skin is pierced by the movements of the 
labella at the tip of the labium and the proboscis is thrust as 
far as its bulbous base will permit into the tissues of the victim, 
as a rule quite rapidly. 

xli, '30] ENTOMor.oi.M \i. NRWS 203 

The statement is frequently made that the bite of the tsetse 
is unusually painful and that, when a fly is infected with try- 
panosomes, the spot where it bites will swell up and become in- 
flamed. Personally I have found the immediate reaction to the 
bite to be extremely variable: sometimes it was felt at once, 
even before the fly had a chance to suck blood ; but often it was 
entirely overlooked. I have reached the conclusion that many 
factors influence the reaction of the victim, such as individual 
sensibility, the distance of a bite from a nerve, the temperature, 
the number of flies, and others. I have often observed G. pul- 
palis completing its meal on the leg of a native or on the nose 
of a dog, without the fly being in the least disturbed. In most 
cases the only reaction of the tissues near the bite is an itchy 
feeling of short duration ; sometimes there is a little swelling, 
and very rarely the bite is followed by considerable oedema 
persisting for a long time. On one occasion in the Belgian 
Congo, some twenty years ago, my entire left hand was very 
badly swollen following the bite of a single G. palpulis; but as 
no ill-effects followed, I cannot regard this as a symptom of the 
fly having been infected with disease. 

In the digestive tract the unusual development of the salivary 
glands and of the crop is most noteworthy. The crop, when 
filled to capacity, extends to unbelievable proportions. In a 
series of experiments with flies fed on blood in capillary glass 
tubes, my friend Dr. J. Rodhain and his co-workers found that 
in one meal G. inorsitans absorbs between 0.05 and 0.09 c.c. of 
liquid. G. palpalis may even be more voracious, since Macfie 
calculated that a female of this species is capable of imbibing 
1.6 times her body weight of blood, and a male 1.3 times his 
body weight. The complicated process of digestion has recently 
been studied by Lester and Lloyd ( 1 ( '28). During feeding, the 
salivary glands secrete a powerful anticoagulin, which delays 
the clotting of the blood while stored in the crop. As the blood 
passes from the crop to the midgut. a coagulin secreted in the 
mesenteron rapidly clots it, in order to retain the food in that 
region of the alimentary tract while draining and assimilation 

take place. 

(To be continued) 


Notes on Utah Vespidae (Hymen.). 1 


The following paper is one of a series of reports to be made 
on the Hymenoptera of Utah in the collection of the Brigham 
Young University. This collection has accumulated as a result 
of several summer expeditions conducted by the Department of 
Zoology and Entomology under the direction of Dr. Vasco M. 
Tanner. These expeditions have now covered the major part 
of the state of Utah and have also extended somewhat into the 
surrounding states. Some private collectors have also contrib- 
uted specimens to this collection. 

It is the purpose of this paper to report the species of Ves- 
pidae belonging to the subfamilies Masarinae, Polybiinae, Polis- 
tinae and Vespinae now represented in the Brigham Young 
University collection. Although this report includes chiefly the 
Utah species, specimens taken in surrounding states are also 
listed. It is thought that the collection is complete and exten- 
sive enough to be fairly representative of this region ; however, 
further collecting will probably result in an extended known 
range for some of the forms, and will doubtlessly reveal some 
additional species especially of Masarinae. 

In preparing this distributional list, the writer has used the 
classification suggested by Dr. J. C. Bequaert (1918) in his 
Vespidae of the Belgian Congo, except that at his suggestion 
the subfamily name Polybiinae has been used in place of Epipo- 
ninae and the genus name Vcspula instead of Vcspa. 

The writer wishes to express appreciation to Dr. Bequaert 
for his assistance in the determination of certain doubtful speci- 
mens and for his many helpful suggestions, and to Dr. Vasco 
M. Tanner, head of the Department of Zoology and Entomol- 
ogy, Brigham Young University, for his assistance and encour- 

Subfamily MASARINAE. 

dale, July, 1927, two males (Call) ; La Sal Mountains, June, 

1 Contribution number twenty from the Department of Zoology and 
Entomology, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah. 


1927, one male (Kartchncr) ; Ute Mountains, Utah-Colorado 
line, two males (Tanner) ; Provo, May, one male (Cottam) ; 
Uinta Mountains, Grandaddy Lakes, August, 1926, three fe- 
males; Aspen Grove, Timpanogos, one female (Tanner); 
Bryce Canyon, June, 1926, one female, ( Rasmussen) ; Zion 
National Park, one female (Liddle). 

WYOMING: Burnt Fork, June, 1926, one male (Brown). 

IDAHO: Paris Peak, Bear Lake County, five females and eight 
males, July, 1929 ( Hay ward). 

P. vespoidcs is apparently the commonest masarid occurring 
in the mountainous regions of Utah and surrounding states. 
The writer has seen this species in great numbers on Paris Peak, 
July 25, at an elevation of about 9,000 feet. They were visiting 
Mowers of Pcntstcinon sp. at the time they were observed. 


UTAH: Bear Ears, Elk Ridge, June, 1927, one male (Tanner). 

Zion National Park, June, 1929, three males and one female, 
(Tanner) ; Wellsville Canyon, June, 1926, one female (Hay- 
ward) ; Deep Creek Mountains, June, 1928, one female (Tan- 
ner) ; Logan, July, 1928, four females (Hay ward). 

Lake County, July, 1929, one male (Hay ward). 

5. PSEUDOMASARIS sp. UTAH : Aspen Grove, Timpanogos, two 
females (Tanner); Provo, one female (Kartchner). 

The three specimens listed above do not satisfactorily run 
to any of the species described in Dr. Bradley's key. They con- 
form most closely with P. occidental is Cress., but differ from 
this species in a number of important respects. The three speci- 
mens in the collection apparently agree very closely with each 
other in both morphological characters and coloration. 

(To be continued) 

A New Textbook of Entomology. 

Prof. Dr. H. Weber, now at the Technische Hochschule. Free 
City of Danzig, has in preparation a Lchrbitch dcr Entomologie, 
to be published by G. Fischer at Jena, and will be glad to receive 
papers bearing on this subject. 


On the Seventieth Birthday of Dr. Adelbert Seitz. 

- Wohl sind Keinem unter all die Bliiten 
Rosen ohne Dornen eingestreut ; 
Aber gliicklich ist, wer dennoch sinnig 
Sich des Schonen, Hohen, Wahren freut ; 
Ihm ersteht, in wunderbarem Glanze, 
Jede Bluine im Erinnerungskranze. 

Der Krone dcr Erinnerung, 

From the pen of A. V. Herff, a friend of his youth, we ex- 
tract the following from "The life of Dr. Adelhert Seitz": 

Dr. Seitz was born of a noble family of Mainz, on February 
24th, 1860, being the youngest of three children. Through the 
influence of his father he became interested in nature study in 
his sixth year ; he was, however, soon to lose this guiding spirit, 
as his father died when Adelbert was but eight years old. After 
this he lived with his mother at Darmstadt, until her death, 
which occurred when she was past ninety years of age. 

In 1871 he matriculated at the Darmstadt Gymnasium, and 
in 1879 at the Bernheim Gymnasium, whence he graduated. In 
1880 he entered the University of Giessen, where he studied 
medicine and natural history, especially zoology, and there re- 
ceived his degree in 1885 as Doctor of Medicine and Philosophy. 

In 1886 he absolved his military duties, and in 1887 made 
a voyage to Australia, to study the fauna of that country ; being 
without means, he traveled as the ship's doctor, and as at 
that time ships would remain in port for weeks at a time, he 
had the opportunity in Sydney to meet William MacLeay. This 
benevolent gentleman took him on a number of excursions into 
the interior, and it was there that he conceived the thought of 
writing his great work. Die Grossschmetterlinge dcr Erdc. 

In 1888 he made his first trip to Brazil; in 1890 he turned 
toward the East, visiting Japan, and then the Ethiopian region, 
and from then on he never rested, having now 59 voyages to 
his credit, including his present one to Brazil. 

In 1892 he accepted the directorship of the Zoological Garden 
at Frankfurt on Main ; at this time the financial condition of 
the garden seemed almost hopeless, several years preceding 
showing an annual deficit, and with no money on hand with 
which to purchase animals for the garden. Within ten years 
of his incumbency the garden had procured a rhinoceros, a hip- 
popotamus, more than forty ostriches, sixteen giraffes, dozens 
of leopards, over one hundred kangaroos, and many of the 
larger species of apes. 


In 1908 Dr. Seitz retired from his position as Director of 
the Zoological Gardens, receiving a liberal pension ; he then re- 
turned to Darmstadt, when and where he began his life's work. 
Die Grossschmetterlinge dcr lirdc. It was diligently carried 
on, and many parts were published, until the interruption caused 
by the great world war. For a number of years the publication 
was much curtailed but. thanks to the indefatigable spirit ot the 
editor, normal production has again been resumed and parts are 
coming along regularly. 

( )f no less importance are his many published narratives on 
his various expeditions, which deal not only with the faunas 
of the countries visited, but also with the countries themselves, 
their peoples and customs. Noteworthy also among his writings 
are Allgemeine Biologic dcr Schmetterlinge, Scidcnzucht in 
Dcntschland. numerous papers on Das System nnd Phylogenie 
der Schmetterlinge, and many others, all of which are original 
and characteristic of this versatile man, who stands in the first 
rank among the entomologists of all nations. 

With all his knowledge and many achievements. Dr. Seitz is 
extremely modest, entirely unselfish, and always willing to assist 

We join with his many friends and admirers in wishing him 
continued health and strength to carry on his chosen work. 
(The late) FRANK HAIMBACH. Philadelphia. 

Preliminary Report on Nomenclature Proposals. 

In the December issue of ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS, XL, 1929, 
pp. 329-333, Dr. C. W. Stiles, Secretary of the International 
Commission on Rules of Zoological Nomenclature, has pub- 
lished a series of proposals concerning suggested changes in the 
International Rules. 

A special committee on Nomenclature has been appointed by 
the Entomological Society of America to study these proposals 
and make a report. A preliminary report is here presented tor 
your consideration. If you have suggestions, either affirmative 
or otherwise, please transmit the same to the chairman of our 
committee, Dr. T. D. A. Cockerell, University of Colorado, 

(1) (1930B) We favor the 5/6ths amendment, which pre- 
vents the blocking of proposals by a single individual. 

(2) (1930D) We believe the "elimination" principle is un- 
workable as a rule. 


(3) (1930F) We think the "binary" papers should be re- 
jected, except certain early ones which have been currently 

(4) (1930G) We do not favor taking the 12th instead of 
the 10th edition of the Systema Naturae as the starting point. 
The date 1758 has long been accepted, and to change now would 
cause great inconvenience. 

(5) (1930H) Publication. It is very important to settle 
more precisely the meaning- of the term publication, as applied 
to taxonomic works. 

(a) Take the case of privately printed papers with new 
species, only to be obtained through the favor of the 
author. According to the rules, they are not published. 
(See the controversy between Hay and Osborn concerning 
priority in publishing a fossil elephant. Osborn claims that 
Hay has no priority, as his paper was privately printed and 
not sold.) 

(b.) Trouble has also occurred with reference to the distri- 
bution (by private favor) of separates prior to the publi- 
cation of the work from which they are taken. But if the 
separates are placed on sale prior to the publication of the 
whole part or volume, apparently they are validated. 

(c) A technical difficulty arises in the case of works widely 
distributed (especially to libraries) but not sold; thus for 
example the Memoirs of the U. S. National Academy, and 
the publications of many Experiment Stations. Usually 
they later appear on the market second hand, but at the 
time of original distribution they may be considered not 
technically published, though it seems that in practice they 
are always admitted. It might be recommended that part 
of the edition should always be placed on sale. 

(d) TVIore precise definition of a lay journal seems desir- 
able. It has been suggested that "Nature" is not to be 
recognized as a place of publication for new names. Few, 
however, would go so far as this. (cf. the famous "Er- 
langen list" as a case in dispute.) 

(e) It really seems necessary, or seems that it will event- 
ually be necessary to take further steps to define "publica- 
tion." Papers may now be published in the most obscure 
places, and technically "placed on sale" while remaining 
quite unknown to zoologists. It might be held necessary 
(as under the copyright law) to deposit copies in at least 


a certain number of central libraries, which would stamp 
them with the date of receipt. 

(f) Date assumed correct unless pro-red incorrect. In a 
good many cases proof is impossible, but the presumption 
one way or the other is very strong. \Ye think that in 
such cases the nearest approximation to the truth must be 

(6) We strongly support mdca as the ending for super- 
family names. Here is a point : some authors ( e.g. Van Duzee 
in his Catalogue of Hemiptern ) consider that a higher group 
name (family, etc.) dates from the first proposal of the group 
with a name, regardless of whether that name was in the form 
now current. Some hold that it dates only from the first publi- 
cation in proper (as now considered) form. This should be 
definitely settled. There are good cases in Hemiptera and 

(7) We think the Poche proposals are not desirable. 




(A) A matter which ought to be dealt with is this: what 
constitutes the designation of a type specimen ? It ought to 
be obligatory to label the holotype, and state the type locality 
(if more than one locality is given) in publication. When no 
designation appears in publication, and the "species" was a mix- 
ture, should a private mark override the work of a reviser who 
gives the characters of the two or more species involved, and 
restricts the name to one of them? Can a reviewer designate 
the type locality from among two or more given, and does that 
designation hold, in the absence of any printed indication to 
the contrary ? 

T. D. A. C. 

(B) Could we or should we ever adopt a rule that in the 
case of possible rival names for a species, when the indications 
are not quite clear, that name should be pref erred which is 
based on a type deposited in a large public museum ? There is, 
and will be, an increasing incubus of species badlv described 
(often in the wrong genus) by more or less irresponsible per- 
sons, sometimes for the sake of increasing the number of 
"types" in private collections. It is a difficult problem. 

T. D. A. C. 

List of the Titles of Periodicals and Serials Referred to by 

Numbers in Entomological Literature 

in Entomological News. 

1. Transactions of The American Entomological Society. Philadelphia. 

2. Entomologische Blatter, red. v. H. Eckstein etc. Berlin. 

3. Annals of the Carnegie Museum. Pittsburgh, Pa. 

4. Canadian Entomologist. London, Canada. 

5. Pysche, A Journal of Entomology. Boston, Mass. 

6. Journal of the New York Entomological Society. New York. 

7. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. Columbus, Ohio. 

8. Entomologists' Monthly Magazine. London. 

9. The Entomologist. London. 

10. Proceedings of the Ent. Soc. of Washington. Washington, D. C. 

11. Deutsche entomologische Zeitschrift. Berlin. 

12. Journal of Economic Entomology, Geneva, N. Y. 

13. Journal of Entomology and Zoology. Claremont, Cal. 

14. Entomologische Zeitschrift. Frankfurt a. M\, Germany. 

15. Natural History, American Museum of Natural History. New York. 

16. American Journal of Science. New Haven, Conn. 

17. Entomologische Rundschau. Stuttgart, Germany. 

18. Internationale entomologische Zeitschrift. Guben, Germany. 

19. Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society. Brooklyn, N. Y. 

20. Societas entomologica. Stuttgart, Germany. 

21. The Entomologists' Record and Journal of Variation. London. 

22. Bulletin of Entomological Research. London. 

23. Bollettino del Laboratorio di Zoologia generale e agraria della 

R. Scuola superiore d'Agricultura in Portici. Italy. 

24. Annales de la societe entomologique de France. Paris. 

25. Bulletin de la societe entomologique de France. Paris. 

26. Entomologischer Anzeiger, hersg. Adolf Hoffmann. Wien, Austria. 

27. Bolletino della Societa Entomologica. Geneva, Italy. 

28. Ent. Tidskrift utgifen af Ent. Foreningen i Stockholm. Sweden. 

29. Annual Report of the Ent. Society of Ontario. Toronto, Canada. 

30. The Maine Naturalist. Thornaston, Maine. 

31. Nature. London. 

32. Boletim do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janiero. Brazil. 

33. Bull, et Annales de la Societe entomologique de Belgique. Bruxelles. 

34. Zoologischcr Anzeiger, hrsg. v. E. Korschelt. Leipzig. 

35. The Annals of Applied Biology. Cambridge, England. 

36. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London. England. 

37. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society. Honolulu. 

38. Bull, of the Southern California Academy of Sciences. Los Angeles. 

39. The Florida Entomologist. Gainesville, Fla. 

40. American Museum Novitates. New York. 

41. Mitteilungen der schweiz. ent. Gesellschaft. Schaffhausen, Switzerland. 

42. The Journal of Experimental Zoology. Philadelphia. 

43. Ohio Journal of Sciences. Columbus, Ohio. 

44. Revista chileria de historia natural. Valparaiso, Chile. 

45. Zeitschrift fiir wissenschaftliche Jnsektenbiologie. Berlin. 

46. Zeitschrift fiir Morphologic und Okologie der Tiere. Berlin. 

47. Journal of Agricultural Research. Washington, D. C. 

48. Wiener entomologische Zeitung. Wien, Austria. 

49. Entomologische Mitteilungen. Berlin. 

50. Proceedings of the U. S. National Museum. Washington, D. C. 

51. Notulae entomologicae, ed. Soc. ent. helsingfors. Helsingfors, Finland. 

52. Archiv fiir Naturgeschichte, hrsg. v. E. Strand. Berlin. 

53. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science. London. 

54. Annales cle Parasitologie Humaine et Comparee. Paris. 

55. Pan-Pacific Entomologist. San Francisco, Cal. 

56. "Konowia". Zeit. fur systematische Insektenkunde. Wien, Austria. 

57. La Feuille des Naturalistes. Paris. 

58. Entomologische Berichten. Nederlandsche ent. Ver. Amsterdam. 

59. Encyclopedic entomologique, ed. P. Lechevalier. Paris. 

60. Stettiner entomologische Zeitung. Stettin, Germany. 

61. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences. San Francisco. 

62. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. New York. 

63. Deutsche entomologische Zeitschrift "Iris". Berlin. 

64. Zeitschrift des osterr. entomologen-Vereines. \Yien. 

65. Zeitschrift fur angewandte Entomologie, hrsg. K. Escherich. Berlin. 

66. Report of the Proceedings of the Entomological Meeting. Pusa. India. 

67. University of California Publications, Entomology. Berkeley, Cal. 

68. Science. New York. 

69. Comptes rendus hebdoma. des seances de 1' Academic des sciences. Paris. 

70. Entomologica Americana, Brooklyn Entomological Society. Brooklyn. 

71. Novitates Zoologicae. Tring, England. 

72. Revue russe d'Entomologie. Leningrad, USSR. 

73. Quarterly Review of Biology. Baltimore, Maryland. 

74. Sbornik entomolog. narodniho musea v Praze. Prague, Czechoslavokia. 

75. Annals and Magazine of Natural History. London. 

76. The Scientific Monthly. New York. 

77. Comptes rendus heb. des seances et memo, de la soc. de biologic. Paris. 

78. Bulletin Biologique de la France et de la Belgique. Paris. 

79. Koleopterologische Rundschau. Wien. 

80. Lepidopterologische Rundschau, hrsg. Adolf Hoffmann. Wien. 

81. Folia myrmecol. et termitol. hrsg. Anton Krausse. Bernau bci Berlin. 

82. Bulletin, Division of the Natural History Survey. Urbana, Illinois. 

83. Arkiv for zoologie, K. Svenska Vetenskapsakademien i. Stockholm. 

84. Ecology. Brooklyn. 

85. Genetics. Princeton, New Jersey. 

86. Zoologica, New York Zoological Society. New York. 

87. Archiv fur Entwicklungs mechanik der Organ., hrsg. v. Roux. Leipzig. 

88. Die Naturwissenschaften, hrsg. A. Berliner. Berlin. 

89. Zoologische Jahrbucher, hrsg. v. Spengel. Jena, Germany. 

90. The American Naturalist. Garrison-on-Hudson, New York. 

91. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences. Washington, D. C. 

92. Biological Bulletin. Wood's Hole, Massachusetts. 

93. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. England. 

94. Zeitschrift fur wissenschaftliche Zoolosrie. Leipzig. 

95. Proceedings of the Biological Soc. of Washington, Washington, D. C. 

96. La Cellule. Lierre, Belgium. 

Q7. Biologisches Zentralblatt. Leipzig. 

98. Le Naturaliste Canadien. Cap Rouge, Chicoutimi, Quebec. 

99. Melanges exotico-entomologiques. Par Maurice Pic. Monlins, France. 

100. Bulletin Intern., Academic Polonaise des Sci. et des Lett. Cra- 

covie, Poland. 

101. Tijdschrift voor entomologie, Nederlandsche Entomol. Vcr., 


102. Entomologiske Meddelelser, Entomologisk Forening, Copenhagen. 

103. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, Lawrence, Kansas. 

104. Revista de la Sociedad entomologica Argentina, Buenos Aires. 


(C) We need a rule on the permissible length of names 
e.g., that a specific name should not exceed six syllables. 

T. D. A. C. 

(D) I agree that in the future it ought to be made obligatory 
to label the holotype and state the type locality in publication. 
It seems obvious that the designation of type specimens can be 
made only by publication. Private marks or labels can have no 
validity until published any more than manuscript names for 
species. In view of our present system of rules it seems logical 
that the first published designation of a type (Lectotype) speci- 
men (from among the cotypes) should hold just as it does in 
the case of designating the type species of a genus. 

H. H. K, 

Entomological Literature 



Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, 
however, whether relating to American or exotic species will be recorded. 

The numbers within brackets [ ] refer to the journals, as numbered 
in the list of Periodicals and Serials published in the January and June 
numbers (or which may be secured from the publisher of Entomological 
News for lOc), in which the paper appeared. The number of, or annual 
volume, and in some cases the part, heft, &c. the latter within ( ) 
follows; then the pagination follows the colon : 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their 
first installments. 

Papers containing new forms or names have an preceding the 
author's name. 

(S) Papers pertaining exclusively to neotropical species, and not so 
indicated in the title, have the symbol (S) at the end of the title of 
the paper. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Rec- 
ord, Office of Experiment Stations. Washington. Also Review of Applied 
Entomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

jjtF"Note the change in the method of citing the bibliographical refer- 
ences, as explained above. 

Papers published in the Entomological News are not listed. 

GENERAL. Curran, C. H. Sonic insects from Barm 
Colorado. (S) [ 15] 61 1-620. ill. Forbes, S. A. Obituary. 
By H. Osborn. [12] 23: 472-473, ill. Frost, S. W. Col- 
lecting- leaf-miners on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. (S). 
[76] 1930: 443-449, ill. Gleason, H. A. A plea for sanity 
in nomenclature. [68] 71 : 458-459. Howard, L. O. Man 
and insects. [Jour. Maryland Acad. Sci.] 1 : 84-89. Mc- 
Colloch, J. W. In memoriam. By R. L. Parker. [103] 3: 


51-52 ill. Stewart, M. A. The insect visitants and inhab- 
itants of Melilotus alba. [6] 38: 43-46. Theobald, F. V. 
Obituary. [8] 66: 92-93; [9] 63: 95-96. Weiss, H. B.- 
Olaus Magnus, credulous zoologist, and archbishop of the 
sixteenth century. John Buncle's panegyric on the Spanish 
fly. [6] 38: 35-37; 49-51. 


Studies of the anatomy and histology of the reproductive 
system of the female codling moth. [67] 5: 135-164, ill. 
Beattie, M. V. F. Physico-chemical factors in relation to 
mosquito prevalence in ponds. [Jour. Ecology] 18: 67-80, 
ill. Cavanaugh & Tilden. Algal food, feeding and case- 
building habits of the larva of the midge fly, Tanytarsus 
dissimilis. [84] 11: 281-287, ill. Cecil, R. The alimentary 
canal of Philaenus leucophthalmus. [43] 30: 120-130, ill. 
Denis, J. R. Existe-t-il un dimorphisme dans le sexe fe- 
melle chez les Myzine? [24] 99: 15-22, ill. Dobzhansky, T. 
Genetical and environmental factors influencing the type 
of intersexes in Drosophila melanogaster. [90] 64: 261-271. 
Dolley, W. L. The relation between luminous intensity 
and the length of the refractory period in the eye of Erista- 
lis tenax. [42] 56: 185-191, ill. Fletcher, F. W. The ali- 
mentary canal of Phyllophaga gracilis. [43] 30: 109-119. ill. 
Gause, G. F. Studies on the ecology of the Orthoptera. 
[84] 11 : 307-325, ill. Grandi, G. Contributi alia conoscenza 
biologica e morfologica clegli Imenotteri melliferi e preda- 
tori. [Bol. Lab. Ent. 1st. Sup. Agr. Bologna] 2: 255-290, ill. 
Grandi, G. Studio morfologico e biologico della Blastoph- 
aga psenes. [Bol. Lab. Ent. R. Inst. Sup. Agr. Bologna] 2: 
314pp., ill. Grasse, P. P. Etude ecologique et biogeogra- 
phique sur les Orthopteres Francois. [78] 63: 489-537. Hase- 
man, L. The hessian fly larva and its method of taking 
food. [12] 23: 316-321, 'ill. Hollande, A. C. Remarques 
au sujet des teratocytes du sang des insectes : origine de 
ces cellules. [Arch. Zool. Exp. Gen. Notes et Rev.] 69: 1-11, 
ill. Rowland, L. J. Bionomical investigation of English 
mosquito larvae with special reference to their algal food. 
[Jour. Ecology] 18: 81-125, ill. Jahn, L. A. The internal 
anatomy of the myclas fly. [43] 30: 85-97, ill. Kriiger, E. 
Ein beitrag zur mimikryfrage. [17] 47: 13-14. Lutz & 
Hicks. An analysis by movietone of a cricket's chirp (Gryl- 
lus assimilis). [40] 1930: 14pp., ill. Marechal, P. Sur trois 


Hymenopteres se developpant dans un cocon en mosaique 
(jMiscophus spurius; Oxybelus bipunctatus ; Mutilla rufi- 
pes). [Mem. Soc. Ent. Belgique] 23: 23pp., ill. Morland, 
D. M. T. On the causes of swarming in the honey bee 
(Apis mellifera) : An explanation of the brood food theory. 
[35] 17: 137-149, ill. Pesola, V. A. Banaanikarpanen 
(Drosophila melanogaster) perinnollisyystieteen palveluk- 
sessa. [Luonnon Ystava] 33: 73-86, ill. Rau, P. Mortality 
of Polistes annularis wasps during hibernation. [4] 62: 
81-83. Staniland, L. N. Presence of a yeast in the death 
watch beetle. [31] 125:635. Ulrich, W. Die strepsipteren- 
mannchen als insekten mit halteren an stelle der vorder- 
fliigel. [46] 17: 552-624, ill. 

by. Studies in American spiders : genera Ceratinopsis, Ce- 
ratinopsidis and Tutaibo. [6] 38: 15-33, ill. Bonnet, P. 
Les araignees exotiques en Europe. Observations stir deux 
Heteropodes de la Guinee et sur deux Mygales de la Guy- 
ane, gardees en captivite en France. [24] 99: 49-64, ill. 
Jacot, A. P. Shorter articles and discussion. Biological 
notes on the moss-mites. [90] 64: 285-288. 

G. Die klassification der Coniopterygiden auf grund der 
recenten und fossilen gattungen. [Arch. Klass. Phylog. 
Ent.] 1 : 98-114, ill. * Jordan, K. Two new American fleas. 
[71] 35: 268-269, ill. Krawany, H. Trichopterenstudien 
im gebiete der lunzer seen. [Int. Rev. Ges. Hydro. & Hydro., 
Leipzig] .23: 417-427, ill. Sikes, E. K. Larvae of Cerato- 
phyllus wickhami and other species of fleas. [Parasitology] 
22: 242-259, ill. 

ORTHOPTERA. Karney, H. H. Phylogenetische und 
tiergeographische erwagungen zur systematik der Rhaphi- 
dophorinen. (Gryllacridae). [Arch. Klass. Phylog. Ent.] 
1 : 57-76, ill. *Uvarov, B. P. Notes on new or less-known 
Holarctic Decticinae (Tettigoniidae). [75] 5: 400-405, ill. 

HEMIPTERA. *Beamer, R. H. Two Erythroneura 
(grape leaf hoppers) damaging apple in Kansas (Cicadelli- 
dae). [103] 3: 49-50. Borner, C. Beitrage zu einem neuen 
system der Blattlause. [Arch. Klass. Phylog. Ent. | 1: 115- 
194. Bueker, E. D. Phenacoccus wilma'ttae. [4] 62 : 93-94, 


ill. *Davis, W. T. The distribution of cicadas in the United 
States with descriptions of new species. [6] 38: 53-72, ill. 
*DeLong, D. M. A new species of bean leafhopper from 
Haiti. [4] 62: 92-93, ill. Coding, F. W. Symmyniical notes 
on Membraddae. [6] 38: 39-42. *Lawson, P. B. Another 
season's trap-lighting of leafhoppers. [K>3] 3: 35-43. Mar- 
shall, G. E. Some observations on ( )rius (Triphleps) in- 
sidiosus. [103] 3:29-32. *Tuthill, L. D. Four new species 
of the Deltocephalus group (Cicadellidae). 1 103] 3: 44-47. 
*Walley, G. S. Heteroptera from the north shore of the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence. [4] 62: 75-81, ill. 

LEPIDOPTERA. *Bryk, F. Zwei neue Sematuriden. 
(S). [20] 45: 16, ill. *Niepelt, W. Neue falter. (S). [14] 
44: 18-19. *Rober, J. Neue falter. (S). [14] 44: 19-21, ill. 
*Schreiter, R. Contribucion al estudio biologico de los 
Papilionidos del norte Argentine y Papilio argentinus. 
[Univ. Nac. Tucuman Mus. Hist. Nat.] 2: 19pp., ill. Tarns, 
W. H. T. A note on certain species of the genus Tirathaba 
(Pyral.). [22] 21: 73. 

DIPTERA. *Bau, A. Vier neue Cuterebra-arten aus 
Sudamerika. (Oestridae). [56] 9: 81-89. *Curran, C. H.- 
Three new Diptera from Canada. [6] 38:73-76. da Costa 
Lima, A. Sobre a revalidagao do genero Taeniorhynchus 
(Culicidae). [Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz] 23: 105-108. En- 
derlein, G. Der heutige stand der klassifikation der Simuliiden. 
[Arch. Klass. Phylog. Ent.j 1 : 77-97, ill. *Frey, R. Eine 
neue mittelamerikanische Dipterengattung mit gestielten 
augen. [51] 6: 44-48. Johnson, C. W. Some notes on mos- 
quitoes. [Bull. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist.] 1930: 16-20, ill. 
Keilin & Tate On certain semi-carnivorous anthomyid 
larvae. [Parasitology] 22: 168-181, ill. *Lengersdorf, F'.- 
Die ausbeute der deutschen Chaco-Expedition 1925-26. 
Diptera. Lycoriidae (Sciaridae). (S). |5(>j 9: 55-59. *Lind- 
ner, E. Die ausbeute der deutschen Chaco-Expedition 
1925-26. Diptera. Richardiidac. (S). |56| 9: 60-62. Painter, 
R. H. Notes on Kansas bot Hies. | ( k-stridae). [103] 3: 
32-35. *Prell, H. Zur kenntnis von ban und entstehung 
einiger brutbildtypen bei rindenbriitenden borkenkafern. 
[46] 17: 625-648, ill. *Van Duzee, M. C. Xew species of 
Dolichopodidae from North America and the West Indies. 
[4] 62: 84-87. 


COLEOPTERA. Alluaud, C. Additions aux Carabidae 
du Coleopterorum Catalogus edite par W. Junk et S. Schenk- 
ling. [24] 99: 5-8. Bertrand, H. Captures et elevages de 
larves de Coleopteres aquatiques. [24] 99: 65-77, ill. Blair, 
K. G. --Oxford University Greenland Expedition, 1928. 
Coleoptera from Greenland. [75] 5: 394-400. *Brown, W. 
J. New species of Coleoptera. [4] 62 : 87-92. Dalla' Torre 
& Voss. Coleopterorum Catalogus. Pars 110. Curculioni- 
dae: Archolabinae, Attelabinae, Apoderinae. 42pp. *Fleu- 
tiaux, E. Liste des Melasidae de la Guyane Frangaise et 
descriptions d'especes nouvelles. [24] 99: 29-47. Hetschko, 
A. Coleopterorum Catalogus. Pars 107. Colydiidae. 124 pp. 
Pars 108. Phalacridae, Mycetophagidae, Tretothoracidae, 
Jacobsoniidae, Cavicoxumidae, Gnostidae. 26 pp. Pars 109. 
Cucujidae, Thorictidae (Suppl.), Cossyphodidae (Suppl.). 
122 pp. Hofeneder, K. Einige beobachtungen an Xenos 
vesparum (Strepsiptera). [20] 45: 13-16, ill., cont. *Maulik, 
S. New injurious Hispinae. (S). [22] 21: 45-56, ill. Rob- 
erts, A. W. R. A key to the principal families of Coleoptera 
in the larval stage. [22] 21: 57-72. Struble, G. R. The 
biology of certain Coleoptera associated with bark beetles 
in western yellow pine. [67] 5: 105-134, ill. Tragardh, I. 
Some aspects in the biology of Longicorn beetles. [22] 
21 : 1-8, ill. 

HYMENOPTERA. *Gahan, A. B. Synonymical and 
descriptive notes on parasitic Hymenoptera. [50] 77, Art. 
8: 12pp. Neave, F. Vespula intermedia in Manitoba. [4] 
62: 83-84, ill. Peterson, A. How many species of Tricho- 
gramma occur in North America? [6] 38: 1-8, ill. *Schwarz, 
H. F. Anthidiine bees from Oregon with a description of 
a new species. [6] 38: 9-14. 


Mr. J. D. Gunder telegraphed to the Editor of the NEWS on 
May 1 : "Dr. Barnes of Decatur passed away this morning." 
Mr. Gunder devoted his article in our issue for last October to 
Dr. WILLIAM BARNES and his collection, recording some en- 
tomological reminiscences of his subject. In that paper the 
statement was made that Dr. Barnes' health was not as good 
as usual and it is with deep regret that we now register his 
departure from among us. 

JULY, 193O 


Vol. XLI 

No. 7 



Gunder North American Institutions Featuring Lepidoptera XVI . 
Howard A List of Entomological Societies in the United States and 


Pack Notes on Utah Coleoptera 

Hayward Notes on Utah Vespidae (Hymen.) 

Bequaert Tsetse Flies Past and Present (Diptera: Muscoidea) .'. . 
Calvert Dynastes tityus (Scarabaeid) in Pennsylvania and the Rath- 

von and Auxer Collections of Coleoptera 

Fall On Tropisternus sublaevis Lee. and T. quadristriatus Horn 

Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) 

The National Museum of Costa Rica 

XI International Congress of Zoology 

The Rocky Mountain Conference of Entomologists 

Entomological Literature 


Logan Square 

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of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

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Plate XX. 





VOL. XLI. JULY, 1930 No. 7 

North American Institutions Featuring Lepidoptera. 

XVI. Peter Redpath Museum, Montreal, Canada. 

By J. D. GUXDER, Pasadena, California. 

(Plate XX.) 

Peter Redpath is remembered because of his munificent dona- 
tions to the McGill University and probably the most note- 
worthy is the Museum which bears his name. It was opened 
in 1882 primarily as a research depository for study collections 
in connection with the school and occupies a conspicuous site 
on a terrace overlooking the campus amid rows of stately elm 
and maple trees. The structure which is shown on Plate XX 
is of grey limestone of Greek design and like other buildings 
on the campus and in Montreal, has that solid, lasting appear- 
ance so characteristic of the metropolis. Though not a large 
museum and comparatively unknown, it is of special interest 
to the entomological world because of its being the depository 
of important collections of Canadian insects. Montreal has long 
been a center of entomological activity. 

In the September, 1901, ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS, there ap- 
pears an article by Mr. Hal Newcomb, entitled "A Trip to 
Montreal," giving an account of the Lepidoptera collections 
which he found in the city. At that time there were a number 
of private collections, more or less extensive, well cared for 
and accurately labeled, but those in museums were negligible, 
for as yet the Redpath Museum had not developed its 
entomological department and the Lyman Entomological Room 
was non-existent. 

Readers of the NEWS may recall the tragic death of Mr. 
H. H. Lyman and his wife in the disaster of the S. S. Empress 
of Ireland, which was sunk by collision in the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence, outward bound, on the 2 ( 'th of May. 1914. Our 
pages contain an obituary note in Vol. XXV. pp. 335-6, and a 
more extended account of his life, with portrait and partial list. 



of writings on Lepidoptera, is given in the Canadian Entomol- 
ogist, Vol. XLVI, p. 221. Mr. Lyman was an industrious col- 
lector and built up not only a splendid cabinet of Lepidoptera 
and their types, but a good library at the same time. In his 
will he expressed the wish that the McGill University, in accept- 
ing his collections, would provide a suitable place in the 
Museum to house the cabinets, etc., and that the room be 
known as "The Lyman Entomological Room." He provided as 
well, a sum of money for the care, maintenance and augmenta- 
tion of the collection. There was also a proviso that the library 
be kept in close proximity, a provision which is thoroughly 
appreciated by anyone doing taxonomic work. 

When the material was delivered to the Museum it consisted 
of 4 cabinets of 30 drawers, each containing about 12,000 
specimens, and innumerable boxes of all kinds chuck-full of 
unmounted and unsorted examples. During the latter part of 
his life Mr. Lyman's hobby had unfortunately out-grown the 
time he was able to devote to it. With a knowledge of this 
condition in mind the University authorities appointed Mr. 
Albert F. Winn to take charge of the collections and the 
entomological department of the University and he has proved 
a very capable curator. Mr. Winn was born in Montreal in 
1870 and has always made his home there. He is a member of 
various entomological societies, including the Entomological 
Society of London since 1915. At different times he has held 
offices in the local Branch Society and is a steady attendant at 
all its meetings. Much credit is due Mr. Winn for keeping 
active and alive the old time collecting spirit around Montreal. 
Too often do entomological centers die because one never sees 
new faces and there seems no one capable of looking into the 
future in the interest of the local group or of themselves. Mr. 
Winn has published much in the Canadian Entomologist, be- 
ginning about 1891, and also a number of his papers have 
appeared in the NEWS. He has sent over 50 new species for 
description to specialists, never caring to write them up himself, 
but allowing others to take that responsibility. 

Today the Henry Lyman collection has grown to over 60,000 
named Lepidoptera and in other orders the collection has in- 


creased from next to nothing to more than 200,000 specimens. 
Of almost equal historical value to Lyman's types are his speci- 
mens of practically everything collected by H. K. Morrison in 
the early '80s, on his various annual excursions to the western 
United States. These specimens are generally in series of four 
of a kind and are part and parcel of the same lots sent to 
W. H. Edwards and others for naming. Any that were sent 
out by Morrison before descriptions were in print, were subse- 
quently shown to Edwards and identified by him. 

Besides the Lyman types there is also in the Museum the 
collection and types of the Rev. T. W. Fyles. 

The old D'Urban collection of North American material is 
of little value. 

The Pearson collection is a mixed lot of Canadian and United 
States specimens, though well preserved. 

The Bowles collection is fairly large and many fine moths are 
represented. In the old days this collection was considered 
quite good. 

During this last year the private collection of North American 
Lepidoptera of Mr. Winn has been acquired by the Museum. 
It is probably the largest Canadian collection ever made, being 
rich in named local Lepidoptera in long series and consists of 
more than 15,000 specimens. Throughout the years Mr. Winn 
has made many trips in eastern Canada and elsewhere. The 
Winn collection of exotic Lepidoptera and North American 
Coleoptera was presented to the Lyman Entomological Room 
in 1915. 

Aside from the North American fauna, which is given 
preference in every way, there are many Lepidoptera from 
other regions ; notably the butterflies of India of which three 
good collections have been brought together. One made by 
the late Lionel de Niceville, collected in Northern India near 
Sikkim and presented by Dr. C. J. S. Bethume ; another from 
Ceylon, made by Dr. Arthur Willey of the University while 
he resided in those parts, and the last made by Dr. A. A. Dun- 
lop who stayed many years in Bengal. Recently the Museum 
has purchased many fine butterflies from that famous Euro- 
pean collector, Signer O. Querci. This material is mostly from 


Italy, Spain and Portugal and is noted for its absolutely perfect 
condition. More will be said in later chapters about Mr. 
Querci, who is at present on a field collecting trip in Cuba. 

In conclusion regarding the collections, I might add that many 
of the rare species collected by the early lepidopterists of the 
Province of Quebec and the older members of the local Soci- 
eties have found their way into the safe-keeping of the Peter 
Redpath Museum. Many insect labels bear the faded signa- 
tures of Couper, Barwick, Caulfield, Knetzing, Gibb, Tren- 
holme, Holmes, Fyles, Denney, Chagnon and others. Most of 
these good fellows have long since passed away, but their names 
are familiar on the first pages of Canadian entomological 

The Lyman Entomological Room is vised as the monthly 
meeting place of the local club, the Montreal Branch of the 
Entomological Society of Ontario, and Mr. Winn has asked me 
to say that visiting collectors and research workers are partic- 
ularly invited to attend their meetings. All entomologists are 
welcome at anytime, however. 

A List of Entomological Societies in the United States 

and Canada. 

Doctor L. O. Howard writes : "A few years ago the Ento- 
mologischc Zcitschrift ( May 8, 1926) published a list of the 
German entomological societies, indicating the number of mem- 
bers. There were thirteen in all, with a total membership of 
562. I think it would be interesting to all American ento- 
mologists if you would publish in Entomological News a list 
of the entomological societies of the United States with an 
indication of their membership." 

We heartily endorse Dr. Howard's suggestion and request 
the secretaries of all entomological societies and clubs in the 
United States and Canada to send to the Editor of Entomo- 
logical A T ezvs, Zoological Laboratory, University of Pennsyl- 
vania, Philadelphia, Penna., a statement of the addresses and 
dates of foundation of their respective associations, the names 
of the president and secretary of each and the number of active 
(or resident), of corresponding and of honorary members, that 
the NEWS may bring together and publish in its pages just such 
a list as Dr. Howard has in mind. 


Notes on Utah Coleoptera. 1 

By the late H. J. PACK. 

This paper records the occurrence of a number of species of 
beetles, some of which have not heretofore been listed from 
Utah. Some of the wire-worms and long-horned beetles oc- 
casionally become rather destructive to field crops or shade or 
forest trees. The writer wishes to thank Dr. E. C. Van Dyke 
for his kindness in determining the Cerambycids and Mr. M. 
C. Lane for naming the Elaterids. 

Family CERAMBYCIDAE, Long-horned Beetles. 

1. PRIONUS CALIFORNICUS Mots. Collected at Bountiful, 
August 24, 1929 (Pack) ; Fort Duchesne, July 10, 1926 (C. J. 
Sorenson), July 20, 1927 (K. Sorenson), August 1, 1927 (W. 
Sorenson); Logan; Ogden, July 12, 1906; Provo, 1924 (C. J. 

2. TRAGOSOMA DEPSARIUM (L.). Logan, August 5, 1903, 
August 5, 1921 (G. E. King), September 12, 1923 (Knowlton), 
September 23, 1923 (Pack). 

3. ASEMUM ATRUM Esch. Ephraim, June 17, 1904; Logan, 
June 22, 1903 (twenty specimens) ; Providence, July 15, 1904. 

4. CRIOCEPHALUS PRODUCTUS Lee. Logan, July 14, 1929 

5. ROM ALBUM HISPICORNE (L.). Provo, August 26, 1925 
(C. J. Sorenson) ; on poplar trees at a tourist auto park, Salt 
Lake City, August 1929 (Pack). 

6. RHAGIUM LINEATUM Oliv. Logan, July 9, 1904, May 
29, 1919 (Henderson). 

7. STENOCORUS VESTITUS Hald. Bountiful, June 1929 
(Pack) ; Logan Canyon, July 4, 1909 (Hoff). 

8. S. VESTITUS ATER Leng. Logan, June 15, 1929 (Pack). 

9. EVODINUS MONTICOLA (Rand.). Richfield, June 13, 1903. 

10. ACMAEOPS STHPILOSA Lee. Bountiful. July 20, 1929 
(Pack); Pleasant Grove, June 21, 1929 (Pack). 


1 Contribution from the Department of Entomology, Utah Agricultural 
Experiment Station. This manuscript was prepared by G. F. Knowlton 
after the death of Dr. Pack (died January 5, 1930); therefore any 
mistakes in compiling the list should be nvditi-d to the one preparing 
it for publication. Publication authorized by Director, February 7, 1930 


12. ROSALIA FUNEBRIS Mots. Logan, September 3, 1923 
(Knowlton), September 13, 1923 (Pack), July 1929 (Pack); 
Salt Lake City (Maughan). 

13. SEMANOTUS LIGNEUS Fab. Logan, April 17, 1905. 

14. S. NICOLAS (White). Logan, April 8, 1918. 

15. CALLIDIUM ANTENNATUM Newn. Logan, April 10, 
1904, April 23, 1905 ; Payson, April 18, 1904. 

16. ANTHOPHILAX MIRIFICUS Bland. Logan, July 9, 1904. 

17. XYLOTRECHUS ANNOSus (Say). Lewiston, May 23, 
1923 (Knowlton). 

18. NEOCLYTUS CAPREA (Say). A number of adults were 
reared from apple wood, by school children at Castleton, spring 
of 1929; Logan, April 26, 1916 (C. J. Sorenson). 

19. CROSSIDIUS DISCOIDEUS (Say). Brigham, September 2, 
1927 (Knowlton) ; Logan, September 7, 1906. 

20. BATYLE IGNICOLLIS (Say). Fairview, July 20, 1929 

21. MONOCHAMUS SCUTELLATUS (Say). Draper, August 
1909 (Titus) ; Logan, August 14, 1921 (G. E. King) ; Logan 
Canyon; Provo, August 15, 1924 (C. J. Sorenson). 

July 3, 1912 (Hagan) ; Logan; Manti, June 16, 1903. Several 
specimens were collected at Franklin, Idaho, May 24, 1923 
( Knowlton ) . 

23. TETRAOPES FEMORATUS Lee. Deseret, July 1, 1926 
(Knowlton) ; Fort Duchesne, August 1, 1927 (C. J. Soren- 
son) ; Logan, July 20, 1927 (Knowlton) ; Ogden, June 12, 
1927 (Knowlton) ; Pleasant Grove, July 23, 1929 (Knowlton) ; 
Provo, July 25, 1927 (Knowlton); Syracuse, June 29, 1929 
(Knowlton). This form is very common in northern Utah. 


24. CALOPUS ANGUSTUS Lee. Hyrum, April 10, 1916; Lo- 
gan, April 6, 1905; Ogden, April 7, 1915. 

25. COPIDITA BICOLOR (Horn). Logan, August 6, 1907 

26. OXACIS SERICEA Horn. Numerous on Russian thistle 
at Grants ville, July 24, 1929 (Knowlton) ; Plain City, August 
5, 1903 ; Willard, August 7, 1903. 


Family ELATERIDAE, Click Beetles. 

27. AEOLUS DORSALJS (Say). In clover at Garland, August 
2, 1929 (Pack); Logan, July 20, 1929 (Pack); Ogden, May 
23, 1929 (Knowlton). 

28. LIMONIUS INFUSCATUS Mots. Bountiful, May 11, 1929 
(Pack and Janes) ; Logan, April 6, 1905; Millcreek, April 18, 
1910 (Titus). 

29. L. BASILLARIS (Say). Logan. 

30. PHELETES CALIFORNICUS (Mann.) Lewiston, Septem- 
ber 9, 1929 (Pack and Knowlton). 

31. ATHOUS PALLIDIPENNIS Mann. Logan, July 30, 1904. 

32. LUDIUS MORULUS (Lee.). Logan, July 9, 1904. 

33. L. PROPOLA (Lee.). Bountiful, July 12, 1929 (Pack 
and Janes). 

34. L. FALLAX (Say). Fairview, July 10. 1929 (Pack); 
Divide, Sardine Canyon, June 26, 1929 (Pack). 

35. L. LEUCASPIS (Germ.). Salt Lake City, June 6, 1929 
( Knowlton ) . 

36. L. INFLATUS (Say). Cache Junction, June 3, 1912 
(Hagan) ; Logan, May 17, 1929 (Knowlton) ; Mantua, June 1, 
1929 (Pack) ; Divide, Sardine Canyon, June 26, 1929 (Pack). 

37. L. SEMIVITTATUS (Say). Logan; Trenton, April 29, 
1927 (Knowlton). 

38. HEMICREPIDIUS CARBON ATUS Lee. Austin, June 25, 
1926 (Knowlton) ; Logan, June 20, 1903 and July 13, 1907. 

39. H. HIRTUS Cand. Logan, July 20, 1929 (Pack and 
Knowlton ) . 

40. CRYPTOHYPNUS SQUALIDUS (Lee.). Logan, September 
2, 1903. 

41. AGRIOTES FUCOSUS (Lee.). Newton, July 1927 (Pack). 

42. A. FEKRUGIXEIPENNIS Lee. Logan, July 5, 1906 and 
July 4, 1907. 

43. DOLOPIUS LATERALIS Esch. Bountiful, May 25. 1929 
(Pack); Cache Junction, April 15, 1906; Logan, August 5, 
1903 and September 12, 1904; Mantua. June 1, 1929 (Pack); 
Provo, June 10, 1906. 

44. MELANOTUS FISSILIS (Say). St. George, June 17, 1923 


45. M. OREGONENSIS (Lee.). Bountiful, June 20, 1929 
(Pack); Tooele, June 14, 1929 (Knowlton). 

46. CARDIOPHORUS GAGATES Er. Logan, 1923 (Knowlton). 

47. C. TENEBROSUS Lee. Logan, July 9, 1904; Mantua, 
June 1, 1929 (Pack). 

48. C. CARBON ATUS Bl. Bountiful, May 29, 1929 (Pack 
and Janes) ; Logan, April 2, 1905 and April 10, 1910. 

Notes on Utah Vespidae (Hymen.). 

(Continued from page 205). 
Subfamily POLYBIINAE. 

6. MISCHOCYTTARUS FLAviTARsis Sauss. UTAH : Zion National 
Park, August, 1926, five females (Tanner) ; Bryce Canyon, two 
females (Tanner) ; Moab, June, 1927, three females and two 
males (Tanner, Cottam, Kartchner, Call) ; Ute Mountains, 
Utah-Colorado line, June, 1927, one female (Tanner) ; Provo, 
nine females (Tanner, Call, Hay ward) ; Rosevere Creek, Raft 
River, June, 1927, one female (Tanner) ; Logan, July, 1926, 
two males (Hay ward) ; Logan Canyon, Tony's Ranger Sta- 
tion, June, 1926, one female (Brown) ; Springville, one male 
(Hayward) ; Raft River Mountains, El. 10,000 ft., one female 

CALIFORNIA: Stanford University, July, 1921, two females 

ARIZONA: Bisbee, one female (Curtis). 

IDAHO: Moscow, one female (Sudweeks) ; Burley, two fe- 
males (Beck). 

An interesting observation in connection with the specimens 
of this species in the collection is the close correlation between 
coloration and locality. While the species as a whole is ex- 
tremely variable in color and size, the specimens from a given 
locality have a marked likeness in this respect. Specimens from 
southern Utah, California, and Arizona are on the whole much 
lighter in coloration and generally smaller in size than are those 
from northern Utah and Idaho. The specimens from any 
limited area are remarkably alike ; however, there seem to be 
some sexual variations, since, in the five specimens from Moab, 


the mesothorax is considerably darker in the males than in the 

Subfamily POLISTINAE. 

National Park, July, 1925, eleven females (Tanner) ; Pine Val- 
ley, June, 1929, one female (Tanner) ; Lynndyl, September, 
one female (Tanner) ; Sheep Creek, Duchesne County, June, 
1926, one female (Hay ward) ; Central, June, three females 
(Tanner) ; La Sal, June, 1927, seven females (Call) ; Ute 
Mountains, Utah-Colorado line, June, 1927, one female (Tan- 
ner) ; Wellsville Canyon, June, 1926, six females (Tanner, 
Hay ward). 

CALIFORNIA: Harbor City, San Pedro, one female (Beck). 

NEVADA: Lehman Cave, Mt. Wheeler, one female (Tanner). 

ARIZONA: Kiabab Forest, July, 1927, one female (Call). 

According to Dr. Bequaert, P. f. var. aurifcr and P. /. var. 
variatus show such a close intergradation that it is often prac- 
tically impossible to satisfactorily separate certain specimens of 
the two varieties. In Utah, these two forms apparently may 
occupy the same locality and their exact ranges are not well 
established. Dr. Bequaert suggests, however, that aurifer is 
the more western and variatus the more eastern form in the 

seventeen females, seven of which were taken in January (Tan- 
ner, Hay ward) ; Logan, August and September, two males 
(Hayward); Aspen Grove, Timpanogos, three females (Tan- 
ner) ; Riverdale, June, 1926, two females (Tanner, Brown). 

IDAHO: Lava Hot Springs, four females (Beck); Driggs, 
June, 1928, one female (Kartchner) ; Paris, July to September, 
seventeen specimens (Hayward). 

9. POLISTES FUSCATUS var. FLAVUS Cress. UTAH : St. George, 
August, 1926, thirteen females (Tanner) ; Santa Clara, August, 

1926, two females (Tanner). 

Present records seem to indicate that this species is to be 
found in Utah only in the Lower Sonoran Zone of the extreme 
southern part. 

10. POLISTES .FUSCATUS var. APAC 'iirs Sauss. UTAH: St. 
George, eight females, two of which were taken in December, 
1923 (Tanner) ; Bluff, San Juan River, June, 1 ( >27, thirty-seven 
females and two males (Tanner, Cottam, Call, Kartchner); 
Green River, June, 1927, two females (Tanner); Moab, June, 

1927, seventeen females (Tanner, Cottam, Call, and Rasmus- 


11. POLISTES CANADENSIS L. var. ARIZONA: Kiabab Forest, 
Rim of Grand Canyon, July. 1927, twenty-eight females (Tan- 
ner, Cottam, Rasmussen, Call). 

Dr. Tanner reports that this form was very common on the 
rim of the Grand Canyon of the Colorado on the day the above 
collection was made. Dr. Bequaert states that this form is 
apparently without a variety name, but that it is entirely distinct 
from thr P. canadcnsis L. which occurs in tropical America. 

Subfamily VESPINAE. 

12. VESPULA ARENARIA Fab. ( = diabolica Sauss.) UTAH: 
Wellsville Canyon, June, 1926, two queens (Tanner) ; Utah 
Lake, East Side, one worker (Beck) ; Aspen Grove, Timpano- 
gos, twenty-one workers and two males (Tanner). 

IDAHO: Moscow, one queen (Sudweeks) ; Driggs, June, 1928, 
one worker (Kartchner). 

Although fairly abundant in the northern part of the state, 
the species seems to be far less common than its variety fcrnaldi. 

13. VESPULA ARENARIA Fab. ( ; = diabolica Sauss.) var. fcr- 
naldi Lewis. UTAH : Riverdale, June, 1926, seven queens (Tan- 
ner, Brown, Hay ward) ; Bear Ears, Elk Ridge. June, 1927, two 
queens (Tanner, Call) ; Lakota, Bear Lake, June, 1926, three 
queens (Tanner) ; Summit Danial's Canyon, El. 8,000 ft., July, 
1926, one queen and one worker (Tanner, Hay ward) ; Sheep 
Creek, Duchesne County, June, 1926, two queens (Cottam, 
Hayward) ; Logan Canyon, Tony's Ranger Station, June, 1926, 
five queens (Cottam, Brown, Hayward) ; La Sal Mountains, 
one queen (Tanner) ; Farr West, June, 1926, one queen (Hay- 
ward) ; Payson, one worker (Call) ; Aspen Grove. Timpanogos, 
ten workers and one male (Tanner) ; Provo, twenty-five work- 
ers (Hayward). 

CALIFORNIA: Stanford University, May, 1923, one worker 

WYOMING: Fort Bridger, June, 1926, one queen (Brown); 
Burnt Fork, June, 1926, one queen (Hayward). 

COLORADO: Mesa Verda National Park, two queens (Call, 

IDAHO: Paris, six queens and fifteen workers (Hayward). 

14. VESPULA ARCTICA Rohw. UTAH : Aspen Grove, Timpano- 
gos, two males (Tanner). 

V '. arctica is apparently a rare form in Utah. 


15. VESPULA MACULATA L. UTAH : Three queens, six workers, 
one male (Tanner) ; Aspen Grove, Timpanogos, seven workers 
and two males (Tanner) ; Logan Canyon, Tony's Ranger Sta- 
tion, June, 1926, four queens (Cottam) ; Rosevere Creek, Raft 
River Mountains, June, 1927, three queens (Tanner) ; River- 
dale, June, 1926, two queens (Tanner, Brown) ; Lakota, Bear 
Lake, June, 1926, two queens (Tanner) ; Wellsville Canyon, 
June, 1926, one queen (Tanner). 

NEVADA: Leham Cave, Mt. Wheeler, June, 1928, one queen 

IDAHO: Paris, June and August, one queen and one worker 
(Hay ward). 

This species is well distributed throughout the state of Utah, 
especially in mountainous regions. 

16. VESPULA CONSOBRINA Sauss. UTAH: Riverdale, Weber 
River, June, 1926, one queen (Cottam) ; Deep Creek Moun- 
tains, June, 1928, one queen (Beck) ; Utah Lake, East Side, 
one queen (Beck) ; Logan Canyon, Tony's Ranger Station, 
June, 1926, one queen (Tanner). 

V '. consobrina is apparently not a common form in Utah, and 
the present records indicate the northern parts of the state as 
its chief range. 

17. VESPULA OCCIDENTALIS Cress. UTAH : St. George, eleven 
queens (two taken in December, 1925) and five workers (Tan- 
ner) ; Zion National Park. August, 1926, sixteen workers (Tan- 
ner) ; La Sal Mountains, June, 1927, four queens (Tanner, 
Kartchner) ; Moab, two queens (Call) ; Bryce Canyon, one 
worker (Tanner) ; Provo, one queen and three workers (Tan- 
ner, Cottam, Beck) ; Green River, one queen (Tanner) ; Doug- 
las, June, 1926, two workers (Tanner, Hay ward) ; Aspen 
Grove, Timpanogos, five workers (Tanner) ; Riverdale, June, 
1926, four queens ( Hay ward ); Wellsville, June, 192(>, tun 
queens (Tanner) ; Logan Canyon, Tony's Ranger Station, June, 
1926, two queens (Tanner, Brown) ; Summit Danial's Canyon, 
El. 8,000 ft., June, 1926, one queen (Hayward). 

CALIFORNIA: Stanford University. April and May, four 
queens and three workers (Tanner, Duncan) ; San Jose, two 
workers (Duncan) ; Berkeley, July, 1915, one worker (Smart). 

NEVADA: Lehman Cave, Mt. Wheeler, one queen (Tanner). 

COLORADO : Mesa Verda National Park, June, 1927, two 
queens (Call, Kartchner). 


IDAHO: Paris, twelve queens ( Hay ward ); Moscow, two 
workers (Sudweeks) ; Driggs, June, 1928, one queen and one 
worker (Kartchner) ; Lava Hot Springs, one queen (Beck). 

The records indicate that F. occidcntalis is the most evenly 
distributed of any of the species found in the state. It is prob- 
ably the most common form to be encountered throughout the 
entire region. 

18. VESPULA ATROPILOSA Sladen. UTAH : Sheep Creek, Du- 
chesne County, June, 1926, one queen (Cottam) ; Provo, June, 
1929, four queens (Hay ward); Utah Lake, East Side, four 
males (Beck) ; La Sal Mountains, one queen (Rasmussen) ; 
Logan, one queen (Hay ward). 

COLORADO : Mesa Verda National Park, June, 1927, one queen 

IDAHO: Paris, one queen (Hayward). 

19. VESPULA VULGARIS L. UTAH : Aspen Grove, Timpanogos, 
one male (Tanner) ; Summit of Danial's Canyon, June, 1926, 
(Hayward) ; Logan Canyon, Tony's Ranger Station, two 
queens (Tanner). 

CALIFORNIA : Berkeley, June, 1915, one worker (Smart). 
IDAHO: Lava Hot Springs, one queen (Beck). 


BEQUAERT, J. C. 1918. A Revision of the Vespidae of the 
Belgian Congo Based on the Collection of the American Mu- 
seum Congo Expedition, with a List of the Epthiopian Diplop- 
terous Wasps. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural 
History, Vol. XXXIX, Art. I, No. 9, pp. 1-384. 

BRADLEY, JAMES CHESTER. 1922. The Taxonomy of the 
Masarid Wasps, Including a Monograph of the North Ameri- 
can Species. University of California Publications, Technical 
Bulletins, College of Agriculture, Agricultural Experiment 
Station, Entomology, Vol. I, No. 9, pp. 369-464. 

CRESSON, E. T. 1887. Synopsis of the Families and Genera 
of the Hymenoptera of America, North of Mexico. Trans. 
Amer. Ent. Soc., Supplementary Volume. 

ESSIG, E. O. 1926. Insects of Western North America. The 
Macmillan Company, New York. 

LEWIS, H. W. 1897. Vespinae of the United States and Can- 
ada. Trans. Amer. Ent. Society, Vol. XXIV, pp. 169-192. 

SAUSSURE, HENRI DE. 1875. Synopsis of the American 
Wasps. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections No. 14, Smith- 
sonian Institution. 


Tsetse Flies Past and Present (Diptera: Muscoidea). 

By J. BEQUAERT, Harvard University Medical School, 

Boston, Massachusetts 

(Continued from page 203). 

The most baffling part of the whole history of tsetses is their 
viviparous mode of reproduction, which was discovered by Sir 
David Bruce ( 1895-1896) in Zululaml, probably with G. f>al- 
lidipcs. In this connection the reader will be amused by the 
following fabulous account of viviparity in the tsetse presented 
in all seriousness to the French Academy by L. de Castelnau in 
1858. "The Bushmen," he says, "assert that this fly is vivi- 
parous, and Mr. Edwards, the companion of Mr. Chapman, and 
a highly intelligent man, having one day expressed to them his 
disbelief as to this, they brought him a pregnant female, and 
having in his presence opened it along the middle line of the 
abdomen he states that he saw three little flies ready to take 
flight emerge from it." In the female tsetse the reproductive 
organs consist essentially of the same parts as in other insects. 
A pair of ovaries open by means of a common oviduct in a 
spacious uterus, capable of great distension. The ovaries are, 
however, asymmetrical, owing to the alternate ripening of a 
single egg in the lowest follicle on either side. Fertilisation 
takes place as the egg passes through the oviduct, in which 
open the paired ducts of the spermathecae. The egg then pro- 
gresses into the uteru^, where it hatches in a day or so. Here 
the larva remains during all three stages, being fed by peculiar 
uterine or milk glands, a system of bilateral branching organs 
forming a network on either side of the uterus. The common 
duct from these glands opens just below the ducts of the sper- 
mathecae on a small conical papilla, or teat, from which the 
larva sucks its nourishment. The uterus is also surrounded by 
a very complex system of tracheae, which bring air to the 
uterine cavity. In about ten davs. under favorable condition-, 
the larva is full-grown and the female expels it from the va- 
gina, the anal extremity first. \tter its expulsion the larva 
takes no food, but it buries itself in the earth, sand or humus. 


and its skin hardens into a puparium. With the exception of 
the genus Glossina, this peculiar type of viviparity is known 
only for the Hippoboscidae, Nycteribiidae and Streblidae, 
among the Diptera ; all these insects -being commonly called 
"pupiparous." Some purists have objected to this term, on the 
ground that in these flies the female expels a full-grown larva 
and not a pupa. Yet to simply call them "larviparous" would 
merely obscure matters, since it would in no way distinguish 
their case from that of the many other insects that deposit 
young larvae, freshly hatched from the eggs, and that have made 
no provision for intra-uterine feeding and respiration. Unless 
some obliging Greek scholar will provide us with a brand-new 
term, I see no objection to calling the tsetses pupiparous. Ex- 
cept for the fact that the tegument is not yet hardened, the larva 
of Glossina, when voided by the female, is essentially a pu- 

One more point before leaving the reproductive system. If 
we examine the third stage larva when nearly full-grown in the 
female uterus, we notice at the anal extremity a pair of black, 
sclerotized and almost spheroidal protuberances, which New- 
stead has called the polypneustic lobes. I believe that the 
homology of these structures has been misunderstood. The 
surface of each lobe is more or less divided into three areas by 
faint grooves and thickly studded all over with papillae, which, as 
Newstead (1918) has shown, are respiratory openings. A com- 
parison with a series of other Muscoid larvae or puparia (such 
as, for instance, that published by C. T. Greene in 1921 and 
1925) indicates that the polypneustic lobes are not "additional 
stigmata" (Newstead) or "protective organs" (Roubaud), but 
modified stigmal plates with an exaggerated branching of the 
three usual slits or "peritremes." They represent an extreme 
development of C. T. Greene's "braincoral type" of stigmal 
plate. \Yithin the deep pit enclosed by the inner lips of the two 
polypneustic lobes, one finds on either side a small, somewhat 
raised plate, which in my opinion is the "button", or vestigial 
scar of the posterior stigma of an earlier larval stage. These 
two scars have no longer a respiratory function in the third 
stage, so that the names "posterior stigmata" or "paired ab- 


dominal stigmata", applied to them by Roubaud, Stuhlmann. 
and Xewstead are misnomers. 

Through what combination of circumstances, or determinism, 
have the tsetses and the other pupiparous Diptera mentioned 
above acquired thi> complicated and >lo\v method of perpetuat- 
ing the species? Roubaud alone has attempted to answer this 
question. He regard.-, the Glossinac, although free-living, as 
typical ectoparasites of vertebrates. phv>iologicallv as specialised 
for a blood diet as the Hippoboscidae and Xycteribiidae. He 
claims that normal, true pupiparity occurs only in flies that are 
exclusively hematophagous and that live at a constant high 
temperature. This explanation, though plausible, is not quite 
satisfying. It fails to take into account the fact that the ad- 
vantages of a pupiparous mode of reproduction are by no means 
obvious. Moreover, tropical countries teem with many other 
free-living biting insects, not to mention the numerous strict 
ectoparasites, which show no tendency whatsoever toward vivi- 
parity. Nevertheless it would seem that some general principle 
must be involved, since pupiparity has been acquired indejjend- 
ently in at least two, if not four, distinct lines of evolution. 

The psychic alertness which I have claimed for the tsetses, 
is displayed once more in the behavior of the gravid females. 
In search for a vertebrate host the flies roam far and wide ; 
but when parturition is about to take place, the female seeks 
out the most favorable environment for her offspring. As 
Roubaud (1909) and G. D. H. Carpenter (1912) have shown 
in a series of experiments, the pupae of Clossina are very fastid- 
ious in their requirements of light, humidity and temperature. 
In addition, the several species differ considerably in this re- 
spect. The larvae of G. palpcilis, for instance, are deposited in 
cool, shaded, dry places, preferably near the banks of rivers or 
lakes. An appropriate natural breeding ground of this species 
often yields hundreds of pupae. Roubaud found that in dry. 
shaded sand, at a temperature of 25 to 27 C.. the pupa de- 
velops normally in about 32 or 33 day-. The pupae of the 
savanna species, on the other hand, are not found in the neigh- 
borhood of water, though they are also hidden in loose, dry. 


shaded material ; they are always much scattered and rarely more 
than ten living pupae are found in one spot. For G. morsitans 
trees hollowed near the hase and the shelter beneath fallen 
trunks are favorite breding places. 

The pupae are so well hidden in nature that a weary search 
is often needed before they can be discovered. Yet they are not 
entirely able to escape their enemies, the most powerful of which 
are a number of endoparasitic insects. For some reason as yet 
obscure, G. palpolis seems to be rather free from parasitic at- 
tacks : although hundreds of pupae found in nature have been 
bred of this species, they have yielded only one proctotrupid, 
which I discovered years ago in Katanga, and one chalcid, ob- 
tained by G. D. H. Carpenter in Uganda. No less than twenty 
parasites attack the pupae of G. morsitans (and its race sub- 
morsitans) and these cover a wide range of groups: mutillids 
(3 species), braconids (1 species), proctotrupids (1 species), 
and chalcids (8 species), among the Hymenoptera, and bom- 
byliids (7 species) among the Diptera. The three mutillids 
have been placed in Mutilla, but they are not congeneric with 
Mutilla curopaca and, moreover, seem to represent two distinct 
genera. The bombyliids have recently been revised by Austen 
(1929), who places them all in the genus Thyridanthrax . Of 
predaceous arthropods, spiders, dragon-flies, and robber flies may 
occasionally catch an adult tsetse ; but certain predaceous fos- 
sorial wasps of the genera Bcmbi.v and O. \~ybcl us are perhaps 
more important enemies of the flies. In his discussion of the 
enemies and parasites of Glossina, Mr. Hegh seems to ,have 
overlooked an interesting account of Bcmbi.r preying upon G. 
patpalis, published by Father Guilleme in the Revue Congolaise 
for 1910 (vol. I, pp." 145-150, PL IX). 

Most of the topics which I have discussed thus far cover the 
subject-matter of Mr. Hegh's first volume. The author prom- 
ises us a second volume, which will deal with the detailed distri- 
bution of the species, their habitats, the biology of the adult 
flies, the feeding habits, the influence of external factors, the 
methods of control, and the technique used in studying these 
insects. Some of these points I have touched upon incidentally. 


The discussion of the others may safely wait until Mr. Hash's 
work is completed. Since, however, he does not intend to deal 
with the relation of tsetses to disease, I shall close this review 
with a few comments on this important problem. I shall attempt 
to keep as strictly as possible within the entomologist's premises. 
The annoyance caused to man and beast by the bite of tsetses 
is unimportant as compared to the role these flies play in the 
transmission of certain diseases. Originally the ravages caused 
by the tsetse in South Africa were blamed on some "poison" 
injected by the fly. In 1895, Sir David Bruce announced his 
epoch-making discovery that nagana, or fly-disease, in domestic 
animals was caused by a blood parasite carried by Glossina from 
sick to healthy animals. So far as known at present, all diseases 
caused in man or animals by the bite of tsetses are due to 
flagellate Protozoa of the genus Trypanosoma. Although all 
species of Glossina must be under suspicion as potential vectors, 
some of them are of outstanding significance in this respect. In 
general one may say that the rarer or more local species are 
negligible. The most prevalent type of human trypanosomiasis. 
or African Sleeping Sickness, as it is often called, is caused by 
Trypanosoma gambiense and transmitted by G. palpalis. Con- 
sequently it is only contracted within the area occupied by this 
species of tsetse, which, as I have pointed out above, covers 
fairly well the West African Subregion. Outside this area, 
however, a different type of human parasite, which has been 
called Trypanosoma rliodcsicnsc, has given much concern to the 
medical authorities of Rhodesia and Tanganyika Territory. It 
is carried by some of the savanna species of Glossina, viz.. G. 
morsitans, G. hrcri[><ilpis, and (/". s-icyiiiicrtoni. The several 
trypanosomes that cause disease in domestic animals are often 
hard to tell apart, so that no two authorities agree as to how 
many kinds there are. These animal parasites are transmitted 
by G. palpalis. G. inorsilans, G. />;vr// i <///vV. (/'. loinfifrtlpis. G. 
pallidipcs and (/'. tucliinoidcs. Wild game plays the role of reser- 
voir of the virus, as it is apparently but little or not affected by 
the flagellates, but infects the flies that eventually will carry 
the disease to the domestic animals. 


Tsetse-flies are not merely mechanical transmitters of the 
trypanosomes of vertebrates, but the flagellates in the flies go 
through a definite, though wholly asexual, cycle of develop- 
ment, until they produce infective forms known as "metacyclic 
trypanosomes." The cycle is not the same for all the species 
of trypanosomes and one may recognize three different types. 
In one type, represented by the human parasites, T. gombiense 
and T. rhodesiensc, the cycle starts in the midgut of the fly, but 
the infection spreads forward to the proboscis, and eventually 
to the salivary glands where the infective metacyclic trypano- 
somes are produced, which are injected in the bite by way of the 
hypopharynx. In the second, which is that of the animal para- 
sites, T. congolense and T. siniioc, the development in the 
midgut is followed by invasion of the hypopharynx in the pro- 
boscis, but not of the salivary glands. In the third, known for 
the animal parasites, T. vivax, T. unifonnc and T. caprac, the 
whole development occurs in the proboscis, there being no in- 
testinal phase and the infective forms entering the hypopharynx 

This bare outline suggests some rather intricate biological 
relations between the trypanosomes and their tsetse hosts, which 
naturally raise the question as to whether the flies or the verte- 
brates were the original hosts of these flagellates. The most 
generally accepted view is, as Wenyon (1926) states, that the 
trypanosomes of vertebrates were originally purely insect 
flagellates which gradually became adapted to the blood medium 
in the gut when the insects became bloodsuckers. Later the 
flagellates passed into the vertebrates and became adapted to 
life in the blood stream. Some cogent arguments can be ad- 
vanced in support of this view. Flagellates similar or closely 
related to trypanosomes parasitize many other arthropods, even 
non-bloodsucking species. Moreover, the trypanosomes seem 
to do no harm to the tsetses. Yet some other peculiarities seem 
difficult to understand and will necessitate a number of auxiliary 
hypotheses if one accepts the theory of the Glossinac as original 


In the first place, the trypanosomes are not hereditary in tne 
flies nor can they be transmitted by cysts voided in the i aeces - 
The only manner in which newly hatched tsetses can possibly 
become infected, is by biting an animal the blood of wh lc " con " 
tains trypanosomes. We must therefore assume that ^ le an ~ 
cestors of the living tsetses became infected with theif 
lates at an early period in their geological history, \vh en 
had other feeding habits or at least were not yet strictK blood- 
sucking. They could then become infected by absorbir 1 .? 
voided by other individuals. Secondly, it is a curious f, act 
the cycle of development of the pathogenic trypanosom es runs 
its full course in only a small percentage of any spe' cies * 
tsetse : in the other individuals the trypanosomes ingestr" with 
the blood simply disappear. The proportion of flies th at nla y 
become infective is extremely variable and depends u P on a 
multitude of factors, some of which are not yet properly under- 
stood. Under ordinary experimental conditions, not mo re than 
2 to 8 per cent of (/". palpalis ever become capable of tr, ;insmit " 
ting the human trypanosome, T. gainl'icusc, a fact wh ic ^ re ~ 
duces considerably the danger of man becoming infecte'" wltn 
African Sleeping Sickness. Again here, we shall have to SU P" 
pose that this resistance of the fly to the Protozoon is a ^ ater 
development in the phylogeny of the flagellate infectiP 11 - 
may have been caused by the fly not always being able to a bsorb, 
with the blood of the infected vertebrate, the right st :a e ^ 
trypanosome, capable of further development in the inser^- 
perhaps some reaction of the vertebrate blood upon the 
was involved which gradually rendered the trypanosome better 
adapted to life in the blood stream than in the intestim 1 ' tr;ict 
of the tsetse. Of course, there are other possibilities too. 

The transmission of flagellates by tsetse-flies raises nian . v 
other interesting questions, which, however, I must le' ave m 
abeyance. It is high time for me to conclude, for I ha\ r been 
prowling dangerously near the outer fringes of the ent orno '~ 
gist's domain. I fear that the protozoologists will becorri e res 
less and put up "no-trespassing" signs on their own favorite 
hunting grounds. 


Dynastes tityus (Scarabaeid) in Pennsylvania and 

the Rathvon and Auxer Collections 

of Coleoptera. 

By PHILIP P. CALVERT, University of Pennsylvania, 

(Continued from page 201). 

Mr, Jos. S. Wade, in his invaluable Bibliography of Biogra- 
phies of Entomologists, 7 has cited but two biographies of S. .S. 
Rathvon. One is the very brief notice of his death in the NEWS 
for April, 1891, page 80. The other is by F. W. Coding, 8 which 
we have not seen. 

The library of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania in 
Philadelphia, contains at least two other sources of information 
concerning Rathvon and, as neither these nor Coding's biogra- 
phy are accessible to many entomologists, we summarize them 
here. The longer account is entitled Simon S. Rathvon, Ph.D., 
Lancaster's Oldest Living Devotee of Science by S. M. Sener, 
Esq. It is an eight page reprint from Christian Culture, but is 
undated and bears no notation as to the volume number or orig- 
inal pagination ; it is accompanied by a wood-cut portrait of 
Rathvon. 9 Sener describes himself as a friend and pupil of 
Rathvon and wrote his account while Rathvon was living ; it is 
likely that he obtained his information at first hand. The other 
source is an unsigned article in the Biographical Annals of Lan- 
caster County, Pennsylvania. Publishers: J. H. Beers & Co., 

Simon Snyder Rathvon was born at Marietta, ' Lancaster 
County, Pennsylvania, April 24, 1812, and died in the city of 
Lancaster, March 19, 1891. As Simon Snyder was Governor of 
the State from 1808 to 1817, one may conjecture that the infant 
received his first two names from that circumstance. His par- 
ents were Jacob Rathvon, gunsmith, who settled at Marietta in 

7 Annals Ent. Soc. Amer., xxi, pp. 489-520, Sept., 1928. 

8 Penna. State Hortic. Assoc. Official Doc. no. 4, 3 pp., no date. 

9 Prof. Carroll has kindly ascertained for me that Christian Culture 
was "A Local Interdenominational Journal, published monthly at No. 9 
North Queen St., Lancaster." It was continued for three volumes through 
the years 1890, '91 and '92. S. M. Sener's paper, quoted above, occurs in 
Vol. I, No. 10, pp. 7-8. Through Prof. Carroll also, I owe to Mr. An- 
staett, librarian of F. & M. College, the information that J. H, Beers & 
Co. was a Chicago firm. 


1810 and died in 1839, and Catharine Myers, of York County, 
who died at Marietta in 1825. Jacob was the son of John 
George Rathvon (Dec. 7, 1747-Aug. 7, 1799), a lieutenant in 
the Pennsylvania militia during the Revolutionary War, and 
Christine Kraemer (d. July 21, 1799), of Warwick township. 
John George, in turn, was a son of Christian Rathvon, who, with 
a brother George, settled in Conestoga township, Lancaster 
County, in 1740, having emigrated from either southern Ger- 
many or Switzerland. 

Simon S. Rathvon's formal education was obtained between 
his seventh and tenth years, at three common schools, where 
he learned to "read, write and cipher as far as compound di- 
vision". From 1827 to 1832, he was apprenticed to John Bell, 
tailor, in his native town. "In 1832 he commenced tailoring on 
his own accord and subsequently went to Philadelphia but re- 
turned to Marietta and carried on his trade there until he re- 
moved with his family to this city [i. c. Lancaster] and to-day 
may be seen actively engaged at the bench" (Sener). In 1832 
he became a member of a literary society which numbered 
among its members Prof. S. S. Haldeman, Judge J. J. Libhart 
and others ; it was soon merged into a Lyceum of Natural His- 
tory with Rathvon as secretary. Sener reproduces some inter- 
esting early entomological experiences of Rathvon in the latter's 
own words and credits Haldeman with giving him his chief 
stimulus to the study of insects. Referring to Rathvon's ac- 
quisition of Haldeman's collection, Sener says "all that remains 
of the Hentz-Haldeman collection is now in the collection of 
Dr. Rathvon." 

Rathvon's attention was largely directed to the economic side 
of entomology 1(l and he became Professor of Entomology to 
the State Horticultural Society in 1861, Professor of Entomol- 
ogy to the Philadelphia | correct name, Pennsylvania] Horticul- 
tural Society in 18<4 and Entomologist to the Lancaster County 
Agricultural Society in 186 ( >. lie was one of the founders of 
the Linnean Societv of Lancaster in 1862, and became its cura- 


10 A list of 29 of his publications in this held, from 1X54 to 1880, is 
given in Samuel Henshaw's Bibliography of llic inure iin^urUiul L'untri- 
hntions to .-liiicricnii l : .cmi<nic l : .iitin<>lt><iv. Fart V. Washington, (Jovt. 
Printing Office. 1896. 


tor, treasurer and entomologist. He was in editorial charge of 
the Lancaster Fanner from 1869 to 1884. Franklin and Mar- 
shall College gave him the degree of Ph.D. in June, 1878. 

On May 27, 1834, he married Catherine Freyberger at Mari- 
etta, and had seven sons and four daughters. 

Two other entomological collections are in the Franklin and 
Marshall College Museum, those of Dr. M. W. Raub, compris- 
ing North American and exotic Lepidoptera and Coleoptera, and 
of Samuel Auxer, consisting of Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Hem- 
iptera, Hymenoptera and Neuroptera. Unfortunately, with the 
exception of some beetles in the Raub collection marked as from 
Lancaster, most of these specimens lack locality labels. While 
visiting the Rathvon Collection, however, I saw a male specimen 
of tityus in a box reposing in another room. It had printed 
labels "Dynastes Tityus Linn" and "Pa.". This box, Prof. 
Carroll informs me, was part of the Auxer Collection. 

A brief obituary notice of Samuel Auxer (1835-1909) was 
published in the NEWS for February, 1909, page 96, but some 
additional information concerning him and his collection has 
come to me from Mr. Fisher and from Prof. R. C. Schiedt, 
Emeritus Professor of Biology at Franklin and Marshall, 
through Prof. Carroll. Mr. Fisher writes: 

I was very well acquainted with Samuel Auxer and went col- 
lecting with him a number of times. He usually collected be- 
tween Lancaster and the Susquehanna River near Pequa. He 
also did some collecting in the Mount Hope region along the 
South Mountains, Lancaster County. Mr. Auxer usually did 
nut label his specimens, but gave a number to the material col- 
lected each time in a certain locality, the numbers corresponding 
to a number in his note book, where he kept the date, locality 
and any other important records. After his death Mrs. Auxer 
asked me to come to Lancaster and look over his library, and 
we made a thorough search for this note book but it could not 
be found. It was probably thrown among some trash and 
carted away, although Mrs. Auxer did not remember seeing it. 
Mr. Auxer corresponded and exchanged specimens with collec- 
tors in all parts of the United States, and since most of his ma- 
terial was unlabeled, it is impossible to determine where the 
specimens were collected. 

Samuel Auxer kept a second-hand book store in Lancaster, 


but he had retired from the business before I became acquainted 
with him. A large number of the books from the store were 
at his home and were sold after his death. I do not remember 
Mr. Auxer mentioning anything about Rathvon during any of 
my visits to his place. 

Mr. Ernst Jeheber was also a very good friend of Mr. Auxer, 
and he was also at Auxer's home helping to straighten out the 
library and collection. Mrs. Auxer wanted to sell the collec- 
tion and Jeheber told me he might buy it. Mr. Jeheber was a 
German tailor and worked at his trade in Lancaster. He was 
interested in Lepidoptera and had a very nice local collection, 
mostly in plaster mounts and in almost perfect condition. I 
went collecting with him a great many times, but in December, 
1914, received a letter from him in which he said he was going 
to [West Point,] New York, and that he would write to me 
later, but I never received any note from him. In this letter 
he mentioned that he was selling his entire collection to Mr. 
[Charles Fred] Grimm, also a German collector, [of 649 St. 
Joseph St., Lancaster], but this probably referred only to his 
Lepidoptera collection. It seems certain that Mr. Jeheber 
bought the collection from Mrs. Auxer for Dr. Schiedt, as Je- 
heber was not interested in Coleoptera, and he did not have the 
room to keep the collection or the money to spend on a personal 
collection, as he had a very large family. I am enclosing Mr. 
Jeheber's last letter to me as I thought it might be of some in- 
terest to you. [Insertions enclosed in square brackets in the 
preceding account have been taken from this letter. P. P. C] 

Previous to my correspondence with Mr. Fisher, Prof. Car- 
roll had written me that Jeheber bought the Auxer Collection 
and that Dr. Schiedt bought it from Jeheber. 

It is remarkable that, in spite of the extensive and intensive 
collecting of Coleoptera which has been done in Pennsylvania 
within the last fifty years, so few specimens of tityus have been 
found, and the rediscovery of this species in the State is a quest 
worthy to be undertaken by our naturalists. They may find 
some hints, perhaps, in the late Mr. Manee's account n of col- 
lecting tityus in Xorth Carolina. It is to be hoped that Rath- 
von's collection will be carefully preserved and that some local 
and enthusiastic entomologist, through antiquarian research, will 
be able to learn more of the provenance of its specimens than 
it is now possible to ascertain. 

u Ent. News, xxvi, p. 266, 1915. 


On Tropisternus sublaevis Lee. and T. quadristriatus 
Horn (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae). 

By H. C. FALL, Tyngsboro, Massachusetts. 

Of the above-named species, T. (Hydrophilus) sublaevis was 
described by Le Conte in 1855 from Nebraska and Georgia. 
There are at present in the Le Conte Collection two Nebraska 
specimens ( $ $ ), but none from Georgia, and this was the 
case thirty years ago when I first examined the Le Conte types. 
T. quadristriatus was described by Horn in 1871 from speci- 
mens collected "near the seacoast of New Jersey." A few years 
later (1874) this species was suppressed by Horn himself as 
identical with sublaevis Lee. 

Just what became of the Georgia specimen of sublaevis men- 
tioned by Le Conte is unknown to me. I had suspected that 
between 1871 and 1874, in accordance with a custom prevailing 
with Le Conte and Horn of sharing their material, the Georgia 
specimen was turned over to Horn and led him to pronounce 
his species the same as that of Le Conte. On inquiring of Mr. 
Liebeck he informs me that there is only a single example each 
of quadristriatus and sublaevis in the Horn collection, the for- 
mer bearing a "N. J." label, the latter without indication of 
locality but with a small square on the pin bearing the number 
"10" as though sent by some correspondent for determination. 
I think it unlikely that this is the Georgia specimen of Le Conte, 
but whether so or not, it is identical with the one on the quadri- 
striatus label. 

In 1902, August 10-12, Mr. Frederick Blanchard and the 
writer collected at Marion, Massachusetts, on the shore of 
Buzzard's Bay. From brackish pools near the shore line we 
took specimens of a Tropisternus, which from the similarity of 
localities we judged correctly to be the quadristriatus of Horn. 
A day or two later 1 compared these Marion specimens with 
the Nebraska types of sublaevis and satisfied myself that they 
were specifically distinct, a result which might reasonably be 
anticipated when the remoteness and difference of habitat con- 
ditions are considered. 

Some eight or nine years ago I received from M. d'Orchy- 
mont a letter of inquiry concerning certain of our species of 
Tropisternus. In reply 1 sent him among others a specimen of 


the Marion quadristriatus and expressed the opinion that Horn 
had been in error in uniting the species with sublaci'is. This 
opinion is reflected in d'Orchymont's paper of 1922, * where he 
gives both quadristriatus and sublaci'is a place in his table, 
though admitting his uncertainty as to the precise status or posi- 
tion of the latter. In reality sublaci'is is out of place in d'Or- 
chymont's table where it stands with a question mark next to 
quadristriatus, its true position being with those species having 
the pubescent area of the hind femur very small. As a matter 
of fact sublaevis by this table runs directly to .rantliopits Sharp, 
with which I have no doubt whatever of its identity, sublaci'is, 
of course, being the older name. In this connection d'( )rchy- 
mont's remark that he received from the British Museum speci- 
mens identified by Sharp as sublaci'is, and that they proved to 
be xantlwpHS, is interesting and significant. 

So far as sublaci'is and quadristriatus are concerned there- 
are two characters by which they may be definitely separated, 
one, however, requiring the presence of males. 

Pubescent area of hind femur very small, confined to the ex- 
treme base; sternal keel nearly or quite smooth in both 
sexes sublaci'is 

Pubescent area of hind femur comparatively large, occupying 
fully the basal third ; sternal keel with numerous moderate- 
ly coarse punctures in the male, nearly smooth in the fe- 
male, except at the basal declivity quadristriatus 

Sublaevis is represented in my collection by specimens from 
El Paso, Texas and Albuquerque, New Mexico, and I have 
seen specimens from Denver, Colorado, sent me for identifica- 
tion by Mr. Liebeck. M. d'Orchymont has seen two examples 
from California and four of somewhat larger size from Texas. 
all being identified as .vaiitliopus. 

Of quadristriatus mv only representatives are those taken as 
above noted at Marion, Massachusetts. This species is prob- 
ably restricted to the near vicinity of the Atlantic coast Hue. 
and may or may not be confined to the more or less brackish 
waters of that region. There can be no doubt I think that Le 
Conte's original Georgia sublaci'is belonged to the present 

1 Le Genre Tropisternus II. Annals tit- la Sndi-tt- Entomologique de 
Belgique, LXII, 1922. 


And now a word as to T. glaber Herbst. As is well explained 
by d'Orchymont in the paper above referred to, there are now 
no specimens in European collections which can be fixed upon 
as the original types of Herbst, or that can safely be assumed 
to be the equivalent thereof. The glaber of Le Conte may or 
may not be the same as that of Herbst, but in any case there 
would seem now to be no better course than to consider it as 
representative of the species. The question then is just what 
is the glaber of Le Conte ? The Le Conte series, as I have my- 
self observed, looks complex; it probably comprises two and 
possible more species. D'Orchymont has already described one 
new species (blatchlcyi) at the expense of glaber. 

Le Conte did not label his types as such ; it has been custo- 
mary, however, in dealing with his collection to consider the 
specimen on the name label as the type, provided it agreed with 
his description, and in the case of glaber I have noted that this 
agreement exists. 

As the result of a critical survey of the specimens in my col- 
lection hitherto assigned to glaber, I have sorted them into four 
series, each possessing a combination of characters differing in 
some respects from each of the others. To one of these groups 
my no. "3" -Le Conte's type is assignable ; I am, however, 
not yet prepared to assert anything as to the constancy or 
significance of the differences observed in my limited material. 
Further study with additional specimens may permit the draw- 
ing of some definite conclusions. 

The National Museum of Costa Rica. 

On March 8, 1930, Professor J. Fidel Tristan was appointed 
Director of the Museo Nacional de Costa Rica, at San Jose, 
after he had served for thirty years as professor in the colleges 
of San Jose as well as Director of the Colegio de Seiioritas and 
of the Liceo de Costa Rica. Professor Anastasio Alfaro is 
Chief of the Zoological Department. Owing to the economic 
situation of the country, the Museo has suffered for a long 
time. It is now hoped to revivify it. 


XI International Congress of Zoology. 

The X. International Congress of Zoology (Budapest 
1927), accepting the invitation of the Italian Government, 
unanimously decided to hold its XI. Session in Padua 411 
September, 1930, under the chairmanship of Prof. Paolo 
Enriques, Director of the Institute of Zoology, Comparative 
Anatomy and Physiology in the Royal University. 

We have- the honour to invite all Zoologists and the 
friends of Zoology to be present at this International 

Prof. PAOLO ENRIQUES, President of the Congress; Prof. 
GIANNINO FERRARI, Rector of the University; Count FRAN- 
CESCO GIUSTI, Mayor of Padua. 

Applications for membership should be sent by registered 
post, if possible, to; Prof. PAOLO ENRIQUES Congresso 
Zoologia, Via Loredan 6, Padova (Italy) together with fee, 
100 lire (cheques should be made payable to "Banca Com- 
merciale Italiana Padova, Presidente Congresso Zoologia"). 
Fee may also be sent directly to the Bank (to the above men- 
tioned account). The membership-card will be sent as a receipt. 
There will be a section for Entomology. 

The Rocky Mountain Conference of Entomologists. 

The seventh annual meeting of the Rocky Mountain 
Conference of Entomologists will be held in Pingree I 'ark. 
Colorado, August 18 to 23 inclusive. As in the past the 
meeting will be held at the Colorado Agricultural College 
Forestry Lodge and will be planned that all members of 
the family may attend and enjoy themselves. The sessions 
for papers will be informal with ample time for discussion. 
We will be pleased to have subjects of papers at an early 
date. To those that have not attended any of the prc\ ion-- 
meetings it might be said that bedding and meals are 
furnished at a prorated cost that has always been reason- 
able. Since the meeting place is more than 50 miles from 
Fort Collins, the nearest source of supplies, it is important 
that those arranging for the care of the crowd know in 
advance just how man}' expect to attend. Transportation 
to the park will be available tor those not having their own 
cars. A later notice giving more of the final details of 
arrangements will be sent to those indicating that they may 
attend. A card to the Secretary will bring you this later 

GEORGE M. LIST, Secretary Fort Collins, Colorado. 


Entomological Literature 



Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, 
however, whether relating to American or exotic species will be recorded. 

The numbers within brackets I ] refer to the journals, as numbered 
in the list of Periodicals and Serials published in the January and June 
numbers (or which may be secured from the publisher of Entomological 
News for 10c), in which the paper appeared. The number of, or annual 
volume, and in some cases the part, heft, &c. the latter within ( ) 
follows; then the pagination follows the colon : 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their 
first installments. 

*Papers containing new forms or names have an * preceding the 
author's name. 

(S) Papers pertaining exclusively to neotropical species, and not so 
indicated in the title, have the symbol -(S) at the end of the title of 
the paper. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Rec- 
ord, Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied 
Entomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

HQT'Note the change in the method of citing the bibliographical refer- 
ences, as explained above. 

Papers published in the Entomological News are not listed. 

GENERAL. Anon. The rules of zoological nomen- 
clature. [31] 125: 733-734. Brethes, J. Bio-bibliografia. 
By E. D. Dallas. [104] 2: 103-107, ill. Breyer, A Un viaje 
cle estudio al norte de Misiones. (S). [104] 2: 271-276. Car- 
penter, F. M. A review of our present knowledge of the 
geological history of the insects. [5] 37: 15-34, ill. Clark, 
A. F. The food of some insects. [New Zealand Jour. Sci. 
Tech.] 11 : 366-370. da Costa Lima, A. Sobr'e insectos que 
vivem maracujas ( Passiflora spp.). [Mem. Inst. Oswaldo 
Cruz] 23: 159-162, ill. de la Torre-Bueno, J. R The type 
fetish. [51 37: 80-82. Eckstein, F. Ein beitrag zur experi- 
mentellen parasitologie der insekten. [Zeit. Parasitk.] 2: 
571-582. ill. Frers/A. G. (Bio biliognifia). By E. D. 
Dallas. [104] 2: 289-292. Friedericks, K. Ueber entomol- 
ogie als studium. [17| 47: 19-20. Hayward, K. J. Sobre 
migracion de insectos, con referenda especial a la Argen- 
tina. [104] 2: 209-216, ill. Horn, W. Sobre la fundacion de 
un Instituto internacional de Servicio Entomologico en 
Suiza. [104] 2: 233-234. McAtee, W. L. The scientific 
attitude in nomenclature. (10) 32: (>5-oh. Mosely, M. E. 
Ronald's collection and the "Fly- Fisher's Entomology". 18 1 (><>: 
116-120. Orfila, R. N. La primera exposition Entoniologica 
Argentina efectuada en Buenos Aires del N al 25 de Septiembre 
de 1928. [104] 2: 121-156, 161-178. ill. Orfila, R. N. Stiple- 
mento a la Entomobibliografia Argentina 1 ( L ? 7 y 1 ( )28 11041 
2: 161-178. Saez, F. A. Puede la citologia iniluir en la 
orientacion de los problemas taxonomicos? [104] 2: 251- 


262, ill. Schilder, F. A. Vademecum der Internationalen 
nomenklaturregeln. [2] 26: 18-25. Schilder, F. A. Eine 
randbemerkung iiber bestimmungstabellen. til] 1930: 79- 
80. Strand, E. Zoological and palaeontological nomencla- 
torical notes. [Act. Univ. Latvia] 20: 1-29. Strand, E. 
Ueber die bedeutung der typen fur die naturhistorische 
nomenklatur. [Acta Univ. Latvia] (Math. u. Dab. Zinat.) 
1 : 81-100. Strand, E. Enumeration des travaux zoo- 
log-iques publics jusqu'en 1929. [Latvia. Univ.] 1919-29: 
358-381, 1-24. Van Duzee, E. P. Concerning scientific 
names. [55] 6: 166. Woodworth, C. W. The synchroniza- 
tion of life histories. [55] 6: 189-191. Wucherpfennig, F. 
Armut oder Reichtum der falterfauna Brasiliens. [18] 24: 
49-55, ill. 

periments on the modification of the diet of two species of 
Hyponomeutidae. [91 63: 101-102. Bodenstein, D. Experi- 
mentelle untersuchungen ueber die regeneration der borsten 
bei Vanessa urticae. [45] 25: 23-35, ill. Brues, C. T. The 
food of insects viewed from the biological and human 
standpoint. [5 | 37: 1-14. Cotton, R. T. The effect of light 
upon the development of the dark meal worm, Tenebrio 
obscurus. [10] 32: 58-60, ill. Davies, W. M. Parasitism in 
relation to pupation in Lucilia sericata. [31] 125: 779-780. 
de Boissezon, P. Les reserves dans le corps gras de Culex 
pipiens et leur role dans la maturation des oeufs. Le role du 
corps gras comme rein d'accumulation chez Culex pipiens 
et chez Theobaldia annulata. [69] 93: 1232-1233; 1233-1235. 
deLepiney, J. Sur le comportement des larves de Schisto- 
cerca gregaria. Schema du regime journalier, descente des 
insecte^ >ur le sol, montee sur les plantes. Sur le comporte- 
ment des larves de Schistocera gregaria. Concentration et 
dissemination des individus, voyages des bandes larvaires, 
nutrition. 1 77 1 94: 263-267. Grandjean, M. F. Existence 
d'une vesicule externe on d'un organe poreux sous-alairo 
dans plusieurs genres d'( )ribatei. [Bui. Mus. Xat. Hist. Nat. 
Paris] 1 : 406-4() ( J, ill. Halik, L. Zur morphologic, homolo- 
gie und funktion der genitalnapfe bei hydracarinen. I'M I 
13(>: 223-254, ill. Hosselet, C. Observations rytologique.x 
sur le tube de Alalpighi de Culex et de quelques I'brvgani- 
des. | 77 1 94: 270-274, ill. Hosselet, C. Le chondriome et 
les enclaves de la cellule ;idipeuse chez Culex et quelqm> 
Phryganides. |<>'>| 94: 150-153. ill. Krause, A. W. -Unter- 
suchungen iiber den einiluss der ernahrung, helichtung und 
temperatur auf die perithecienproducktion einiger hypo- 
creaceen. Beitrag zur kulturmethodik einiger parasitarer 
und Saprophytischer. [Zeit. Parasitk.] 2: 419-476, ill. Kron- 


ing, F. Hororgane und gehorsinn bei den insekten. [88] 
18: 380-387, ill. Malek, R. Rheotaktische bei Notonecta 
glauca. [97] 50: 182-189. Muir, F. Notes on certain con- 
troversial points of morphology of the abdomen and geni- 
talia of Psyllidae. [75] 5: 545-552, ill. Oka, H. Morphol- 
ogic und okologie von Clunio pacificus (Chironomidae). 
[89] 59: 253-280, ill. Putnins, R. Les croisieres thalasso- 
logiques latviennes au printemps de 1929. [Folia Zool. et 
Hydrob] 1: 149-159, ill. Rau & Rau. The sex attraction 
and rhythmic periodicity in giant saturniid moths. [Trans. 
Acad. Sci. St. Louis] 26: 83-221, ill. Rozsypal, J Ein 
beitrag der vergesellschaftung und ueberwinterungsmog- 
lichkeit der imagines bei den Chloropidaeen. [45] 25: 1-13, 
ill. Smith & Beckett. Coloured glass as a deterrent to 
house flies. [31 J 125: 780. Velich, A. V. Entwicklungsme- 
chanische studien an bienenlarven. [94] 136: 210-222, ill. 
Vignon, M. P. Introduction a de nouvelles recherches de 
morphologic comparee sur 1'aile des insectes. [Arch. Mus. 
Nat. Hist. Nat., Paris] (6) 4: 89-123, ill. Zarapkin, S. R.- 
Ueber gerichtete variabilitat bei Coccinelliden. I. Allge- 
mein einleitung und analyse der ersten pigmentierungse- 
tappe bei Coccinella 10- punctata. [46] 17: 719-736, ill. 

[See under Hymenoptera]. *Rosas Costa, J. A. Diagnosis 
de un nuevo genero cle acaro Achropodophorus (Thvrog- 
lyphidae). (S). [104] 2: 293. *Rosas Costa, J. A. Sobre 
un ecto-parasito de Phyleurus vervex, Achropodophorus la- 
hillei, nov. sp. (S). [104] 2: 265-268, ill. *Sellnick, M.- 
Eine neue brasilianische Neoliodesart und bemerkungen 
iiber die gattung Neoliodes (Acar). [34] 89: 29-36, ill. 
Thor, S. Ueber einzelliger parasiten in verschiedenen 
Acarina. [Zeit. Parasitk.] 2: 551-570, ill. *Vitzthum, H. G. 
-Acarologische beobachtungen. (S). [89] 59: 281-350. ill. 
*Willmann, C. Neue Oribatiden aus Guatemala. [34] 88: 
239-246, ill. 


R. S. Further considerations in regard to the classification 
of the order Thysanoptera. [75] 5: 571-575. Crampton, G. 
C---The wings of the remarkable archaic mecopteron Notio- 
thamna reedi with remarks on their protoblattoid affinities. 
[5] 37: 83-103, ill. *Kimmins, D. E. Some new and little 
known Argentine Neuroptera. |104| 2: 187-192, ill. Light, 
S. F. Termites collected by T. T. Craig on Socorro Island. 
[55 1 6: 17X-180. *Navas, R. P. L. Insectos de la Argen- 
tina. [104] 2: 219-225, ill. Priesner, H. Die Thysanop- 
teren-typen O. M. Renter's. [Ill 1930: 33-43, ill. 


ORTHOPTERA. *Giinther, K. Neue und wenig be- 
kannte Phasmoklen von Siklamerika. [Mit. Zool. Mus., Ber- 
lin] 15: 559-570, ill. Liebermann, J. Ocho especies de 
Tucuras Argentinas con su definitiva posicion sistematica. 
[104] 2: 179-180, ill. Rehn, J. A. G. A new genus of 
Eneopterinae from Hispaniola (Gryllidae). [1] 56: 87-92, 

HEMIPTERA. Box, H. E. Algunos Membracidos de 
Tucuman y Jujuy. Contribucion para un catalogo cle las 
especies argentimis de la familia Membracidae. [104] 2: 217- 
218. de la'Torre-Bueno, J. R. Bugs at light. [19] 25: 101. 
de la Torre Bueno, J. R. On the Heteroptera collected by 
George P. Engelhardt in the South and West. [19] 25: 
107-108. *Del Ponte, E. Algunas especies nuevas del gen. 
Triatoma. (S). [Bol. Soc. Ent. Argentina] 1:3-8, ill. *Gra- 
novsky, A. A. A new name for the genus Quippelachnus 
(Aphiidae). [10] 32: 61-64, ill. *Hempel, A Descripqoes 
de novas especies de Pulgoes (Coccidae). (S). [Arch. Inst. 
Biol., S. Paulo] 1 : 235-237. *Hempel, A. Descripqoes de 
pulgoes novos e pouco conhecidos (Coccidae). (S). [Arch. 
Inst. Biol., S. Paulo] 2: 61-66, ill. Osborn, H. Notes on 
Porto Rican Homoptera. [Jour. Dept. Agric., Porto Rico] 
13: 81-112. *Sleesman, J. P. A monographic study of the 
North American species of Euscelis and allied genera. 
(Cicadellidae). [70f 10: 87-148, ill. *Van Duzee, E. P.- 
A new Empoasca. [55] 6: 148. *Walley, G. S. A review 
of the genus Palmacorixa (Corixidae). [4] 62: 99-106, ill. 

LEPIDOPTERA. Breyer, A. Description de Saurita 
cassandra ginandromorfo. (S). [104] 2: 337-338, ill. Breyer, 
A. Un nuevo Castniidae argentine. Castnia uruguayana 
champaquiensis nov. ssp. [104] 2: 333-334. ill. Breyer, A. 
-Callicore candrena, anormal. (S). [104] 181-182, ill. Bryk, 
F. Lepidopterorum Catalogus. Pars 37. Papilionidae II 
(Papilio). 59-509. Clark, A. H. The world and the butter- 
fly. [76] 1930: 536-537. Giese, H. Eine methode zur 
kenntlichmachung von schmetterlingen. [14] 44: 60-61. 
*Klots, A. B. A new subspecies of Ascia monuste from 
Lower California (Picridae). |551 6: 145-147. ill. Klots, A. 
B. A generic revision of the Euchloini (Pieridae). | 19] 
25: 80-95, ill. Kohler, P. Adicion al catalogo de los lepi- 
dopteros argentinos. llf)4| 2: 339-340. *K6hler, P. Las 
Mariposas Argentinas. Danaidae. [104] 2: 303-332, ill. Koh- 
ler, P. Agaristidae de la Republica Argentina. [1041 2: 
235-245, ill. Kohler, P. Catalogo de Lepidopteros Argen- 


tinos. Buenos Aires, 1928. 12pp. Kumberg, C. Abarten 
von Morpho aega. [14] 44: 61, ill. *McDunnough, J. The 
lepidoptera of the north shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. 
[4] 62: 107-117, ill. Moore, S. Lepidoptera of the Beaver 
Islands. [Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool., Univ. Mich.] 214: 28pp. 
Stichel, H. Lepidopterorum Catalogus. Pars 38. Riodini- 
dae I: Nemeobiinae I. 112pp. Stichel, H. Ein schlusswort 
in sachen, Erycinidenarbeiten. [11] 1930: 57-62. Zikan, J. 
F. Beitrag zur biologic von Orecta lycidas und Chlaeno- 
gramma muscosa. [104] 2: 95-98, ill. *Zikan, J. F. Copi- 
opteryx virgo n. sp. (S). [104] 2: 335-336, ill. 

DIPTERA. * Alexander, C. P. New or insufficiently- 
known crane-flies from the nearctic region. (Tipulidae). 
[19] 25: 71-77. Autuori, M. Syneura infraposita (Phori- 
dae). Um novo parasita da Icerya purchasi. (S). [Arch. 
Inst. Biol., S. Paulo] 1 : 193-200, ill. *Borgmeier, T. In- 
vestigagoes sobre Phorideos myrmecophilos (Phoridae). 
(S). [Arch. Inst. Biol., S. Paulo] 'l : 159-192, ill. Borgmeier, 
T. Eine neue mvrmecophile Apterophoraart (Phoridae). 
(S). [34] 89: 57-62, ill. Brethes, J. A proposito de Mas- 
arygus y de Sarcophaga caridei (Hojeando libros). (S). 
[104] 2:' 73-74. Burke, H. E. Monterey pine midge pu- 
pates at bases of needles. [55] 6: 147. del Ponte, E. Nota 
previa sobre la bibliografia argentina y extranjera sobre los 
mosquitos argentinos y de su relacion con el paludismo. 
[104] 2: 81-94. *Enderlein, G. Dipterologische studien 
XX. (S). [11] 1930: 65-71. *Hoffmann, C. C. Un simul- 
ium nuevo de la zona cafetera de Chiapas. (S). [An. Inst. 
Biol., Mexico] 1: 51-53, ill. Knowlton & Pack. Notes on 
Utah Syrphidae. [55] 6: 182-189. *Krober, O. Die Tabani- 
densubfamilie Silviinae der neotropischen region. [34] 88: 
225-239, ill. *Krober, O. Die Pityocerini (Tabanidae) der 
neotropischen region. [34] 88: 305-312, ill. Pinto, C.- 
Mosquitos da regiao neotropica (Brasil, S. Paulo). [Mem. 
Inst. Oswaldo Cruz] 23: 153-157. *Reinhard, H. J. On 
the genus Viviania with the description of two new species 
from Texas (Tachinidae). [19] 25: 102-107. 

COLEOPTERA. *Blackman, M. W. The genus Pity- 
ophthorus in North America : a revisional study of the 
Pityophthori, with descriptions of two new genera and 
seventy-one new species. Notes on Micracinae with descrip- 
tion of twelve new species. [Bull. N. Y. Sta. Coll. Forest.] 
1: 5-183, ill., 185-212. *Blaisdell, F. E. Revision of the 

xli, '30] F.XTGMOLOCICAI. NEWS 247 

genus and species of Dinacoma with description of a new 
species (Scarabaeiclae). [55] 6: 171-177, ill. Blatchley, W. 
S. The Scarabaeiclae of Florida. I39| 14: 13-17, ill. (Cont.) 
Boving, A. G. Description of the larva of Cerotoma tri- 
furcata (Chrysomeliclae). [10] 32: 51-58, ill. *Bruch, C.- 
Una especie nueva de Prionapterus (Prionido). (S). [104J 
2: 203-208, ill. *Bruch, C. Descripcion de tin yenero y 
cle tina nueva especie de Pselafido mirmecofilo. (S). | 104] 
2: 157-160, ill. Burke, H. E. Phlocosinus kills trees. [55] 
6: 181. Dallas, E. D. Descripcion de tin Ceroglossus chi- 
lensis monstrtioso. Monstruosidad observada en tin Caloso- 
ma retusum. (S). f!04| 2: 193-194, 195-1%. ill. "Darlington, 
P. J., Jr. A new Nebria from Mount Rainier. [5] 37: 104- 
105. de Andrade, E. N. Praga d<>s Bain bus. Rhinasttis 
sternicornis. (S). [Arch. Inst. Biol., S. Paulo] 1 : 137-142. ill. 
*Eggers, H. Ipidae da America do stil. [Arch. Tnst. Biol, 
S. Paulo] 1 : 83-99. Frost, C. A. Uloma imberbis. 1 19] 25 : 
101. Frost, C. A. Orchestes testacetis. [19] 25: 97. Hend- 
rickson, G. O. Biologic notes on Microrhopala vittata. 
(Chrysomelidae). [4] 62: 98-99. Hickman, J. R. Life- 
histories of Michigan Haliplidae. [Pap. Michigan Acad. Sci., 
Arts & Letters] 11: 399-424, ill. Horn, W. Stir quelques 
especes interessantes du genre Odontochila a])partenantes 
a la faune de 1'Argentine. [104] 2: 75-76. *Horn, W.- 
Xotes on the races of Omus californicus and a list of the 
Cicindelidae of America north of Mexico. [1] 56: 73-86. ill. 
Hustache, A. Revision des Baridiens de 1'Airieriqiie du 
Sud. [104] 2: 287-288. *Hustache, A. Xotiveaux Curculi- 
onides de rAmeri(|iie du Sud. 1104] 2: 227-232. Keifer, H. 
H. The larva of Cylindrocopttirus crasstis. [55] 6: 167-170. 
ill. Kolbe, H. Paussidenstudien. Gegen Wasmann. [11] 
1930: 16-25. *Lesne, P. Diagnoses de Bostrychides nou- 
veaux. [25] 1930: 102-104. *Liebke, M. Revision der 
amerikanischen arten der unterfamilie Colliurinae (Carab.). 
(S). |Mit. Zool. Mtis., Berlin] 15: 649-726. ill. Marelli, C. 
A. Respuesta a dos objeciones sobre la identificacion de 
las es]ecies del genero Goniopterus halladas en La Plata. 
( S). | 104| 2: 277-281. *Melzer, J. Longicorneos do Hrasil. 
novos on pottco conhecidos. ( C'erambycidae). [Arch. Inst. 
Mini.. S. Pauloj 1: 143-158, ill. *Pic, M. Coleopteres de 
r.\ineri(|ue M cridionale. ll()4| 2: 183-184. *Pic, M. Divers 
Colcnpteres nou\-eaux de la Rcpiibliquc Argentine. | 1041 2: 
99-102. Robertson, C. Position of Strepsiptera on hosts! 
|19| 25: 96-97. Tremoleras, J. Ntievos datos ecologicos 

248 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS [] u ty, '30 

sobre Buprestidos platenses. (S). [104] 2: 185-186. *Uh- 
mann, E. Amerikanische Hispinen (Chrys.). 19. (S). [2] 
26: 33-38, ill. *Uhmann, E. Hispinen aus Costa Rica. 20. 
Beitrag zur kenntnis cler Hispinen. [Folia Zool. et Hy- 
drob.] 1 : 209-256, ill. *Van Dyke, E. C. New Rhyncho- 
phora from western North America. [55] 6: 149-165. Wol- 
frurn, P. Ueber Anthribiden von Cuba und den grossen 
Antillen. III. [11] 1930: 25-32. 

HYMENOPTERA. *Benson, R. B. Nine sawflies re- 
quiring- new names. [9] 63 : 107. Bequaert, J. Nesting 
habits of Isodontia, a sub-genus of Chlorion. [19] 25: 122- 
123. Bequaert, J. On the generic and subgeneric divisions 
of the Vespinae. [19] 25: 59-70. Bequaert, J. Are ants 
better protected against the. attacks of their predaceous 
enemies than other arthropods? [34] 88: 163-176. *DeGant, 
F. D. A new species of Macrocentrus from Ohio (Bra- 
conidae). [10] 32: 65. Dow, R. Early references to the 
behavior of American solitary wasps. [19] 25: 98-101. *Fah- 
ringer, J. Ueber einige sudamerikanische Braconidengat- 
tungen. [48] 47: 19-31. Fischer, C. R. Notas biologicas 
sobre o Crabro tabanicida 1929 e considerac,6es concernentes 
as motucas. (S). [Arch. Inst. Biol., S. Paulo] 2: 141-162, ill. 
Flanders, S. E. Notes on Trichogramma minutum. [55 1 
6: 180-181. Prison, T. H. A contribution to the knowledge 
of the bionomics of Bremus vagans. 110] 25: 109-122, ill. 
Gallardo, A. Note sur les moeurs de la fourmi Pseudoatta 
argentina. (S). [104] 2: 197-202, ill. *Heinrich, G. Einige 
neue genera und species der subfam. Ichneumoninae. (S). 
[Alit. Zool. Mus., Berlin] 15: 545-555, ill. Hendrickson, G. 
O. Observations on the nest of Aphaenogaster fulva subsp. 
aqua. (Formicidae). [19] 25: 78-79. LeVeque, N. Sym- 
biotic mites used to separate species of a genus of bees. 
[68] 71 : 607-608. *Ogloblin, A. A. Una nueva especie de 
Helorus de la Republica Argentina. [104] 2: 77-80, ill. Or- 
fila & Salellas. Notas biologicas sobre Sceliphron figulus. 
(S). [104] 2: 247-250. Smith, L. M. Macrorileya oecanthi. 
A hymenopterous egg parasite of tree crickets. [61] 5: 
165-172, ill. Smith, M. R. A list of Florida ants. [391 14: 
1-6. Tschepe, O. Meine hornisse [Vespa crabro]. [Kos- 
mos] 27: 207-211, ill. Tulloch, G. S. An unusual nest of 
Pogonomyrmex. [5] 37: 61-70, ill. Wheeler, W. M. Two 
mermithergates of Ectatomma. (S). 15] 37: 48-54. ill. 
* Wheeler, W. M. A new parasitic Crematogaster from In- 
diana. |5| 37: 55-60. 

OCTOBER. 1930 


Vol. XLI 

No. 8 



Gunder North American Institutions Featuring Lepidoptera XVI . 249 
Needham Emendatory Notes on the " Handbook of North American 

Dragonflies" (Odonata) 252 

Knight An European Plant-Bug (Amblytylus nasutus Kirschbaum) 

recognized from Massachusetts (Hemiptera, Miridae) 256 

Hayward The Night Flight of Diurnal Butterflier (Lepid ) . . 258 
Reinhard A Synopis of the Genus Macromeigenia Including the Des- 
cription of One New Species (Diptera: Tachinidae) 261 

Changes in the Department of Entomology, Massachusetts Agricul- 
tural College 264 

Entomological Literature 265 

Review Comstock's Manual for the Study of Insects 273 

Review Imm's General Textbook of Entomology 274 

Review Weber's Biologie der Hemipteren . 275 

Obituaries Mrs. Anna Botsford Comstock, Dr. George Dimmock, 

James Waterston and Ernest Baylis 277 

Correction. 280 


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Plate XXI. 


E. H. BRYAN, Jr. 



VOL. XLI. OCTOBER, 1930 No. 8 

North American Institutions Featuring Lepidoptera. 

XVII. Bishop Museum, Honolulu, T.H. 

By J. D. GUNDER, Pasadena, California. 

(Plates XXI-XXIII). 

The Bernice P. Bishop Museum of Honolulu was founded 
by Charles Reed Bishop in memory of his wife, Princess 
Bernice Pauahi Bishop, who was the last of the royal descend- 
ants of Kamehameha I, the great native king of the Hawaiian 
Islands. From a single room, erected in 1889, the Museum has 
grown, until now it includes a large stone building (see Plate 
XXI) containing six exhibition halls and two three-story con- 
crete buildings which house the offices and scientific study col- 
lections. Another large stone building, at present occupied by 
the Kamehameha Schools, in whose grounds the Institution is 
situated, will be used for future exhibitions. 

The Museum is devoted solely to the study of the Polynesian 
peoples and the natural history of the islands of the Pacific 
and its halls are open daily to the public without charge. In 
addition to a large attendance of tourists and island residents, 
several thousands of school children are brought by classes each 
year to view the exhibits. The study collections and excellent 
library are always available to scientists and others interested 
in the various subjects represented. 

The collections include one of the largest and certainly finest 
series of objects illustrating the life, customs and beliefs of 
the Polynesians in the world. Of natural history specimens 
there are splendid bird collections, a few mammals, reptiles 
and marine invertebrates, a representative collection of lish, 
and a very extensive collection of mollusks, including over 
900,000 pulmonates or land shells. The herbarium contains a 
valuable and rapidly growing collection of plants from the 
Pacific Islands and neighboring tropical regions. 

Regarding the insect collections. Since the time of the early 



Pacific explorers the insects of Hawaii and other isolated 
Pacific island groups have attracted the attention of entomol- 
ogists. Because of isolation and varying environmental condi- 
tions, these Islands contain a very unique and specialized insect 
fauna. The interesting specimens, and many of them were 
unique, which found their way to Europe as the result of the 
first explorers, or in the case of Hawaii of the early collection 
made by Rev. Thomas Blackburn, aroused a very considerable 
interest. Certain exploring expeditions were sent out to this 
region, notably that of Dr. R. C. Perkins to Hawaii. Perkins 
collected about a hundred thousand specimens on which material 
the splendid "Fauna Hawaiiensis" was based. Also, the pres- 
ence of Dr. Perkins in the Islands at the time of a severe sugar 
leafhopper outbreak, led eventually to the control of this and 
other pests, and to the establishment in Hawaii of several 
entomological laboratories, notably those of the Hawaii Sugar 
Planters' Association. The residence of these entomologists 
and their organization into the Hawaiian Entomological Soci- 
ety 1 has caused the insect fauna of Hawaii to be better known 
than that of any other similar island region in the world, and 
has made Hawaii famous for its successful control of insect 
pests by natural enemies. 

Portions of the insect groups collected by Perkins are now 
in the Bishop Museum and many specimens taken by other 
entomologists in the Islands have also been placed there, mak- 
ing the Museum's collection as a whole one of the best refer- 
ence collections of Hawaiian insects. In 1915 the Museum 
acquired Richard Helm's material of some 22,000 specimens 
from Australia and New Zeland. The late W. M. Gifrard 
has contributed several valuable collections from Hawaii, 
Samoa and the Solomon Islands. Several expeditions have 
secured specimens in many of the South Pacific Island groups. 
There are loan collections from Australia, Fiji, Japan, China, 
Guam, Southern Asia, Africa and North America. The col- 

1 Several members of the Hawaiian Entomological Society are shown 
on plate XXIII. Mr. W. M. Giffard hirs since passed away. 1 am sorry 
that F. Muir, C. E. Pemberton, L. A. Whitney and R, H. Van Zwalu- 
wenburg were absent when the picture was taken. 


Plate XXII. 

,v - 


Omiodei i Za^ 







Plate XXIII. 




H u 

Id jj 


O - 

< 60 

O j= 

O = 



o 3 

w <^ 

z ^ 

M C 

I ^ 

< X 

X u 

U ^ 










xli, 30] KXTOMomcic.u. XK\VS 251 

lections from Samoa were combined with those made by Buxton 
and Hopkins in the preparation of "Insects of Samoa" pub- 
lished by the British Museum. 

At the present time an Entomological Survey of the Pacific 
Islands is being conducted jointly by the Bishop Museum and 
the Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association. Two collectors 
have been in the field for over a year and extensive series of 
specimens have been secured in Tahiti and in the Marquesas 
Islands. These will be placed in the Museum and field work- 
is being continued to include all other island groups. 

Plate XXI shows the commodious entomological room where 
the collections are stored. There are eight 28-drawer and four 
30-drawer steel cabinets housing the various insect orders, in 
addition to some 300 Schmitt boxes. The Lepidoptera of 
Hawaii occupies 31 drawers, while 7 drawers are devoted to 
those of the South Sea Islands and 14 to the Australian collec- 
tions. There are only two butterflies native to Hawaii ; one a 
Vanessa and the other a Lyciicna. both of which are shown on 
Plate XXII. A number of moths are also extremely local. 
Probably the most noteworthy is the famous green Sphinx, 
Tinostonia smaragditis Meyk. This unique example is in the 
I British Museum. At considerable expense and upon two sepa- 
rate occasions, Dr. P. B. Clark of Boston had August Kusche, 
of San Francisco, visit the type locality, but without success. 
It seems that the remote district and the time of year when 
specimens should be found are against the strength of the 
average collector. I wonder that my friend F. X. Williams, of 
Honolulu, doesn't try to dig this thing up? They would prob- 
ably be worth their actual weight in gold. 

In 1907 Mr. Otto Swezey was appointed Honorary Curator 
of Entomology at the Museum and he has since become Con- 
sulting Entomologist. Through his efforts and those of other 
workers, the insect collections are well arranged and classified. 
Mr. Swezey was born in Rockford, Illinois, on June 7, 18(>'. 
obtaining his A.I',, at the Lake Forest College and his M.S. 
at Northwestern University. He has been in the Islands sinci- 
August 12, 1904, and his entomological papers have, for the 
most part, been published in the Bulletins of the Kxperiment 


Station, H.S.P.A. and in the Proceedings of the Hawaiian 
Entomological Society. He is well known for his work on 
the study and control of sugar cane pests and the biological 
control methods used, i.e. the introduction of natural enemies. 
The problems have largely been those of combating the leaf- 
hopper, weevil borer and the root-grub. Just at present Mr. 
Swezey is much interested in the study of the insect fauna of 
the native forests and their welfare from an entomological 
standpoint. The Agricultural Station of the H.S.P.A. has 
about sixty persons on its staff, of which seven are employed 
in the Department of Entomology. The Station is in the resi- 
dence district of Honolulu, about two miles from the water 
front and occupies some seven acres of grounds laid out in 
experimental cane-plots, etc. There are five main buildings 
with about thirty rooms and laboratories. Mr. Swezey spends 
practically all of his time at the Station, except one half day 
a week which he devotes to the work on insects at the Bishop 

I am indebted to Mr. E. H. Bryan, Jr., Curator of the 
Museum, and to Mr. Otto Swezey as well for much of the 
information contained in this article. The Lepidoptera shown 
on the plate were loaned to me for photographic reproduction 
by the Museum through the courtesy of Mr. Swezey. By the 
way, if any entomologist wants an interesting vacation, plus 
unusual collecting, go to Honolulu. (And don't forget to try 
for the Green Sphinx!). The "boys" over there give visitors 
a real welcome and offer every hospitality. 

Emendatory Notes on the " Handbook of North 
American Dragonflies " (Odonata). 

By JAMES G. NEEDHAM, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. 

An errata sheet for the Handbook of Dragonflies of North 
America (Springfield, 1929) was printed and before the end of 
1929 was mailed to all purchasers of the volume, insofar as 
these could be located. Among the errors, mostly verbal and 
typographical, there were half a dozen of importance, and likely 
to mislead the user of the Handbook, and I desire to call atten- 


tion to them here for the benefit of any who may have been 
missed in the distribution of the errata sheets. 

Most serious were three transpositions of names on the fig- 
ures: Complins furcifer and G. villosipcs on p. 116; Sotnato- 
clilora scptcntrionalis on p. 195. and S. wliitchousei on p. 196; 
and Lestes vidua and L. forcipatns on p. 278. 

There are two keys in which the numerals at the right hand 
margin got disarranged. In the key to the species of Ophio- 
gomphus on p. 68, 10 at the right margin should be 13, and 8 
should be 11. And in the key to the species of Sympetrum on 
page 232 in the same margin, 8 should be 6, 6 should be 10, and 
10 should be 8. 

The statement on p. 310 that "The nymphs of none of our 
American species [of Coenagrion} have as yet been made 
known" was a clear oversight. References should instead have 
been made to Walker's account of the nymph of Coenagrion 
resolutum in Canad. Ent. 46: 353, 1914. 

These errors, and all others hitherto discovered, will be cor- 
rected in a second printing, soon to be made. 

One species was omitted that should have been included, and 
one was included that should have been omitted. 

I overlooked a record by Dr. Calvert in Biologia Centrali 
Americana; Xenroptcra, p. 225 of the occurrence of Micra- 
thyria hagcnii Kirby at Esperanza Ranch near Brownsville, 
Texas. This Neotropical genus has not elsewhere been re- 
ported from the United States. It will run out in the key to 
genera of Libellulinae to Erythrodiplax on page 202, but will be 
distinguishable from that genus by the possession of an extra 
(more than the one always present) crossvein above the bridge. 
Its nymph is still unknown. 

I included Tranica rirt/inia Rambur. not because of its name, 
nor for the sake of disagreeing with the opinion of my friend, 
Dr. Ris, but because I thought that such a strong-flying species 
might possibly have been taken on our coast. But I have since 
examined a good many collections of dragonflies from China, 
and have found this species in every one of them; and I now 
feel sure, that a species, taken by every collector in the Orient, 



[Oct., '30 

would have been taken again here by some one since Rambur's 
time if it were a member of our fauna. I think, therefore, 
that it should have been omitted. 

The restoration of the name Cannacria and the supression of 
Brachymesia should perhaps have a word of explanation. The 
former name was based on C. batesi Kirby, 1 and later C. gravida 
Calvert was properly associated with it. Brachymesia was based 
on Erythcmis furcata Hagen, and was monotypic. Then these 
three species were lumped together, improperly in my judgment, 
under the name Brachymesia, that name having page precedence 
over Cannacria. 

Cannacria batesi and C. gravida are closely allied species and 
E. furcata is very different. The former are slender brown 
species, rather narrow-winged and with slender parallel-sided 
abdomen ; the last named is a stocky red species with slowly 
tapering abdomen and with much broader hind wings. Some 
of the differences may be tabulated as follows : 


Its base 

Segment 8 

$ superior ap- 

Length of hind 

Its breadth in- 
creasing prox- 

E. furcata 

stouter, regularly 

hardly inflated 
2/3 of 9 + 10 

with tapered tips 
less than three times 
its width 

C. batesi and C. 

long and slender, 

more contracted 

on 3 

much inflated 
as long as 9 -|- 10 

with inflated tips 
more than three 
times its width 

to level of tip of 

to the hind angle 

There are other minor venational differences in E. furcata 
such as fewer antenodal crossveins, and an anal area in the hind 
wing filled with more elongate cells in less regular rows. 

These differences lead us to restore the generic name Cun- 
nacria for the two species that were formerly placed in it. \Yhat 

1 This name should have been replaced by C. hcrbida (Gundlach), tcstc 
Calvert, Trans. Ainer. Ent. Soc. 45: 365-306, the latter name having 


to do with the third species was then the question. In most 
respects it is very like Sympctrum. Indeed it is a less aherrant 
member of that genus than are others that are regularly placed 
in it : less aberrant than the North American S. corrupt nm and 
S. illotum and far less than the Holoarctic 5". pedemontaniim, 
or the East Asian 5". unifonnc. The superior appendages of 
the male are almost identical in form with those of S. kunckcli, 
and are very like those of S. ardcns, S. c rotten in, S. panmlmn 
and 5". iyiwtiim. The tip of the inferior appendages is less 
widely notched than in S. ruptniu. The anterior lamina of the 
second segment is not higher or more deeply notched than in 
S. anoinalnin. Finding so much agreement with the various 
members of Syuipetruni (a genus that the splitters may have 
inadvertently overlooked hitherto; we put it in that genus.- It 
seems to exhibit no characters that are not shown among the 
species of that genus. 

All the bibliographers, including ourselves, have overlooked 
one publication in which appears a photographic figure of the 
so-called Caniiacria furcata: 77;r Common Dragon flics about 
Kansas City, by Beth Boright, The Xanti/its/ 3 :30, 1899, Plate 
I, fig. 17. The specimen shown in that figure, collected in a 
park at Kansas City, Missouri, is now in the Cornell University 
collection by gift of Dr. Merrill. 

Two reviewers have found much fault with the incomplete- 
ness of our distribution data. \Ye stated in our Introduction 
(page 47) that "For the convenience of the user distribution 
and size are condensed to a single line at the head of each de- 
scription ; and both are stated broadly." Completeness was not 
aimed at. \Ye are not able to understand why similar criticism 
was not made of our statement of size, for we gave only one 

Our treatment of the genus Lcitcorrliinia suffered from lack 
of material for study. \Ye had plenty of specimens of /.. in- 
tacta but not any other species; and of L. /'orcalis we were not 
able to obtain any. Even yet an adequate description of that 
species is lacking in our literature. 

'Kennedy has recently (Science 70:504, \ { )2 { > ) jjoue out of his way to 
proclaim how near he once came to putting it where it belongs. 
3 A Kansas City Manual Training Hi.uh School publication. 


An European Plant-bug (Amblytylus nasutus Kirsch- 

baum) recognized from Massachusetts 

(Hemiptera, Miridae).* 

By HARRY H. KNIGHT, Ames, Iowa. 

Recently the writer received a small lot of Hemiptera for 
determination from Mr. C. W. Johnson, of the Boston Society 
of Natural History. Among the Miridae collected on Nan- 
tucket Island, Massachusetts, I find three specimens of the 
European species, Amblytylus nasutus Kirschbaum, not before 
correctly recorded from this country. These specimens, two 
males and a female, were taken July 27, 1928, by Mr. Johnson 
in "Hidden forest", at Polpis, near the eastern end of the island. 

Blatchley (Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc., xxxvi, 1928, p. 15) has 
reported Amblytylus from Indiana, following the recognition of 
the genus by Mr. Van Duzee. Blatchley reviews the generic 
characters of Amblytylus and concludes with this statement: 
"A half dozen or so species are known from southern Europe, 
and the first one taken in this country is herewith described". 
Unfortunately he gives it a new name, Amblytylus vanduzcei 
n. sp., without further consideration of which European species 
it might represent. His description, as far as it goes, fits 
nasutus Kirschb. perfectly, and I am convinced his specimens 
represent the same species as that taken on Nantucket Island by 
Mr. Johnson. 

For comparison and study the writer has a small series of 
specimens from England and from various parts of Germany, 
some of which came named as affinis Fieb. and some as nasutus 
Kirschb. I have been unable to recognize more than one species 
in this material, hence I have given considerable study to all the 
descriptions given under these names, trying to find characters 
that would separate affinis Fieb. from nasutus Kirschb. 

Fieber (1864) in his original description for affinis, makes 
only one comparison with nasutus Kbm., namely: "1st bei Am- 
blytylus nasutus Kbm. einzureihen, von welchem ihn die anders 
gezeichnete Membran sogleich unterscheidet." 

* Contribution from the Department of Zoology and Entomology, Iowa 
State College, Ames. 


Douglas and Scott (1865) sent a British specimen to Fieber 
for determination and received it back with the name Anibly- 
tvlus affinis Fieb. attached, also the following note: "Allied to 
Ambl \t\lus iiasiitits, but with different markings on the mem- 
brane." Fieber also compares affinis with species in allied gen- 
era which is of no significance here. 

Renter (1879) in his great work on the European Miridae 
gives a key for the species of Amblytylus and would separate 
our forms as follows : 

4 (5) Dorsum abdominis concolor. Pallidior 

nasutus Kirschb. 

5 (4) Dorsum abdominis nigrum. Color multo obscurior. 

Hemielytra inter venas late fusco-colorata 

affinis Fieb. 

Saunders (1892) describes affinis Fieb. and states: "In the 

9 the entire insect is generally ochreous, in the $ the abdomen 

is black above. Dr. Renter gives this character to both sexes, 

but in all my females the abdomen is pale above except at the 

extreme base." 

The writer's examination of specimens reveals the same con- 
dition reported by Saunders. I also find that the membrane 
markings vary in intensity, the males generally darker although 
some males are light in color as is usual for the female. The 
male genital structures are identical for all specimens examined, 
both light and dark colored males included. 

Renter (1879) in his description of affinis, states that the 
rostrum is shorter, attaining base of fourth ventral segment, 
whereas, for nasutns Kbm., attaining middle of venter. I do 
not believe this statement is significant since the fourth ventral 
segment is rather near the middle of venter. I am unable to 
find any difference in length of rostrum among the specimens 
at hand. Without wasting further time and space 1 will con- 
clude by giving the synonomy as follows : 


1855 Lopits nasiifns Kirschbaum, Jahrb. Yer. Xat. Her/. Xns- 

sau, x, p. 281; (Sept.) Rhyn. v. \Yk-sb. , 
Caps., p. 121. 

1860 Capsus (Capsus) nasulns Flor, Rhyn. Livlands, I, p. 552. 


1861 Amblytylus nasutus Fieber, Eur. Hemiptera, p. 319. 

1864 Ambl\t \lus affinis Fieber, Wien. ent. Monatschr., viii, 

p. 332. 

1865 Amblvtylus affinis Douglas & Scott, Brit. Hemiptera, 

p. 389. 
1875 Amblvt\lus nasutus Renter, Rev. Crit. Caps., (ii), p. 

148; Acta Soc. Faun. Fl. Fenn., I, 

p. 164. 
1875 Amblytylus affinis Saunders, Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 

1875, p. 298. 
1879 Amblvtylus nasutus Renter, Hem. Gymn. Eur., II, p. 

211, P l. 3, fig. 1. ' 

1879 Amblytylus affinis Renter, Hem. Gymn. Eur., II, p. 

212, pi. 3, fig. 2. ' 

1883 Amblytylus uasutus Renter, Hem. Gymn. Eur., Ill, p. 

535. (Key). 
1883 Amblytylus affinis Renter, Hem. Gymn. Eur., Ill, p. 

1892 Amblytylus affinis Saunders, Hem. Heterop. Brit. Is., 

p. 305. 
1909 Amblytylus affinis Oshanin, Verz. Palaearkt. Hemip., I, 

p. 881. 

1909 Amblytylus nasutus Oshanin, Verz. Palaearkt. Hemip., I, 

p. 881. 

1910 Amblytylus nasutus Hiieber. Jahreshefte d. Vereins f. 

vaterl. Naturkunde in Wurtt., 66, p. 

1910 Amblytylus affinis Hiieber, Jahreshefte d. Vereins f. 

vaterl. Naturkunde in YYurtt., 66, p. 


1929 Amblytylus vanduseci Blatchley, Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc., 

xxxvi, p. 15. 

The Night Flight of Diurnal Butterflies (Lepid.). 

By KENNETH J. HAYWARD, F.E.S., F.R.G.S., English Club, 

Buenos Aires. 

Mr. Harold O'Byrne's article on page 20 of the January issue 
of the ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS (Vol. XLI) led me to look up 
my own records of a similar nature and 1 was surprised at the 
number that had accumulated in the last dozen years. 

I have not seen Scudder's "Frail Children of the Air" and 
am not therefore in a position to comment on his records of 
night flights of butterflies mentioned in that book, but I can- 
not agree with Mr. O'Byrne that records in which only the 
name of the species, date and time of the nocturnal flight, and 


possibly some additional irrelevant details, are given, are of any 
scientific value. To have value they must contain also details 
df atmospheric conditions prevailing at the time of flight, and 
should in every case be accompanied by the observer's opinion 
of the possible or probable cause of the unusual time of flight. 
I regret that in the records I add below, the most essential data, 
those concerning climatic conditions, will be found wanting, 
since I have never considered any of the instances quoted <>t 
sufficient scientific interest to do more than briefly note them 
in my day books. 

Frankly, I do not see that much is to be gained by the collec- 
tion of data on isolated night flights of recognised day-flying, 
sun-loving, butterflies. In this connection I do not include cer- 
tain shade-loving, dusk-flying groups whose habits need special 
study to clear up the question of whether they habitually fly 
during any portion of the night. 

How frequently does one disturb a confirmed night flying 
moth during one's daily round and cause it to fly, albeit un- 
willingly. Surely the same thing must happen to day-flying 
butterflies at night. Disturbed from their resting places In- 
moving animal life, or by some action of the elements, they 
have, as the moths we disturb by day, but one alternative, they 
must fall to the ground or fly, and, if sufficiently awake, in- 
stinct will suggest the use of wings. That one so seldom sees 
this happen is due to varying causes. To the fact that we do 
not normally move about at night in the haunts where butter- 
flies sleep and if we do the darkness prevents our seeing the 
butterflies should they fly, and undoubtedly to the fact also 
that the butterflies, being for the most part small-bodied, are 
able more effectively to cling to their grass stems or to the 
leaves that shelter them than the heavy-bodied moths. Butter- 
flies that are seen indoors at night flying round the lights do 
not come within the scope of any study such as is suggested, 
unless they have entered after dark from without. For the 
most part they are insects that have entered in search of dry 
shelter during the daylight hours and doubtless mistake the 
brightness for daylight. Xor do the two records quoted by 
Scudder of quantities of Eugonia i-alhnin and ./. plexippus 
living at night round the lighthouses on Xantucket Island and 
Lake Ontario belong here; they belong rather to the stud\ of 
insect migration. 


Since however more records are asked for, I add my own, 
though I do not see that they can be of any great value with- 
out the essential data which I cannot give. 

End of July or early August, 1919. Vanessa urticac L. 
entered a lighted room at Bruton (Somerset) England about 
10-11 p.m. An insect that had almost certainly been disturbed 
from its roosting place amongst the woodwork of the window 
shades where they could be commonly found. 

Feb. 19, 1920. Gcgcncs nostradamus F. entered my light 
trap at Reservoir (near Aswan) Upper Egypt. I have several 
times found species of Grypocera at light and refrain from 

June 22nd, 1920. Colias croccus Fourcr. (cdusa L. ) entered 
my light trap at Reservoir sometime after 11 p.m. Undoubtedly 
disturbed by some night-prowling animal from the her seem 
(alfalfa) that grew directly before and very close to my light. 

Oct. 10, 1920. Parnara inathias F. Found flying at light 
at Maadi (just outside of Cairo). The insect was at that time 
fairly common all round the house. 

June 30, 1921. Dryas pandora Schiff. At the outside lights 
of an hotel above Platres, Cyprus. The hotel was right 
amongst the pine forests where pandora was flying commonly. 
Platres is on the Southern, or Trob'dos, range at about 4000 

Oct. 6th, 1921. Another C. croccus entered the trap at 
Reservoir at about 10 p.m. after flying about blindly for several 
minutes. It approached from the direction of the berseem and 
had without doubt been disturbed. 

Nov. 20th, 1921. This time a Pyramcis card id L. entered 
the trap. A very common butterfly that usually slept amongst 
the berseem. 

Nov. 5th, 1923. Eunica tatila H-S. and Glutophrissa drn- 
silla Hbn. flew aboard ship off the Brazilian coast between 7 
and 10 p.m. during a heavy rainstorm with strong southerly 
gale. At the same time a very large number of night-flying 
moths and some other insects arrived and all had probably 
been blown out by the violence of the wind. 

Nov. 9th, 1923. Pyramcis huntcra F., f. brasiliensis Moore 
flew aboard ship off the southern Brazilian coast, arriving about 
1 1 p.m. 

May 1st, 1924. Colias Icsbia was flying on my lighted ver- 
andah. There was alfalfa growing within 100 yards (Villa 
Ana, Prov. Santa Fe). 

May 28th, 1924. Another Colias Icslu'a sought shelter from 
a tropical downpour of great violence. How it managed to 
struggle through the rain after being swept from its shelter 
is another matter. Probably many essayed the task and were 
beaten to the ground. 


Sept. 9th, 1924. Yet another C alias Icsbia, a male, flew to 
my verandah light. 

Dec. 29th, 1925. A specimen of P. Intntcra, f. brasilicusis 
came to light. A common insect that has a habit of sleeping 
under eaves and such like places and may possibly have been 
disturbed from a few feet from the light. 

Jan. 29th, 1927. A small unidentified Tliccht. which was 
common around a tall bush before my house at that time, was 
seen sitting on the wall beneath the outside light. There is no 
doubt that it had arrived after dark. 

The above records from A lay 1st, 1924, till Jan. 29th. 1927, 
both inclusive, were made at Villa Ana in the Province of 
Santa Fe in the Argentine Republic. 

Feb. 17th, 1929. A female Euptoictu clandia Cr., s. sp. 
hortensia Blanch, was flying around a coloured cabaret sign 
in Calle Maipu, in the centre of Buenos Aires, at 10.30 p.m. 

I add a record that would be more in place under the head- 
ing "The Day Flight of Nocturnal Moths". 

July 28th, 1921. On the southern range of the Island of 
Cyprus, between Platres and Troodos, I captured, at about 
12.30 p.m., a specimen of Hippotion cclcrio L. that in the bright 
sunlight of a small forest glade by the side of a stream was 
flitting from flower to flower, feeding a little at each, and ap- 
parently quite oblivious to the fact that it had come from its 
resting place some seven hours too early. 

A Synopsis of the Genus Macromeigenia Including 

the Description of One New Species 

(Diptera : Tachinidae). 

By H. J. REIXHARD, College Station, Texas. 
The genus Macromeigenia was established by Brauer and 
Bergenstamm 1 with Tacliina chrysoprochi Wiecl. as the type 
and sole species. Wiedemann's description does not mention 
the source of his type series but his species is not uncommon 
in the northeastern section of the United States. In 1 ( '21, I 
described friocusis- a closely related form but referred it to 
the genus Erncstia. Subsequently Dr. J. M. Aldrich sent me 
a specimen of chrysoprocta, and from a comparison of the two 
species it appears that friocusis is congeneric although quite 
distinct specifically. A third apparently undescribed species, 
also from Texas, is herein referred to the genus and a key 
to the species given below. 

J Zweifl. d. Kaiserl. Mus., Yul. 5. IS'M. p. 

2 Annals Entomological Society of America, Vol. 14, 1921, p. 329. 


Key to species of Macromeigcnia. 

1. Sides of front and face golden; apex of abdomen yellow, 

chrysoprocta Wiedemann. 
Sides of front and face gray; apex of abdomen black. . . .2 

2. Arista slender on apical half ; third antennal joint of ordi- 

nary length; costal spine usually distinct. 

frlocnsis Reinhard. 

Arista thickened almost to tip; third antennal joint unusu- 
ally long; costal spine absent ou'cnii, new species. 


Ttichhia chrysoprocta Wied. Auss. Zweifl., Vol. 2, 1830, 

p. 309. 
Macromeigenia chrvsoprncta B.&B. Zweill. d. Kaiserl., 

Mus., Vol. 5, 1891, p. 311. 

Although this species has not been reported from the South- 
west, it ranges southward to Virginia, South Carolina, and 
Georgia. Two specimens are in my collection, one female from 
Tennessee taken June 12, 1922, without collector's label; and 
one male from Maryland collected on flowers of Daueiis, 
August 14, by Dr. C. H. T. Townsencl. The -species may be 
instantly recognized by the striking golden front and face and 
needs no further description. 


Ernestia frioensis Rein. Ann. Ent. Soc. Am., Vol. 14, 1921, 

p. 329. 

The type locality is Frio County, Texas. Fourteen additional 
specimens including both sexes have since been received from 
the following localities, all in the western part of the State : 
Presidio, Marathon, Barstow, Balmorhea, Menard, and Spur. 
This series is rather uniform in size ranging from 7 to 9 mm. 
in length. 

The female differs from the male in having the third antennal 
joint narrower and yellow near base, the pulvilli short, eyes 
less hairy, and the usual orbital bristles present. The front is 
only slightly wider, by micrometer 0.368 of the head width as 
compared with 0.350 in male (average of five in both). Genital 
segments short and retracted with no piercer present. 

In the male the posterior forceps are keeled behind near base, 
divided and divergent beyond the middle, with the tips blunt 
and broadly rounded on the posterior extremity; outer forceps 
about as long as inner, basal part raised along the middle, 
tapering uniformly to tips which are rather pointed. 


These items with the original description cover the essential 
details of the species. 

Macromeigenia owenii, n. sp. 

Male: Front at vertex 0.381 of head width in the one speci- 
men, projecting prominently below; face of unusual length and 
strongly receding, rather narrowly and very deeply excavated 
with the ridges practically parallel on entire length, bare except 
a few bristles next to vibrissae, which are situated close to 
mouth ; eyes rather small, densely hairy ; parafrontals and sides 
of face with dense plumbeous pollen, thinner on cheeks so that 
the yellow ground color is apparent on upper part in certain 
angles; median stripe blackish, before triangle about equal to 
width of parafrontal which widens rapidly downward : one 
pair (inner) verticals developed; ocellars present, proclinate; 
frontals about 8 in number, the uppermost two stout and 
reclinate but not very long, below antennae the rows strongly 
divergent extending to level of arista ; parafrontals with numer- 
ous bristly hairs extending downward almost to middle of face ; 
para-facial bare on lower half, not narrowed downward, about 
equal the width of facial depression ; antennae of enormous 
length, basal joints yellow, third black except at base, about 
eight times longer than second ; arista black, thickened almost 
to tip, basal joints short but distinct; cheeks one-half the eye 
height ; proboscis short, moderately stout, labella fleshy : palpi 
yellow, slender to tip, with a few long hairs on lower edge : 
posterior orbits broad below narrowed toward vertex ; occiput 
with two rows of bristles above and rather dense fine pale 
hairs beneath. 

Thorax cinereous, when viewed from behind the dorsum 
shows four black stripes in front and five behind, the median 
one not extending in front of suture; scutellum reddish at apex, 
also covered with dense cinereous pollen, which appears some- 
what thinner on middle of disk in a flat rear view. Thoracic 
chaetotaxy: acrostichal 3, 3; dorsocentral 3. 4; humeral 4; post- 
humeral 3 (anterior and posterior ones small); presutural 2: 
notopleural 2; supraalar 3; intraalar 3; pnstalar 2: p'ero- 
pleural 1 ; sternopleural 2, 1 ; scutellum with one discal, three 
large lateral and a smaller decussate apical pair ; postscutellum 
normal; infrasquamal hairs absent: calypters semitransparent, 

Abdomen black, much longer than broad and rather thick to 
apex; dorsum entirely covered with changeable cinereous pollen 
which has a brownish tinge on hind margins of the intermediate 
segments; the latter each with a pair of discal, besides a median 
marginal pair on second and a marginal row on third; first 
segment with a smallish median marginal pair; fourth with 
discal and marginal rows; genital segments black, of ordinary 


size ; fifth sternite deeply divided with a V-shaped incision, the 
lohes black. 

Legs black, mid tibia with one bristle near middle of outer 
front side ; hind tibia subciliate on outer posterior edge with 
one long bristle near middle ; claws and pulvilli elongate. 

Wings hyaline : no costal spine ; veins yellowish, bare except 
third which has two setules at base ; fourth vein with a rounded 
obtuse bend without stump, joining the third at costa and clos- 
ing the first posterior cell well before apex of wing; tip of 
hind cross vein much nearer to bend than small cross vein ; 
last section of fifth vein short. 

Length, 10 mm. 

Described from one male specimen collected at Presidio, 
TEXAS, September 9, 1928, by W. L. Owen, Jr., for whom the 
species is named. 

Type: Male, Cat. No. 42,883, U.S.N.M. 

The species is less robust in build than the genotype cJiry- 
soprocta, and is much more densely pollinose having a general 
pale gray appearance. In the latter respect it is very similar 
to frioensis from which it differs in the thickened arista, longer 
antennae, more protruberant front, etc. The host relations are 



Changes in the Department of Entomology, Massachusetts 

Agricultural College. 

After 31 years of continuous service as 1 head of the De- 
partment of Entomology at the Massachusetts Agricultural 
College, Dr. Henry T. Fernald retired on July 1st, 1930, to 
devote his time to his study of the Sphecoidean wasps and 
other researches in Entomology. For administrative pur- 
poses, the Departments of Entomology, Zoology and 
Geology have been combined into a single major depart- 
ment, with Dr. Clarence E. Gordon, Professor of Zoology 
and Geology, as head. 

Dr. Charles P. Alexander has been promoted to a full 
professorship, in charge of the college instruction in Ento- 
mology. Dr. G. Chester Crampton continues in charge of 
all work in Insect Morphology and Phylogeny. Assistant 
Professor Arthur I. Bourne has been made a Professor, in 
charge of research in the Agricultural Experiment Station. 
Air. Clayton L. Farrar has been promoted from Instructor 
in Apiculture to Assistant Professor, and Dr. Harvey L. 
Sweetman has been appointed Assistant Professor, in 
charge of the courses in Insect Ecology and Physiology. 

Dr. Fernald will remain at Amherst until about October 
1st, but thereafter will reside at 707 East Concord Avenue, 
Orlando, Florida. 


Entomological Literature 



Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, 
however, whether relating to American or exotic species will be recorded. 

The numbers within brackets I ] refer to the journals, as numbered 
in the list of Periodicals and Serials published in the January and June 
numbers (or which may be secured from the publisher of Entomological 
News for lOc), in which the paper appeared. The number of, or a_nnual 
volume, and in some cases the part, heft, &c. the latter within ( ) 
follows; then the pagination follows the colon : 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their 
first installments. 

*Papers containing new forms or names have an * preceding the 
author's name. 

(S) Papers pertaining exclusively to neotropical species, and not so 
indicated in the title, have the symbol (S) at the end of the title of 
the paper. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Rec- 
ord, Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied 
Entomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

H^'Note the change in the method of citing the bibliographical refer- 
ences, as explained above. 

Papers published in the Entomological News are not listed. 

GENERAL. Balduf, W. V. Our friends the insects. 
[Trans. Illinois State Acact. Sci.] 21 : 46-68. Barnes, W.- 
Obituary. By G. P. Engelhardt. [19] 25: 143-144. Brom- 
ley, S. W. Bee-killing robber flies. [6] 38: 159-176, ill. 
Cook, W. C. Some influences of location upon light trap 
catches. [4] 62: 95-98. Dodd, F. O. An investigation of 
the methods of preparing and mounting insects for perma- 
nent preservation. [Trans. 111. State Acad. Sci.| 22: 298- 
329. Hamlyn-Harris, R. The relative value of larval de- 
structors and the part they play in mosquito control in 
Queensland. [ Proc. R. Soc. Queensland] 41: 23-38, ill. 
Heikertinger, F. Ueber "Transformative Schutzfarbung" 
und ihre wissenschaftliche begriindung. |97] 50: 193-219. 
Kingston, R. W. G. The Oxford University Expedition 
to British Guiana. | Geog. Jour., London] 76: 1-24, ill. 
Hora, S. L. Ecologv. bionomics and evolution of the tor- 
rential fauna, with special reference to the organs of - at- 
tachment. [Phil. Tr. K. Soc. London] 218. (I',): 171-282, ill. 
Howard, L. O. Striking entomological events of the last 
decade of the Nineteenth Century. |7n| 1930: 5-18. Hud- 
son, G. V. Over eenige nieuwigheden in de Entomologie. 
|58| 8: 76-83. Internationale regain der zoologischen 
nomenklatur. |79] 16: 1-15. Kessler, E. Der wahrheit zur 
liebe zu "Ein ausflug in die umgebung Xew Vorks". [14| 
44: 89-90, 98-99. Lutz, F. E. Aquatic insect pets. [15] 
1930: 389-401, ill. Marshall, J. F. A new form of appa- 


ratus for photographing insects. [22] 21 : 139-140, ill. Mar- 
tensen, Th.- Concerning the opinions rendered by the in- 
ternational commission on zoological nomenclature. [34] 
89: 284-285. Poche, F. Richtigstellung der wiedergabe 
eines von 649 zoologen gestellten antrages seitens des sek- 
retars der internationalen nomenklaturkommission. |34] 
89: 268-271. Reverdin J. L. Obituary. By E. Bujard. 
[Compte Rendu Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat./Gene've] 47: 8-11. 
Sawa, R. A preliminary survey of the Arthropodan fauna 
of the University Farm at Komaba. [jour. Coll. Agric. Imp. 
Univ. Tokyo] 10: 329-345, ill. Schmitz, H. Phoriden aus 
eipaketen von locusta migratoria in Daghestan. [Naturhist. 
Maandblad] 19: 67-69, ill. Thorpe, W. H. Biological races 
in insects and allied groups. [Biol. Rev. & Biol. Proc. Cam- 
bridge Philo. Soc. | 5: 177-212, ill. Van Hay, M. E. Ob- 
servations et experimentation personnelles faites en 1926- 
1929 sur les rapports des insectes et des fleurs. | Bull. Soc. 
R. Bot. Belgique] 62: 82-86. Weiss, H. B. Insects and 
witchcraft. [6) 38: 127-133. 


The chirping rates of the snowy tree cricket (Oecanthus 
niveus) as affected by external conditions. [4] 62: 131-142, 
ill. Aubel & Levy Le potentiel limite d'oxydo-reduction 
dans les chenilles de Galleria mellonella. [77] 104: 862-864. 
Beeson, C. F. C. Sense of smell of longicorn beetles. [31] 
126: 12. Benazzi, D. M. Superrigenerazione del tarso e 
conseguente autotomia esuviale in una larva di Aeschna. 
[Natura, Milano] 21: 105-107, ill. Benazzi, M. Manifes- 
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Appareil de Golgi, vacuome et chondriome pendant la 
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endoparasitaire de la larve ectoparasite de Mormoniella 


vitripennis. [69] 190: 1530-1532. Cunningham, J. T.- 
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de Lepiney, J. Sur le comportement des adultes de Schis- 
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chordotonalorgane der schmetterlingsraupen. [34] 89: 183- 
186, ill. Heymons, R. Ueber die morphologic des weib- 
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Hirschler & Hirschlerowa. Sur la coexistence de 1'appareil 
de Golgi, du vacuome et des mitochondries dans les cellules 
sexuelles males chez Gryllus campestris. [77j 104: 952-954, 
ill. Hovener, M. Der darmtraktus von Psychoda alter- 
nata und seine anhangsdriisen. |46| 18: 74-113. ill. Hughes- 
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wild silkworms. The granular bodies in the brain of the 
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[Trans. Illinois State Acad. Sci.] 21: 109-135, ill. Metcalf 

& Hockenyos. The nature and formation of scale insect 

shells. [Trans. Illinois State Acad. Sci.] 22: 166-184, ill. 

Metz, C. W. A possible alternative to the hypothesis of 

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L. Dragon fly psychology. |13] 22: 45-46, ill. Mouchet, 

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[Bull. Soc. Zool. France] 54: 351-357, ill. Noyes, B. The 

peripheral sense organs in the termite Termopsis angusti- 

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Ueber die relative ausbildung der gehirnzentren bei bio- 

logisch verschiedenen ameisenarten. [-16] 18: 114-169, ill. 

Rivnay, E. Technique in artificial feeding of the bed bug, 

Cimex lectularius. [Jour. Parasit.] 16: 246-249, ill. Ross, 

H. H. Notes on the digestive and reproductive systems of 

the german cockroach. [Trans. 111. State Acad. Sci.] 22: 

206-216, ill. Sacharov, N. L. Studies in cold resistance of 

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260, ill. Shinji, O. Studies of the germ cells of aphids 

with an especial reference to the evolutional significance 

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ORTHOPTERA. Davis, W. T. Rearing the young of 
the viviparous cockroach. Panchlora cubensis. [6] 38: 86- 
88. Ross, H. H. The life history of the german cockroach. 
[Trans. Illinois State Acad. Sci.j 21 : 84-93, ill. Zolotarev- 
sky, B. N. Le criquet migrateur (Locusta Migratoria 
capito) a Madagascar. [An. Kpiphyties, Paris] 15: 185-235, 

HEMIPTERA. *Bunn. R. W. Notes on the genus 
Aphelonema with descriptions of new species. [103] 3: 
73-77, ill. *Cockerell & Bueker. \\-\\- records of Coccidae. 
(S). [40] 424: 8pp., ill. *Deay, H. O. Six new species of 


Tenagobia (Corixidae). (S). [19] 25: 171-179, ill. Doering, 
K. C. Synopsis of the family Cercopidae in North Amer- 
ica. [103J 3: 53-64, cont. *Drake & Harris. Notes on 
some South American Gerridae. |3] 19: 235-239. Drake & 
Harris. A wrongly identified American water-strider. [ 19] 
25: 145-146. Gaumont, L. Conditions generales de pullu- 
lation des aphides. [An. Epiphyties, Paris] 15: 256-316, ill. 
*Goding, F. W. New Membracidae, X. (S). [6] 38: 89-92. 
*Goding, F. W. Membracidae in the American Museum 
of Natural History. (S). [40] 421: 1-27, ill. *Harris, H. 
M. -Notes on some South American Nabidae, with descrip- 
tions of new species. [3] 19: 241-248. *Hungerford, H. B. 
A report on the nomenclature of some neotropical Noto- 
necta with the description of some new species. [19] 25: 
138-143, ill. Jaczewski, T. Notes on the American species 
of the genus Mesovelia (Mesoveliidae). [An. Mus. Zool. 
Polonici] 9: 12pp., ill. Kiritshenko, A. N. On the generic 
position of two species of Hemiptera described by "W. L. 
Distant. (S). [75] 6: 148-153, ill. *Knight, H. H. New 
species of Psallus (Miridae). |4J 62: 125-131. Knowlton, 
G. F. Notes on Utah Lachnea (Aphididae). [4] 62: 152- 
161, ill. *Lawson & Beamer. Some new Scolops ( Ful- 
goridae) with notes on other species. [103] 3: 67-72, ill. 
Lawson, P. B.-- Concerning Scolops cockerelli ( Fulgori- 
dae). [4] 62: 120-122. *Lobdell, G. H. Twelve new mealy- 
bugs from Mississippi. (Coccoidea). |7| 23: 209-236, ill. 
*Oman, P. W. A new Paracoelidia (Cicaclellidae). [103] 
3 : 78. Stoner, D. Spined soldier-bug reared on celerv 
leaf-tyer. [39] 14: 21-22. de la Torre-Bueno, J. R. Cerato- 
combus vagans in Westchester County, N. Y. [19] 25: 144. 

LEPIDOPTERA. *Bell, E. L. Descriptions of new 
South American Hesperiidae. |6| 38: 149-156, ill. *Bouvier, 
E. L. Seconde contribution a la connaissance des Satur- 
nioides du Hill Museum. (S). [Bull. Hill Mus.] 4: 1-116. 
Box, H. E. Observations on a migration of butterflies in 
Venezuela. [36] 78: 51-59. ill. *Braun, A. F. Xotes on 
Pterophoridae with description of a new Oidaematophorus. 
1 4] 62: 122-124. Caradja, A. Die kleinfalter der stotzner'- 
schen ausbeute, nebst xutraege aus mciner sammlung. 
[Acad. Romana Mem. Sect. Stiin.J 4: 361-428. Clark, A. 
H. Notes on some local butterflies. [10] 32: 80-82. Corn- 
stock & Coolidge. The life history of Philotes sonorensis. 
| 38 1 29: 17-21. ill. *Cook, W. C. A new species of Kuxoa 
and some notes on Chorizagrotis. |4| 62: 147-150. Haw- 
kins, J. H. Tarsal claws of noctuid larvae. [7] 23: 393-396, 

xli, 30] E.\T(>M<)i.<><;ir.\i. \F.\\S 271 

ill. *Holland, W. J. New species of Erebia (Satyridae). 
|1| 56: 149-153. Holland, W. J. I'apilio monuste (A 
critique). |19| 25: 133-136, ill. *Hopp, W. Xeue Mega- 
lopygiden. (S). |63] 44: 75-77, ill. *Klots, A. B Diurnal 
Lepicloptera from Wyoming and Colorado. [19] 25: 147- 
170, ill. *Lathy, P. I. Notes on South American Lycaeni- 
dae, with descriptions of new species. [36] 78: 133-137, ill. 
Moore, S. Lepidoptera of the Beaver Islands. [Occ. Pap. 
Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan] 214: 28pp. Petrie, F The 
accuracy of a moth. [31] 125:928. Schwanwitsch, B. N. 
Studies upon the wing-pattern of Catagramma and related 
genera of South American nymphalid butterflies. [Trans. 
Zool. Soc. London] 21: 105-286, ill. Wyss, A. Papilio 
asterias, variation. [Pro. Jun. Soc. Nat. Hist.] 1 : 8. 

DIPTERA. Alexander, C. P. The crane-flies (Tipuli- 
dae) of New England: third supplementary list. [Occ. Pap. 
Boston Soc. Nat. Hist.] 5: 267-278. * Alexander, C. P.- 
Records and descriptions of Neotropical crane-flies (Tipuli- 
dae), VIII. [6] 38: 109-120. Anon. Zancudos de Costa 
Rica. | Hoi. Cam. Agric. Costa Rica] 2: 259-264. *Curran, 
C. H. New American Asilidae. (S). [40] 425: 21pp., ill. 
*Curran & Alexander. Report of the Diptera collected at 
the station for the study of insects, Harriman Interstate 
I'ark, N. Y. pp. 21-115." Efflatoun, H. C. A monograph 
of Egyptian Diptera, Part III, Family Tabanidae. [Mem. 
Soc. R. Ent. Egypte] 4: 114pp., ill. *Hall, D. G. Three 
new r West Indian Sarcophaginae. [40] 423: 1-4, ill. Hardy, 
G. H. Observations of some habits of and mimicry 
amongst robber-flies. [Proc. R. Soc. Queensland] 41 : 69-71. 
Herms & Burgess A description of the immature stages 
of Hippelates pusio and a brief account of its life history. 
|12| 23: 600-603. ill. Johnson, M. S. Some observations 
on chironomid larvae and their usefulness as fish food. 
[Trans. Am. Fish. Soc.| 1929: 153-159, ill. *Krober, O.- 
Die tribus Pangoniini der neotropischen region. [34] 89: 
211-228, ill. *Krober, O. Die Tabanidengattung Sackeni- 
myia. (S). [34] 90: 1-12, ill. :i: Pinto, C. Mosquitns da 
regiao neotropica (Brasil, Estados de S. Paulo e Rio de 
Janeiro). II. |AIem. lust. Oswaldo Cruz | 23: 179-184, ill. 
Stone, A. The bionomics of some Tabanidae. |7| 23: 261- 
304, ill. *Szilady, Z. Central American Tabanidae. A 
revision of the genus Scione. A little known North Amer- 
ican Tabanns. [Biol. Hung.] 1, (7). 21-30, ill. Walker, C. 
R. Anopheles quadrimaculatus in Colorado. |4| 62: 150- 


COLEOPTERA. Blair, K. G. Brachypsectra the so- 
lution of an entomological enigma. [36] 78: 45-50, ill. 
Brown, W. J. A revision of the North American species 
of Eanus. [4] 62: 161-166, ill. Butcher, F. G. Notes on 
the cocooning habits of Gyrinus. [103] 3: 64-66. *Fall, H. 
C. On Ataenius strigatus and allied species. [6] 38: 93- 
108. Frost, C. A. Anthaxia aeneogaster [taken in Acton, 
Mass.]. Seeking a better climate. [19] 25: 146. Cause, G. 
F. Die variabilitat der zeichnung bei den blattkafern der 
gattung Phytodecta. [97] 50: 235-248, ill. *Hatch, M. H. 
-Records and new species of Coleoptera from Oklahoma 
and western Arkansas, with subsidiary studies. fPubl. 
Univ. Oklahoma Biol. Surv.] 2: 15-26.' Hatch, M. H.- 
The collection and preparation of Coleoptera. [Publ. Univ. 
Oklahoma Biol. Surv.] 2: 27-31. *Hatch & Ortenburger.- 
Records and new species of Coleoptera from Oklahoma. 
[Publ. Univ. Oklahoma Biol. Surv.] 2: 7-14. Hayes, W. 
P. Morphology, taxonomy, and biology of larval Scara- 
baeoidea. [111. Biol. Monogr.] 12: no. 2, 119pp., ill. Knaus, 
W. Notes on Kansas Coleoptera. [ 1031 3 : 79-80. Knowl- 
ton, G. F. Notes on Utah Coleoptera. [39] 14: 36-37, cont. 
Mohr, C. O. Morphological comparisons of Coprinae, 
Aphodinae and Geotrupinae (Scarabaeidae). [Trans. 111. 
State Acad. Sci.] 22: 263-284, ill. Miiller, G. Coleotteri 
cavernicoli Italiani. [ Le Grotte d'ltalia] 4:65-85, ill. Ochs, 
G. Remarks on "A list of the insects of New York". [6] 
38: 135-138. Sim, R. J. Scarabaeidae, Coleoptera; obser- 
vations on species unrecorded or little-known in New Jer- 
sey. [6] 38: 139-147. Wilson, J. W. The genitalia and 
wing venation of the Gucujidae and related families. [7] 
23: 305-358, ill. 

HYMENOPTERA. *Cockerell, T. D. A. Descriptions 
and records of bees. (S). [75] 6: 48-57. Creighton & Tul- 
loch. Notes on Euponera gilva (Formicidae). |5j 37: 71- 
79, ill. Dow, R. The nests of New England wasps. [Bull. 
Boston Soc. Nat. Hist.] 1930: 11-16, ill. *Friese, H. Die 
schmarotzerbienengattung Osiris. (S) [60] 91 : 103-127, ill. 
Gosswald, K. Weitere beitrage zur verbreitung der mer- 
mithiden bei ameisen. [34] 90: 13-27, ill. Haskins, C. P.- 
Preliminary notes on certain phases of the behavior and 
habits of Proeeratium croceum. |6] 38: 121-126. Iltis, H. 
Ueber eine autonome soziale gruppenbewegung bei in- 
sektenlarven. [34| 90: 59-M, ill. Paoli, G. Contribute nllo 
studio dei rapporti fra le acacie c le Formiche. |Mcm. 
Soc. Ent. Italiana] 9: 131-132. Rau, P. Life history notes 


on the wasp, Polistes annularis. [4] 62: 119-120. Rau, P. 
-Ecological and behavior notes on the wasp, Polistes pal- 
lipes. [4] 62: 143-147. Roepke, W. Beobachtungen an 
indischen honigbienen, insbesondere an Apis clorsata. 
[Meded. Landbouwh. Wageningen (Nederland) ] 1930: 
28pp., ill. Smith, M. R. A description of the male of 
Proceratium croceum, with remarks. [7] 23: 390-392, ill. 
Smith, M. R. Another imported ant [Prenolepis bourbon- 
ica in Florida] [39] 14: 23-24. Weyer, F. Ueber das 
"Springen" von Odontomachus. [34] 90: 49-55. *Whitta- 
ker, O. Some new -species and a new genus of parasitic 
Hymenoptera from British Columbia. [10] 32: 67-76. 

By JOHN HENRY COMSTOCK, Emeritus Professor of Ento- 
mology in Cornell University, and ANNA BOTSFORD COMSTOCK, 
Emeritus Professor of Nature Study in Cornell University, and 
GLENN W. HERRICK, Professor of Entomology in Cornell Uni- 
versity. Nineteenth Edition. Ithaca, New York, The Corn- 
stock Publishing Co. (Copyright, 1930). 23.5x15.5 cm. Pp. 
xiii, 401, 633 text figs. 3 pis. Price $4.00. 

Much historical interest attaches to this nineteenth edition 
of a long- and well-known text. The preface to the original 
edition, dated December, 1894, signed by John Henry Corn- 
stock, is reprinted here. Following is a Foreword, dated April 
5, 1929, also signed by him, stating that the intended revision 
of the Manual, begun in 1914, resulted in a new textbook, An 
Introduction to Entomology, but having had it still in mind to 
revise the Manual, making it more elementary, failing health 
caused him to pass this task on to Professor Herrick. An 
introduction dated Dec. 2, 1929, by the latter says : "The aim 
of the revision has been to keep the Manual in form and ar- 
rangement practically as it was first written. The attempt has 
been made, of course, to bring the subject matter down to date, 
to simplify it and to condense it somewhat in order to bring it 
within the horizon of the beginning student. The more ad- 
vanced student has been adequately cared for by Prof. Com- 
stock's much more extended work, 'An Introduction to Ento- 
mology' and by other works of somewhat similar character." 

We have made some comparisons with a copy of the fourth 
edition ( 1901 which has x -\- 710 pages, ~ ( J7 figures and (> 
plates. Part of the difference in size is due to the new edition's 
having a larger page form with more lines to the page, partly 
to the omission of some passages, especially from the sections 
in smaller type of the earlier text. Hut there 1 are also many 
minor changes in content and phraseology. The keys are often 


entirely new and from varied sources. Many of the old figures 
have disappeared, new ones have been added, many are familiar, 
even with altered legends corresponding to changed views. Pro- 
nunciation of scientific names is usually indicated by long or 
short signs over the vowels in the names themselves rather than 
by an accented syllabification in parentheses. Some idea of 
the condensation obtained is seen by a comparison of the in- 
dexes at the end of the two editions, that of the new revision 
containing fewer entries. Incidentally, the word "mimic" 
occurs in neither index and perhaps the only reference to this 
phenomenon is the very brief statement on page 275 of the 
new book, under Basilarclua arduous. 

This revised edition undoubtedly will continue the usefulness 
and the tradition of its predecessors among new generations of 
students to whom its senior authors, alas, may be personally 
unknown. PHILIP P. CALVERT. 

Second Edition. New York, E. P. Dutton & Co. 1930. 703 pp.. 
illustrated. $10.80. The first edition of this excellent work- 
was reviewed in the NEWS, vol. xxxvi, pp. 283-286 for Nov., 
1925. That a new edition is now demanded is a striking testi- 
mony to its merits, and as the author says in the preface to 
this present volume : "The necessity for issuing a second edition, 
in a comparatively short interval of time, is taken as an indica- 
tion that this book has fulfilled a definite requirement. The 
labour of revision has been considerable, and sincere thanks are 
due to those entomologists in various parts of the world who 
lightened the task by their comments upon individual para- 
graphs, or sections of several of the chapters. In more than 
one instance the reviewers' criticisms have also proved helpful. 

In the second edition various additions and emendations have 
been made. The most important are the revised classifications 
affecting the orders Dermaptera, Isoptera and Thysanoptera ; 
the supplementary literature at the end of many of the chap- 
ters, and the notes on recent advances in the subject incorpor- 
ated in the Addenda on pp. 668-72. One new diagram has been 
added and three of the text-figures have been replaced by new 
illustrations. Special thanks are due to the McGraw-Hill Book 
Company, of New York, who allowed the use of an illustration 
from The Anatomy and Physiology of the Honey Bee, by 

The perennial subject of taxonomic nomenclature is always 
a difficulty in a book of this description. In reply to criticisms 
by specialists it may be pointed out that the latest names in 
many cases have not been adopted, but rather those which are 
best known and most widely used." 


BIOLOGIE DER HEMiPTEREN, cine Naturgeschichte der Schna- 
I)elkerfe, by DR. II. WEBER, of Danzig (formerly of Bonn). 
Biologischc Stndlcnbitchcr. Vol. XI, 543 pages, 329 figures. 
Published by Julius Springer, Berlin. 1930. For sale in the 
United States by G. E. Stechert & Co., 91 K. 10th St., Xew 
York. Price, bound, $10.95. 

The very title of this book, Biology of the Heutiptera, sug- 
gests a heroic undertaking on the part of its writer, and a mere 
glance through its profusely illustrated pages shows that the 
author has not shirked his self-imposed responsibility. More- 
over, the volume is without question one of the best publications 
of recent times in biological entomology. "Within it the writer 
brings together not only a review of practically all that has 
heretofore been written on the life and structure of the Hemip- 
tera, but also the results of his own extensive and minute studies 
of those complex hemipterous mechanisms that for a century 
past have baffled the skill of insect anatomists. The Hemiptera. 
though one of the most important orders from the standpoint 
of economic entomology, have remained one of the least under- 
stood of all the major groups of insects. This work gives to 
Hemipterology at once a new status, and the book is one to 
which all students of sucking insects must have access. A brief 
review of its contents will best support this statement. 

( )f the five principal sections under which the contents of the 
volume are treated, the first deals with movements and sensory 
activities. It includes details of the skeletal structures con- 
cerned with locomotion, the musculature and mechanism of the 
legs, the various uses of the appendages, the structure of the 
wings and the mechanism of flight, the organs of stridulation, 
the structure of the nervous system and the organs of sense, 
and the sensory reactions. 

The second section treats of the various organs and systems 
of organs accessory to metabolism, including those of ingestion, 
digestion, distribution, oxidation, and elimination. It contains 
a wealth of information on the structure and mechanism of the 
feeding organs to be obtained from no other single source, and 
much of the matter in this subject is based on the author's own 
intimate knowledge of the hemipterous head and the structure 
of the mouth parts. In numerous, clear-cut line drawings the 
various types of feeding mechanisms are shown with all their 
intricate detail of structure and musculature, and many obscure 
features of the piercing and sucking processes are convincingly 
explained. The long-standing mystery of how the coccids, for 
example, thrust their slender, folded mouth bristles at full 


length into the plant tissue is beautifully and simply elucidated. 
The accomplishment is shown to depend upon two things : first 
there is a clasp in the base of the labial groove which can se- 
curely hold the bundle of mouth bristles ; and second, each 
bristle is independently provided w'ith short protractor and 
retractor muscles. On relaxation of the labial clasp, one man- 
dibular bristle is thrust out as far as its minute protractor 
muscle can extrude it, then the other follows until the two tips 
meet, after which the maxillary bristles are exserted until their 
tips lie between those of the mandibular bristles. Now the 
labial clasp comes into action and grasps the bristle bundle, 
holding it in the new position while the retractor muscles take 
up a fraction of the slack in the loop of the bundle within the 
crumena, and at the same time extend the protractors. Thus 
again the mechanism is ready for exsertion, and by another ad- 
vance, first of one piercing bristle, then of the other, and finally 
of the sucking maxillary tube, the entire bundle is sunken a 
little deeper. With each repetition the bristle loop grows 
smaller, the exserted bundle reaches a little farther, until at 
last the food stream of the host is tapped. The same mechanism 
is present in all Hemiptera, whether the retracted bristles are 
straight, folded in a crumena, or looped outside the head. 

The rest of this section is devoted to the sucking mechanism 
and the ingestion of food, the salivary glands, the alimentary 
canal, the processes of digestion, the ectodermal glands and 
their various secretions, respiration, and circulation. 

The third section, on the sex life and development, begins 
with a description of structural differences between the males 
and females, and the anatomy of the sexual organs. Then 
comes a full account of the external genital organs, with many 
details of the various methods of copulation. This is followed 
by descriptions of the eggs, the structure of the ovipositor, and 
an account of the methods of egg-laying adopted by different 
members of the order. Embryology is treated briefly, but many 
interesting things are given concerning the hatching of the eggs 
and the care of the young. Under metamorphosis the struc- 
tural changes between the young and adult are shown, and the 
postembryonic development of the Coccidae and related forms 
is fully illustrated. Many examples of viviparity, polymorphism, 
and heterogeny are then discussed, and a special sub-section is 
devoted to the life-cycle of the Aphididae. 

The last two sections have to do with the relations of the 
insects to the environment, both inanimate and animate. The 
book closes with 14 pages of closely printed bibliographical 
references, and ends with generic and subject indices. 


A volume such as this Naturgeschichie dcr Schnabclkcrfc 
will be a welcome addition to every general entomological 
library, since few lines of work do not somewhere touch upon 
the sucking bugs; to the hemipterist, however, it will be 'in 
indispensable acquisition, since it puts before the eye of the 
special worker in Hemiptera a comprehensive view of the entire 
field of this subject. Moreover, if we may look at it from 
another phase, the book must be seen as the most recent proof 
to American entomological students of the folly of thinking we 
can survive without a knowledge of foreign languages. 




Anna Botsford Comstock, emeritus professor of nature study 
at Cornell University, well-known wood engraver and author, 
died at 10:45 o'clock Sunday morning, August 24, at her home, 
123 Roberts Place, Ithaca, New York. She had been in failing 
health for more than a year, but had been well enough to 
lecture at the university, and had just completed a series of 
talks for Summer session students on August 15. 

Anna Botsford Comstock was born September 1, 1854, on 
a farm among the hills of Cattaraugus County, New York. 
Her grandparents were pioneers, moving their families and 
goods with ox teams from New England to the wilds of West- 
ern New York. Her mother, Phoebe Irish, was of Quaker 
stock, which followed William Penn to America. Her father 
was a descendant of Henry Botsford, who settled in Milford, 
Connecticut, in the 17th century, and of Nathaniel Foote, who 
arrived in Wethersfield, Connecticut, in 1636. 

Mrs. Comstock spent the first 10 years of her life on the 
farm where she acquired her early enthusiasm for out-of-door 
life. Then her parents moved to the village of ( >tto, a feu- 
miles away and built a home in which they lived during the 
rest of their lives. Anna I'otsford continued her education by 
attending the village school, and at the age of 14 taught for 
one term in the primary department of this school to fill the 


place of a teacher who was ill. At the age of 16 she became 
interested in a college education and was sent to Chamberlain 
Institute at Randolph, a Methodist seminary with an excellent 
faculty. In 1873 she graduated from a college preparatory 
course and pronounced the salutatory in Latin on the Com- 
mencement stage. After teaching for one year she entered 
Cornell University and graduated in 1878. In 1885 she received 
the B. S. degree. 

At Cornell she met John Henry Comstock, who had graduated 
four years earlier, and was an instructor in zoology. They were 
married October 7, 1878, and lived in a house on the campus 
for 33 years until the ground on which it stood was needed for 
University purposes. 

In 1879 Mr. Comstock was made entomologist to the United 
States Department of Agriculture, and obtained a two years' 
leave of absence from Cornell to take up this work. He was 
overburdened with duties, and Mrs. Comstock began assisting 
him, first with his correspondence, and later, when he was 
unable to find an artist skilled in the use of the microscope, 
she undertook to illustrate his reports upon the scale insects of 
the citrus fruits and was subsequently given a position as 
assistant in the entomological division, working there with her 
husband until their return to Cornell. 

At this time Prof. Comstock was planning to write, for the 
help of his students, a manual for the study of insects, and it 
became Mrs. Comstock's ambition to illustrate this book. In 
order to do this she learned the art of wood engraving, studying 
with John P. Davis at Cooper Institute, Xew York. The 
manual was published in 1895, but meanwhile its illustrator 
had gained so much skill in representing the texture of but- 
terflies' wings that she was elected to the Society of American 
Wood Engravers and to the special section of original engravers, 
among whom are the best that the world has produced. I lei- 
engravings were exhibited at many European and American 
expositions and she won the Bronze Medal at the Buffalo 


When, in 1896, the first appropriations were made at Cornell 
University for introducing nature study into the rural schools, 
Mrs. Comstock was asked to assist in this work and was made 
an assistant professor in the Extension Department in IS' '8. 
Subsequently she became a regular lecturer in Cornell Uni- 
versity, and was made a professor of nature study in 1920. 
During the year 1899-1900 she was an extension lecturer at 
Stanford University. 

The Handbook of Nature Study, a volume of more than 
900 pages, illustrated, and published in 1911. was an outgrowth 
of her work with school teachers in the state. The book has 
gone through 15 editions and is in use in Alaska, Australia. 
Japan, China and England, as well as in the schools of the 
United States and Canada. 

Mrs. Comstock was made editor of the Nature Study Review, 
now combined with the Nature Magazine, in 1917, and is the 
author of many nature stories in periodicals for children. Her 
books include: Ways of the Six-Footed; How to Know the 
Butterflies (with her husband); How to Keep Bees; Confes- 
sions to a Heathen Idol ; The Pet Book ; Bird, Animal, Tree, 
and Plant Notebooks. 

She was associate director of the American Nature Associa- 
tion, a member of the Society of American Wood Engravers, 
ami of Sigma Xi. 

Mrs. Comstock had no children of her own, but she has 
mothered hundreds of lonely boys and girls, many of them 
coming from farm homes to work their own wav through the 
University. She and Professor Comstock made their home a 
place of rendezvous, not only for those who were interested 
in the particular fields of work to which they were devoting 
their time, but also to any who needed a helping hand. 

Mrs. Comstock is survived bv her husband, who has been 
an invalid for several years. - - KATIIAKI NK l r ix<.n in Ithaca 
Journal News, Aug. 25, 1930. 

Portraits of Prof, and Mrs. J. H. Comstock were published 
by Mr. Guilder in KXTOMOUH'.ICAL NKWS for April, 1'MO, 
plate N. 


DR. GEORGE DIM MOCK died at Springfield, Massachusetts, his 
native town, on his seventy-eighth birthday. May 17, 1930. as 
announced in Science for May 23. He received the bachelor 
of arts degree from Harvard in 1877 and that of doctor of 
philosophy from Leipsic in 1881, after working in Leuckart's 
laboratory, his thesis being The Anatomy of tJic Mouth Parts 
and of tJic Sucking Apparatus of Some Dipt era (Boston, 
1881), probably his best-known entomological paper. In it he 
compared the trophi of Cnle.v, Bombylius, Eristalis and Musca. 
In 1881-82 he studied at the Sorbonne, Paris. From 1877- 
1890 he was an editor of Psydie, the late B. Pickman 
Mann being his associate for part of this period. His subse- 
quent entomological work has been mainly anatomical and has 
concerned scales and glands of insects (PsvcJic, 1882, 1883) 
and the early stages of Carabid, Coccinellid and Chrysomelid 
beetles. Some of his papers on Coleoptera were written in co- 
operation with the late Frederick Knab (1904). He contributed 
the chapter on Coleoptera to the Riverside Natural History 
(1881) and an article on Bclostoniidac and some otlier Fish- 
destroying Bugs to the Annual Report of the Fish and Game 
Commission of Massachusetts for 1886. P. P. CALVERT. 

JAMES WATERSTON, of the British Museum of Natural His- 
tory, died April 28, 1930. He was born at Paisley, Scotland, 
in 1879. He gave special attention to parasitic arthropods and 
had intended to write a monograph of the Mallophaga. An 
obituary notice is in the Scottish Naturalist for May-June, 1930. 

We greatly regret to record the death of ERNEST BAYLIS, an 
Associate Editor of ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS, on July 6, 1930. 
An appreciation and biographical notice will appear in the next 
number of this journal. 


Page 135, April. 1930. For line 11 substitute line 27; for 
line 27 substitute "simulans Heidetnann (Heteropt. : Tingid- 
idae)." The table of contents on the cover of the April number 
has these two titles correct. 



Vol. XLI No. 9 



Obituary Frank Haimbach 281 

Obituary Ernest Baylis 285 

Brower A List of Butterflies of the Ozark Region of Missouri 286 

Prof. G. F. Ferris at Cambridge, England 289 

Gunder North American Institutions Featuring Lepidoptera XVIII . 290 
Ferris The Puparium of Basilia corynorhini (Ferris) (Diptera: Nyc- 

teribiidae) 295 

Klots On the Naming of Individual Variants in Lepidoptera 298 

Rowe Distributional List of Tachinid Flies from Utah 303 

Jones Dynastes tityus in Pennsylvania and Delaware (Coleoptera : 

Scarabaeidae) 305 

Entomological Literature 307 

Doings of Societies The Rocky Mountain Conference of Entomologists 311 

Correction . 312 


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VOL. XLI. NOVEMBER, 1930 No. 9 

Frank Haimbach. 

(Portrait, Plate XXIV.) 

Frank Haimbach died April 1, 1930, following a short illness. 
He was born in Philadelphia, July 2, 1859; his parents were 
of French and German extraction, and although both were 
born in Germany they came to America in their youth and 
settled in Philadelphia, becoming naturalized citizens. 

His early education was somewhat limited, but he had in- 
herited from his parents a love of cultural things, particularly 
Natural History and in his early days wandered with them 
through Fairmount Park and along the banks of the Schuylkill, 
where he would collect insects and plants, so that his interest 
in nature had manifested itself before he was six years old. 
His father was an intellectual man and wrote a great deal of 
poetry, some of which was published in Philadelphia in 1899 
under the title of "Poetische Blatter". His mother sent to 
Germany for his first entomological books from which he 
learned to mount insects and make containers and cabinets 
for his collection. 

His interest in nature study was lifelong. Circumstances 
never permitted him to travel, but his Sundays and the very 
little leisure he had was spent in collecting trips to the pine 
barrens in New Jersey and the many delightful suburbs of 
Philadelphia, along the Wissahickon Creek, Chester and Dela- 
ware Counties and the woods and fields of Roxborough. 

He carried on an extensive correspondence with collectors 
all over the world, buying and exchanging specimens, and 
practically all of his leisure time was spent either in the fields 
collecting or in his study mounting and arranging the specimens, 
devoting most of his attention to the Lcpidoptera and particu- 
larly the smaller moths. 

He contributed valuable data to Dr. John 15. Smith for his 



list of the insects of New Jersey, and was a recognized author- 
ity on the Heterocera. 

His beautiful collection of over 40,000 Lepidoptera he pre- 
sented to the Academy of Natural Sciences, prior to his death. 

For a number of years he acted as Secretary for the Feldman 
Collecting Social ; he was a member of the American Entomo- 
logical Society and was its Secretary and Treasurer at the time 
of his death. The last few years of his life were the culmina- 
tion of an ambition he always had of devoting his entire time 
to Entomology ; he became associated with Dr. J. R. Schramm 
on "Biological Abstracts" and spent the balance of his time in 
the Department of Entomology in the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia, during which time he wrote several 
valuable papers. 

On March 27th, 1928 he was appointed Special Aide in this 
department in charge of the "Brackenridge Clemens Memorial" 
and was studying and arranging the large collection of Micro- 
lepidoptera at the time of his death. 

A list of his Entomological Contributions follows : 

1905. Desmia funeralis Hubner and variety subdivisalis Grote. 
ENT. NEWS. XVI, 121. 

1907. Two new species of Crambus and a new variety of 
Haematopsis grataria Fabricius. ENT. NEWS. XVIII, 

List of the Lepidoptera of Five-Mile Beach, N. J. ENT. 
NEWS. XVIII, 217-228. 

1908. New Pyralidae. ENT. NEWS. XIX, 263-264. 
1915. New Heterocera. ENT. NEWS. XXVI. 321-325. 
1928. A list of the species and descriptions of new forms of 

the American genus Zale, and a new form of Safia 
Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. LIV, 215-231. 

1930. The Crambinae in the Brackenridge Clemens Memorial 
Collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila- 
delphia ENT. NEWS. XLI, 113-134. 

1905-1909. Secretary's reports of the meetings of the Feldman 
Collecting Social. ENT. NEWS. XVI-XX. 

1930. Secretary's Report of meeting of the American Ento- 
mological Society. ENT. NEWS. XLI. 

1930. The Seventieth Birthday of Dr. Adelbert Seitz. ENT. 
NEWS. XLI, 206-207. 


Frank Haimbach was a kindly gentleman ; he was always 
glad to assist other entomologists in their work or help ama- 
teurs in the technic of mounting, preparing, and classifying 
insects. Many of the prominent entomologists of his genera- 
tion were his close friends, and they and the younger students 
of the subject were constant visitors at his home. He endeared 
himself to all of his scientific associates at the Academy and 
is particularly mourned by his friends in the Department of 
Entomology and his fellow members of the American Ento- 
mological Society. 

He is survived by his wife, Ida, two daughters, Miss Minna 
and Mrs. Charlotte Lyons, and two sons, Frank, Jr., and Al- 
bert. Another son, Philip, died in 1901 at the age of eighteen 
years. His loss was a double one to his father as he, too, was 
interested in the same studies and a close companion in his 

entomological work. 



Mr. Haimbach was introduced to Eastburn Thompson by 
Mr. Henry W. Fowler, of the Academy, one day in Langhorne, 
and was invited to see Mr. Haimbach's collection. Easie told 
the Club all about it at our next meeting and we were all in- 
vited to go to Langhorne to see the collection. 

So one wintry, snowy day the fathers of the Club members 
transported twenty ten- eleven- and twelve-year-olds to Lang- 
horne. We were not only shown the collection but were pre- 
sented with some delightful duplicates and had a chance to see 
a real entomological laboratory. 

From that moment Mr. Haimbach showed the keenest in- 
terest in our Club', as he believed that it was essential to foster 
the interest of young entomologists. He came to our Club 
meetings, presenting scientific papers. He gave an exhibition 
of mounting of tiny butterflies and moths. He judged our 
mounting contests, and we spent many gloriously happy Sunday 
afternoons in his quaint, Imv-ceilinged study. lie had the 


enthusiasm of youth, and was as eager and excited as we were 
over any interesting specimen. He had untiring patience with 
our ignorance and never once did he make us feel other than 
his entomological peers. His kindliness of spirit, his accurate 
scientific knowledge, his skill and his old-world courtesy are 
part of the precious heritage of his friendship. 

Our crowning adventure with him was his visit to our New 
Hampshire home last August. Easie, Jack Cadbury, Barbara 
and Stephen Gary and I will never forget those joyous days. 
We took him to the top of Mt. Washington in a car that boiled 
and sputtered; we caught Brcnthis montitins in a sunny meadow 
near the top, and although it was too late for Ocucis scmidca, 
Mr. Haimbach caught an Anartia or two and some other small 
moths that pleased him tremendously. We had a south east 
storm during his stay with delightfully foggy nights, so that 
our light-trap worked to perfection. We shall never forget 
him with his cyanide bottles and his net, bagging tiny creatures. 
He was up late and early, getting a five A. M. start so as to 
get his treasures off the white walls of the cottage before 
sunrise. I turned over the desk in the living room for his 
exclusive use while there, and when not collecting he pinned 
with exquisite precision his specimens in Schmitt boxes. He 
returned laden with treasures, leaving behind him the memory 
of happy days with a man great of heart, of boyish enthusiasm, 
and we all pronounced him our most delightful guest. Plans 
were all laid for his return this summer. 

Ever since we have known him we have collected Micro- 
lepidoptera for him on all of our trips, and with his unfailing 
courtesy and generosity he credited all these things to me in 
the Academy collection and in its records. 

Something very big has gone from our lives, but the Club 
has passed a resolution to the effect that in our feeble way we 
shall endeavor to carry on the work which he has laid down. 
This is the spirit which he would wish us to have, rather than 
mourning for his passing. 


Another and more recent (1929) portrait of Mr. Haimbach appeared 
in the News for December, 1929, Plate XVII. EDITOR. 





Ernest Baylis. 

(Portrait. Plate XXV.) 

passed away at one o'clock Sunday afternoon , July 6th, 1930, 
at South Sterling, Pennsylvania. He was in his 54th year. He 
was horn at Ipswich, England on Eehruary 8th, 1877. At the 
age of fourteen, he developed an abiding interest in Natural 
Science and he collected insects generally at that time, but chief- 
ly the Lepidoptera. He was a very sincere and active collector 
even up to the hour of his death. He had gone on a collecting 
trip in the Pocono Mountains and while there was stricken and 
died upon his return, after an illness of but fifteen minutes. 

His first entomological studies were on the British Lepidop- 
tera and after acquiring almost all the known species in his 
territory, he started to collect Coleoptera which were his prin- 
cipal interest at the time of his death. 

In November of 1912 he left England and came to the United 
States and made his home in Philadelphia, where, after getting 
settled, he continued to collect Coleoptera and finally special- 
ized in the Cicindelidae and the Cerambycidae. Mr. Baylis 
was a commercial artist by profession but devoted all his spare 
time to collecting and the study of entomology. Most of his 
field work in this country was done within seventy miles of 
Philadelphia, Pa. Though his collection does not contain any 
types, it comprises one of the finest representations of that 
territory extant. He was a very fine technician and it was a 
pleasure to examine his collection; every label is of the same 
size and is set in the same position and height on the pin, and 
the antennae and legs of every specimen are all set alike, each 
box making a fine picture in itself. 

On March 22nd, 1917, Mr. P.uylis was elected a resident 
member of the American Entomological Society. He was also 
President of the Feldman Collecting Social and the last meeting 
of this Society was held at his residence in ( Vtober, 1926. He 
was an Honorary member of the Suffolk Naturalists Society 
of Framingham, England. 

In January, 1928, he was appointed an Associate Editor of 


ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS and held that position when he passed 

Though he did not describe any new species or publish any- 
thing, he was one of the most active collectors of recent years 
in the American Entomological Society, and it is certain that 
many of his captures will establish new records for the par- 
ticular territory in which they were taken, all the dates of cap- 
ture and localities being accurately recorded. 

Through his passing the society loses a very valuable mem- 
ber and associate. JOHN C. LUTZ. 

A List of Butterflies of the Ozark Region of Missouri. 

By AUBURN E. BROWER, Willard, Missouri. 

The published lists of Lepidoptera collected by the St. Louis 
collectors give a good idea of the butterflies of that region. 
As this locality is about 225 miles southwest of St. Louis, in 
Greene County, and the records extend the range of a number 
of species of the East and record some additional Gulf Coast 
forms, it seems desirable to publish them. A few of the records 
are for Forsyth, Taney County, Missouri, sixty miles to the 
south on the White River, and about fifteen miles from the 
Arkansas line. 

Collecting has been carried on for the last fourteen years for 
Lepidoptera in general. Except for the Hesperiidae, the butter- 
flies have been closely collected so the list should be fairly com- 
plete. Questions regarding identification have been checked 
against the Cornell University collection with aid of Dr. 
W. T. M. Forbes. 


POLYXENES Fabr., common. 
CRESPHONTES Cram., uncommon. 
GLAUCUS L., fairly common. 
TROILUS L., very common. 
MARCELLUS Cram., uncommon. 

form TELAMONIDES Feld., fairly common. 

LECONTEI R. &: J., common, 
ab. BROWERI Guilder, one June 23, 1918. 
The usual red markings are replaced 
by deep yellow. 

xli, '30] ENTOMOLOGICAL .\K\vs 287 

PIERIS PROTODICE Bdv. & Lee., common. 

gen. vern. VKR. \ALLS Edw.. fairly common. 
RAPAE L., very common. 
NATHALIS IDLE Bdv., scarce, but became common in 1919 and 

1920. One albino bas been taken. 
ANTHOCHARIS GENUTIA Fabr., very scarce; in April, 1919, a 

number were taken. 

CATOPSILA EUBULE L., common. This species migrates through 
August, September, and October, coming from 
the northwest. 

PHILEA L. One seen ? when collecting was first 
started ; positively identified at Forsyth, October 
11, 1927. 
ZERENE CAESONIA Stoll., common. 

gen. autumn ROSA McNeill, in the fall, rare 

in the spring, 
form IMMACULSECUNDA Guilder, paratype, 

September 27, 1917. 

gen. vern. AUTUMNALIS Ckll., scarce. 
The other forms are all believed to 
be present, but the application of the 
names seems uncertain. 
PHILODICE Godt., very common. 

gen. vern. ANTHYALE Hbn., uncommon. 
EUREMA MEXICANA Bdv., very scarce. It is fairly common 

at Forsyth. 
XICIPPE Cram., uncommon. 

ab. FLAVA Stkr., very scarce. 
EUTERPE Men., very common. 

form 9 ALBA Stkr., common. 

DANAUS -ARCHIPPUS Fabr., common in spring and fall. This 
species like Catopsila cnbulc, and others migrates southeast- 
ward in the fall and northwestward in the spring. 
ENODIA PORTLAND! A Fabr., common in the summer. 
NEONYMPHA EURYTUS Fabr., very common in June and July. 
CERCYONIS ALOPE race OLYMITS Edw., fairly common, com- 
mon in 1929. 

DIONE VANILLAE L., scarce, became rather common in 1926. 
EUPTOIETA CLAUDIA Cram., fairly common. 
ARGYNNIS IDALIA Dru., very scarce. 

( YBELE Fabr., common. 

EUPHYDRYAS PHAETON Dru., scarce. All of the colonies of 
larvae which have been found were upon tall 
growing Gerunlius high up on dry, thinly 
wooded ridges. 


PHYCIODES GORGONE Hbn., uncommon. 

NYCTEIS Dbl. & Hew., common. 
THAROS Dru., very common. 

form MARCIA Edw., uncommon. 

ANTHANASSA TEXANA Edw. A single much battered 9 of 
this species was taken at Forsyth, October 23, 1927, follow- 
ing two or three days of westerly winds. 

form UMBROSA Lint., common. 
COMMA Harris, uncommon. 

form DRYAS Edw., rare. 
PROGNE Cram., scarce. 
AGLAIS J-ALBUM Bclv. & Lecon. This species has been seen 


ANTIOPA L., scarce in early spring and fall. 

VIRGINIENSIS Dru., common. 
CARDUI L., common. 
JUNONIA COENIA Hbn., very common. 
BASILARCHIA ASTYANAX Fabr., fairly common. 

ARCHIPPUS Cram., uncommon. 
CHLORIPPE CELTIS Bdv. & Lee., scarce. 
CLYTON Bdv. & Lee., scarce. 
ANAEA ANDRIA Scud., common. 
LIBYTHEA BACHMANI Kirt., uncommon. 

CALEPHELIS BOREALIS G. & R. One was taken August 10, 
1919, and a number were found in a limited area in early 
August, 1926. 
STRYMON CECROPS Fabr., common. 

M. ALBUM Bdv. & Lee., two specimens, July 26 and 

October 24. 

MELINUS Hbn., fairly common. 
TITUS Fabr., scarce in June and July, especially on 

flowers of Asclcpias tuber osa. 

EDWARDSI Saund., two upon June 14, one June 24. 
All are very large, collected flying about oak 

CALANUS Hbn., common in June. 

MITOURA DAMON DiscoiDALis Skin., in July, very scarce. 
INCISALIA HENRICI G. & R., one April 20, 1919, one seen ( ?) 

April 13, 1924. 

FENISECA TARQUINIUS Fabr. Two specimens have been taken, 
both high in the dry hills near the divide ; furthermore no 
alders have been found in this section of the state. In 1927 
a number were taken in a yard of hard maples where they 


were flitting about Virginia creeper infested with Fulgoridae, 
this was in Springfield, Missouri. 
HEODES HYPOPHLAEUS Bdv., rare until 1926 when a number 

were taken. 

HEMIARGUS ISOLA Reak., scarce, but common one year. 
EVERES COMYNTAS Godt., very common. 
LYCAENOPSIS PSEUDARGIOLUS Bdv. & Lee., fairly common. 
EPARGYREUS TJTYRUS Fabr., very common. 
ACHALARUS LYCIDAS A. & S., fairly common. 
COCCEIUS PYLADES Scud., very common. 
THORYBES DAUNUS Cram., common. 
PYRGUS TESSELLATA Scud., very common. 
THANAOS BRIZO Bdv. & Lee., common in early spring. 
MARTIALIS Scud., uncommon. 
JUVENALIS Fabr., common. 
HORATIUS Scud. & Burg., fairly common. 
PAMPHILA LEONARDUS Harris, uncommon. 
POLITES CERNES Bdv. & Lee., very common. 

PECKIUS Kirby, common. 
POANES HOBOMOK Harris, fairly common. 

form POCOHONTAS Scud., uncommon. 
ZABULON Bdv. & Lee., uncommon. 
EUPIIYES VESTRIS Bdv., uncommon. 

CELIA Skin., one July 25, 1929, and one imper- 
fect specimen that is probably this at Forsyth 
September 14, 1927. Compared with specimens 
in the U.S.N.M. 

MEGISTIAS FUSCA G. & R., scarce. 

l.i KKMA ACCIUS A. & S.. one October 15, two October 22. 
LERODKA F.UFALA Edw., uncommon. 

Prof. G. F. Ferris at Cambridge, England. 
Professor G. F. Ferris, of Stanford University, is spending 
the present academic year at Cambridge University, England, 
in the Molteno Institute of Parasitology. During this time he 
expects to complete the "series of papers on "Contributions 
Toward a Monograph of the Sucking Lice" and to carry out 
some other work in connection with ectoparasitic insects. 


North American Institutions Featuring Lepidoptera. 

XVIII. The Museums of Cuba. 

By J. D. GUNDER, Pasadena, California. 

(Plates XXVI-XXVIII.) 

The study of entomology is going right ahead in Cuba and 
the people in general seem to be taking more interest in the 
subject, as evinced by the increased number of local collectors. 
The museums are featuring better public displays of insects 
than formerly, so I believe the next decade will witness a 
marked advancement in the working out of the fauna of the 
Island. What is needed in the future are more men like Dr. 
Mario Sanchez Roig, Director of the Natural History Museum 
of Havana. Dr. Roig is an all-around naturalist, specializing 
in paleontology, as well as entomology and he has built up the 
largest museum of natural history in the Country. It is located 
at No. 827 Cerro Street in an old residence adapted for museum 
purposes, but a new building is contemplated on the site within 
the next few years. Dr. Roig began active field work in 1903 
and not long ago opened his Institution to the public. He is 
fortunate in having the cognizance and support of the Govern- 
ment and only recently issued the first bulletin called "Memo- 
ria", as Volume I, Number I. There is an excellent cabinet of 
display butterflies in his museum and the Lepidoptera study 
collection consists of eighty drawers and some 250 boxes con- 
taining about 14,000 specimens. Cuban Sphinges, Catopsilias and 
Papilios are well represented. Some of this material was col- 
lected by Mr. Cervera and Mr. Gomez de la Maza who are 
local enthusiasts. Dr. Roig is to be congratulated upon his 
excellent work which at times has been carried on under great 

In the Institute of Havana is found the Valle Yznage Mus- 
eum. (See plate XXVII). It consists of several rooms and was 
the gift in 1896 of Mr. Modesto del Valle. Here are displayed 
good collections of Cuban and foreign birds and mammals and 
also a fair collection of Cuban insects prepared by ( lundlach 
during his trips through the Island JYom 1860 to 1890. There 
is also a considerable collection of nearly 4000 species of Cuban 
and foreign shells. 


Plate XXVI. 



In the same Institute, hut entirely individual, is a room 
which is called the "Museo Cubano Gundlach". In this deposi- 
tory are kept many of the type specimens of Coleoptera, Lepi- 
doptera, Diptera, etc., which were described by Gundlach. I 
am sorry I have such meager data on this evidently important 
material, but there is a pamphlet called "Zoologia" or "Catalogo 
General" describing this little museum and its collections which 
was written by Dr. Pedro V. Ragnes in 1914. This catalogue 
consists of 150 pages of text and probably gives note of many 
of Gundlach's original specimens. Aside from Lepidoptera the 
room contains a very complete collection of Cuban birds cap- 
tured and prepared by this gentleman. I am glad to produce 
on plate XXVII, a picture of Colonel Serafin Espinosa, M.M. 
He is Director of the Havana Institute and also Auditor del 
Ejercito de Cuba. Colonel Espinosa advocates greater study of 
natural history subjects in Cuban schools and in doing splendid 
work in popularizing the biological sciences. 

In addition to the museums in Havana, there is an important 
institution in the City of Santiago de Cuba, which is the next 
largest municipality and is situated in the eastern portion of 
the Republic. It is called the Bacardi Museum and was opened 
to the public on May 20, 1928, as a gift from the widow of 
Emilio Bacardi, a wealthy Cuban manufacturer. The building 
is a beautiful structure and cost about $80,000. (See plate 
XXVIII). Its collections consist mainly of historical relics from 
the war of Cuban Independence which was fought for the most 
part in the mountains around the city. However, there is some 
natural history material, including a series of birds and a few 
mammals. The Lepidoptera consist of a cabinet of specimens 
collected by Mr. E. Chivas in the neighboring hills and these are 
of value because of being mounted and named by Gundlach. The 
Rhopalocera are well represented, while the Heterocera consist < > f 
a few showy specimens. Perhaps the most interesting specimens 
are three co-types of Papilio gundlachi. Mr. Jose Bofill and his 
son are directors of the Institution and are doing what they 
can to build up the collections. It is due to the persistence of 
the elder Mr. Bofill that the Museum came into existence and 


his son will undoubtedly carry on the labors so well commenced. 

American entomologists will be interested in reading some- 
thing of the life work of Mr. Ozario Querci who with his fam- 
ily are at present collecting Lepidoptera near the City of Sant- 
iago. This famous European family has an internatonal repu- 
tation for field work and for the last year or more has been 
employed jointly for Messrs. F. Johnson, A. G. Weeks and R. 
C. Williams collecting in eastern Cuba. There is hardly a 
collection in Europe or, for that matter, in any part of the world 
which does not have butterflies collected by this gentleman. A 
photograph of Mr. and Mrs. Querci, his daughter, Mrs. Romei 
and grand daughter, Lycaena is shown on plate XXVIII; to- 
gether with Dr. F. Sabas, a Cuban naturalist and Mr. Bofill and 
his son. Little Miss Lycaena Romei has the unique distinction 
of being named after that popular genus of butterflies. Mr. 
Querci has kindly given me the following personal biography. 
It reveals the joys and sorrows of the entomological "game" 
and unfolds the life of a real European lepidopterist. 

"I was born in Rome, Italy, on October 11, 1875," writes 
Mr. Querci, "and as a child collected butterflies which Mother 
and I used to set into books. Studied chemistry at the Univer- 
sity of Rome and later became a state officer for testing precious 
metals. When about sixteen years old I met Miss Clorinda Di 
Nino who also liked to collect butterflies and in 1896 we were 
married and had our daughter Erilda. Being continually em- 
ployed and with little time and less money to devote to field 
work, it was not until 1908 that I sent my first rather poor 
captures in exchange to Dr. Otto Staudinger of Dresden. In 
1909 we lived at Formia near Naples and by this time my 
daughter was old enough to accompany her mother when she 
was going into the country and they made good captures, es- 
pecially near the district of Aurunci. I went to Milan and 
offered the specimens to Count Turati, who took the best rar- 
ities and asked his servant to give me some money. As I only 
received 50 liras, I returned home discouraged and threatened 
to do no more with entomology. However, before completely 
renouncing my hobby, I wrote Mr. Charles Oberthur of Rennes 
and for several years he generously supported our collecting. 


In 1914 due to the war Mr. ( tbertluir had to stop purchasing. 
but out of the kindness of his heart he donated me one com- 
plete copy of his great work "fitudes de Lepidopterologie com- 
paree." This same year we went to Florence to live where we 
continued to collect and I made field trips to Calabria. My 
women folks the next year journeyed to the Island of Elba 
for specimens and in that period of the war were suspected of 
being spies, but their business was eventually understood. In 
1917 my wife and daughter made a long trip to collect above 
Palermo in Sicily. There living was hard and dangerous as 
people said deserters of the war were hidden in the mountains. 
During all those trips my family sent me their catches by post 
daily and sometimes the specimens arrived in Florence fresh 
and almost alive. I mounted them with the help of a clever boy 
and sometimes was obliged to work the whole night. Often I 
did not have much money to buy food as I sent what money 
was earned back to the family. Dr. Roger Verity gave me some 
support, but as he only paid 10 liras per ICO mounted specimens 
and a moderate rate for rarities, we suffered poverty. Our 
beautiful Sicilian material finally allured Lord Rothschild, Mr. 
Bethume-Baker and other British lepidopterists and they began 
purchasing at suitable rates, so that my wife and daughter could 
afford to make unhampered tours in Calabria, Campania, 
Abruzzo, Molise, Romagna and Garfagnana. They lived in 
the last named country during the disastrous earthquake. This 
period of our field work marked the beginning of better times, 
at least for a period. 

In 1920 my daughter married Dr. Enzo Romei and they had 
their daughter which we named Lycaena. I was a pensioner 
and dedicated all my time to lepiclopterolngy with the help of 
my son-in-law. Together with Dr. Verity I published in the 
'Entomologist's Record' of London, 'An annotated List of the 
(irypocera and of the Rhopalocera of Peninsular Italy.' Smr.r 
other articles were also published in the same maga/.ine and in 
the Oberthur volumev In \ ( >24 the Italian ( iovernmeiit asked 
us to collect in Northern Africa at Tripilitania. Dr. Romei 
went there first alone and later with his wife. About this time 
the Museum of Barcelona asked me to undertake some explor- 


ation in Spain and the agreement was almost signed when the 
Dictator Primo De Rivera annulled the contracts made by the 
Catalan people. I did not want to renounce this good trip, so 
my wife and I pawned what we had in our home and we went 
to Spain. I had no idea that living in that country was so ex- 
pensive and when we arrived on June 3, 1924 in Aragon, we 
saw that we did not have money enough to return home and 
therefore had to keep on ahead. I wrote to all the European 
men t knew asking them for advances on material. We had to 
continue our enterprise. Fortunately from England, France, 
Belgium and Austria came fine responses, and in Aragon my 
wife discovered the new species which Mr. Sagers named Cos- 
cinia ronici, dedicating it to my granddaughter Lycaena. In the 
spring of 1925 my son-in-law started for Sierra Nevada ( An- 
dalusia) and with the help of Lord Rothschild, Mr. Bethune- 
Baker and Mr. Williams, of Philadelphia, he found one local 
form of Pqrnassius apollo which was considered one of the 
rarest European butterflies. In 1926 we went to Cuenca (New 
Castile) for Lord Rothschild because he wished some specimens 
of Zygaena ignifera which is a rather good thing. Wife and 
I left for Portugal in 1927 and there I was named Naturalist 
of the University of Lisbon. With this new income I was able 
to have my daughter and granddaughter again with us to help 
collect, and from Portugal we again went to Cuenca, but my 
daughter returned to Italy again because there was a children's 
epidemic and we didn't want to risk her life. While I was at 
Cuenca, I was asked to go to Barcelona and write a 'Catalogue 
of the Diurnals of the Iberian Peninsula' which I did the 
following season. My daughter and granddaughter had by this 
time returned to us and we enjoyed splendid collecting in the 
Pyrenees Mountains. Just now we are all in Cuba with the 
help of our American friends and the collecting is proving quite 
good. I would like to work in Haiti, but doubt if it is possible. 
I have known and dealt with most European lepidopterists 
and I think that my best friend was Oberthiir, at least he gave 
me my start. Altogether I should guess, as a family, we have 
collected over half a million butterflies. Most European cab- 


Plate XXVII. 





Plate XXVIII. 


S A Nl T I A. O O D E C U O A , CUBA. 



inets hold series of our labors and I have never knowingly 
mounted a poor specimen. Our best series of butterflies is 
probably in the Tring Museum, as Lord Rothschild received 
the choice for some twelve years. Interesting numbers are in 
the Museum of Biology of Barcelona and Bocage Museum of 
Lisbon. In the Academy at Philadelphia is a good series of 
Rhopalocera and Grypocera purchased by Mr. \Villiams. also a 
fine series of Italian Grypocera. Specimens are also in Boston 
(Weeks collection), in Reading, Pennsylvania, and in Montreal. 
Of course, there are untold lots sent all over Europe, India, 
Japan and elsewhere. The Roger Verity collection in Florence, 
Italy, contains many fine lepidoptera from our native home col- 
lecting and he has some few specimens from the Iberian 
Peninsula. Cristo, Cuba. February 3rd, 1930." 

The Puparium of Basilia corynorhini (Ferris) 
(Diptera : Nycteribiidae). 

By G. F. FERRIS, Stanford University, California. 

The information at present existing in regard to the develop- 
mental stages of the Nycteribiidae is still sufficiently meager 
to justify any additions that it may be possible to make. The 
larvae of various species have been seen and briefly described, 
something is known of their internal structure, and in the case 
of two species, Cvclopodia f/rccfi Karsch and Eremoctenia 
progrcssa (Muir), there is available detailed information con- 
cerning the developmental stages and reproductive habits. 
There seems to be no information concerning the immature 
stages of any of the New \Vorld species. 

Puparia of Basilia corynorhini (Ferris) were found by the 
writer in some abundance deep in a mine tunnel in Deep 
Springs Valley, Inyo County, California, Sept. 24, 1928. These 
puparia were attached to the rock and appeared as flattened, 
black objects about 2 mm. long, looking very much like the 
familiar puparia of Aleyrodidac. Although they clung closely 
to the rock they could be removed without injuring them. 
Many of the puparia were empty, but several contained adults 
that were ready to issue and which permit the identification of 



[Nov., '30 

the species. It has previously been known from a single adult 

These puparia agree very closely in their general character 
with those of the two species mentioned above. The ventral 
side, as in the other species, is thin and translucent, the dorsal 
side convex, heavily sclerotic and pigmented. It is evident that 

Basilia corynorhini (Ferris). A, puparium, dorsal aspect, opercu- 
lum partially broken away ; B, spiracular openings and tracheal trunk 
of right side; C. D, E, details of tracheal trunk from areas indicated. 

in this species, as in the others where the process of larviposi- 
tion has actually been observed, the larva is pressed by the 
female against the substratum while still soft and thus more 
or less "glued" down. About the margin there appears a thin, 
irregular rim that is evidently formed at this time. 

The general appearance of the larva is as shown in the fig- 
ure. The sclerotic derm of the dorsum is marked with rather 
faint reticulations, which in the median region become more 
distinct. Segmentation is very faintly indicated by the direc- 
tion of the sculpturing. The anterior third or more of the 


dorsum is involved in the operculum which breaks away at 
the time of emergence of the adult. 

The tracheal system pertaining to the larva remains in part 
attached to the puparium. It is of a type that has been 
described at various times in the Nycteribiidae, but it has been 
possible to make some observations that extend our knowledge 
of the details of its structure. As in other Nycteribiidae, there 
are four spiracular openings, arranged in a triangle toward the 
posterior extremity of the body, the members of one pair being 
close together and borne on a slight tubercle. These are simple 
openings. The members of each lateral pair are connected by 
a longitudinal trunk (fig. B). In this species these trunks 
present some peculiar characteristics. The trunk is of a quite 
definite form, the curves as shown in the figure being appar- 
ently rather definitely fixed. For about one third of its length 
from each opening the trunk is of rather large diameter, is 
smooth walled, with numerous papillae on its inner surface 
(fig. E). The median third, however, is noticeably smaller and 
is composed of a series of coarse rings almost suggesting a 
string of beads (fig. D). From the middle point there arises 
a single, slender, coarsely-ringed branch, which sends off two 
short caecum-like branches and then expands into a curious, 
smooth, bell-shaped structure (fig. 'C), with a very narrow, 
fringed lumen, that communicates directly with the main 
tracheal trunk. Speiser has described the main tracheae of one 
species as lacking taenidia, but they are certainly present in the 
small portions of the trunks that remain in the specimens at 

A specimen of the larva of Nyctcribia pcdicidaria Latr. is 
at hand for comparison and it would appear that there are 
differences in the tracheal systems of these two species. In 
N. pcdicularia the tracheal trunks are of the same si/.e through- 
out and are of the same character a> the thicker portions of 
the trunk in B. corvnorliini. It is possible that careful study 
will show differences which might permit at least the generic 
identification of such puparia. 

The male of B. corvnorliini has been unknown. Males are 
present in the material dissected from puparia, but it is hardly 
possible to figure and describe them accurately. 

298 !:. \TOMOLOGICAL NEWS [Nov., '30 

On the Naming of Individual Variants in 

By ALEXANDER B. KLOTS, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Of late taxonomists have been viewing with more or less 
irritation and alarm the increasing tendency of some workers 
to apply scientific names to individual variants in a wholesale 
manner, and even to establish systems to be followed in such 
application of names. It is very much to be hoped that this 
matter may be brought forward for open discussion by as many 
people as possible, in order that something may be done to 
reconcile such actions with recognized methods of scientific 
procedure, if such is possible. 

Any recent worker in North American diurnals cannot have 
failed to find himself swamped in a sea of "transition forms", 
a term under which Mr. J. D. Gunder has been applying scien- 
tific names to a very large number of individual variants. As 
an aid in the application of such names Gunder has formulated 
a system of classification for the RHOPALOCERA (1) in which are 
included a number of points which appear to merit serious con- 
sideration. Inasmuch as Cockerell has recently commented 
upon this system, (2) pointing out some of the weak places, the 
present writer hopes that a discussion may be started of some 
of the points involved, and that Mr. Gunder will see fit to 
explain these points through the pages of this or of any other 


The author considers that any individual which differs notice- 
ably from the norm of its species (whatever that may be) will 
fall into one of the two very general categories which follow : 

1. The characters in which the individual differs from the 
norm of its species have been caused by the direct effect of 
environment upon the soma alone, are not inheritable, and will 
not be directly transmitted to the offspring of the individual. 

2. The characters in which the individual differs from the 
norm of its species, however caused, are inheritable and may 
be transmitted directly to the offspring of the individual. 


The fundamental difference is that of inheritance. We can- 
not admit that any characters in an individual, no matter how 
striking, unless they are controlled by the germ-plasm, can 
directly affect the evolution of the species to which the indi- 
vidual belongs. Such individuals may indeed be of interest to 
the person interested in gathering together a collection of 
oddities ; they may be of potential interest to the taxonomist 
if it is considered that the influence which produced the somatic 
changes may conceivably produce a change in the germ-plasm ; 
but in comparison with those individuals in which a modifica- 
tion of the germ-plasm has actually taken place they must al- 
ways occupy a place of very minor importance. 

On the other hand it is undoubted that variants whose varia- 
tions are directly inheritable hold the utmost significance for 
the student of taxonomy, for such individuals must undoubtedly 
have some effect on the evolution of their species. Just how 
great or how little this effect may be depends on an infinity of 
circumstances, but unquestionably merits the most careful in- 
vestigation. It is equally obvious that investigation of such 
variants or "Mendelian forms" or "mutants" to give them their 
recognized names, should be made only by a worker with a 
knowledge of genetics, who will perform careful and exhaust- 
ive breeding experiments. To attempt the classification of such 
mutants, knowing nothing whatsoever about them except their 
appearance, and taking into account only the most prominent 
features of that, is to show either an almost complete ignorance 
of modern biology, or an unquenchable but misplaced optimism. 
Equally useless and misleading is any attempt to state whether 
any given variant can possibly affect the evolution of its species 
without exhaustive experiments by a trained worker to accur- 
ately determine the genetical status of the variant. Even this 
is not sufficient. A mutation may occur frequently enough to 
be of interest to a collector of oddities without being able to 
have any appreciable effect on its Buries. In such connection 
Jordan's Law, which postulates the existence of sonic sort of a 
barrier between all separating subspecie^, U of tin- utmost im- 
portance. The mathematical calculations of ( icrould (3: p. 520- 


525) as to the chances of mutations affecting the general pop- 
ulation of a species are extremely significant. Any work that 
does not take these factors into consideration is hardly to be 
taken seriously as far as its scientific value is concerned. 


As defined by Guilder (1) the "transition form" is composed 
of "individuals which occur irregularly within a species or 
within a race, and which by change of color or by change of 
pattern graduate with persistent characteristic similarity from 
near parental type up to definitely limited variation away from 
parental type." In the first sentence of the same article the 
statement is made that : 'The transition forms of the order 
Lepidoptera represent the most tangible and discernible evi- 
dence we can offer of gradual evolutionary change taking place 
within any of the orders of the insect class." In a very recent 
article (4) Gunder further states that "We are making a pro- 
gressive step in that direction by classifying transition forms 
and allowing them the recognition they deserve. Their grade 
on the evolutionary stage is no longer a matter of guess work." 

According to the above statements the "transition form" is 
supposed to affect the evolution of its species in a definite way. 
It must be understood that this way is with regard to the color 
and pattern differences which Gunder describes as occurring 
between the "transition form" and normal individuals of the 
species. It seems evident that according to this theory the 
"transition form" must be able to transmit the characters for 
these differences directly to its offspring by means of the germ 
plasm. If it were not able to do so it could hardly affect the 
evolution of its species unless we wish to suppose that its mere 
presence would inspire its more normal brethren to higher and 
more aberrant aims in life. 

The "transition form" may therefore be regarded as a mu- 
tant in those characters in which it differs from the norm of 
the species. It is therefore by definition probably merely an- 
other name for "Mendelian form" or "mutant",, and as such 
is superfluous. 


Tlie phrase "persistent characteristic similarity" is evidence 
that in defining "transition form" ( iunder had some idea of 
orthogenesis in mind. Whether any of the various theories 
known as orthogenesis are acceptable or not is hardly to be 
discussed here. One thing only is evident before any series 
of variants can be regarded as in any way orthogenetic that 
type of variation must be shown to occur with some degree of 
frequence. For the great majority of "transition forms" named 
by Guilder this will not hold. Most of them are of very rare 
occurrence compared to the great numbers of normal indi- 
viduals of the species. Their orthogenetic status is therefore 
very doubtful. 


All of this is, however, taking a great deal for granted. Be- 
fore describing any specimen or series of specimens as a 
"transition form", mutant or member of an orthogenetic series 
the exact status of that specimen should be known, and the 
only way to accurately determine this status is by careful genet- 
ical experiments. The mere appearance of a specimen counts 
for very little, and is often misleading. By appearance alone 
nobody, in the absence of breeding experiments, can safely state 
whether any specimen is a mutant or a somatic-limited variant. 
It is well known that many striking variants may be produced 
by subjecting the pupa to extremes of temperature or humidity 
(5 and 6). It is equally well known that many other striking 
variants are mutants (3, 7 and 8). 

There is therefore a considerable probability that Guilder 
has by practice made the term "transition form" fully as in- 
clusive as "aberration" to which he himself objected as too 
inclusive. The use of the term should therefore be stopped 
before further confusion results. 

Gunder has proposed a system for the classification of "tran- 
sition forms" in which all such variants are placed in one of 
the following categories: melanism, chromatism, albinism, pel- 
lucidism, immaculism, albifusism, chromatifusism and melani- 


The following subjects for classification under this system 
are suggested: 

1. The forms of Heliconius melpomene in large series. 

2. The eye colors of Drosophila inclanogastcr. 

3. The melanic and melanistic forms of Sclcnia bilunaria, Tc- 
phrosia Ectropis bistortata and Tcphrosia E. crcpuscularia. 
(The melanic forms of the first two are Mendelian recessives, 
that of the last one is a Mendelian dominant, and the inter- 
mediate forms are heterozygous (7)). 

In example 1 application of this system would be nearly 
impossible, and meaningless ; in example 2 it would be mean- 
ingless and misleading ; and in example 3 it would be mislead- 
ing ; in all three it would cause confusion and would be a sheer 
waste of time. The system of the geneticists is unquestionably 

This classification, taking into account as it does only a few 
of the most prominent characters, is necessarily incomplete and 
superficial. No attention is paid to structural characters or, of 
course, to lethals, the appearance of which may profoundly af- 
fect the evolution of a species. 

However the main point in which exception is taken to this 
system is that the classification is based on only a few pheno- 
typic characters. While granting that to some people a purely 
phenotypic classification of mutants may be desirable, the 
writer postulates that to be worth anything such a classification 
should include all characters, not merely the most obvious ones. 

It is an undeniable fact that the more a person knows about 
any phase of biology the more he comes to realize that most 
broad generalizations are untrustworthy. Such an attempt 
as Gunder's to classify all pattern changes of Lepidoptera, or 
even of Rhopalocera. or even of North American Rhopalocera 
in eight categories is one of these untrustworthy generalizations. 
That such a generalization may lead to actual error is all too 
obvious. The case of the GEOMETRIDAE cited is an excellent 
example of this. 

(To be continued.) 


Distributional List of Tachinid Flies from Utah.* 

By J. A. ROWE. University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

This paper represents a preliminary study of the distribution 
of the Tachinid Flies from Utah. It is based upon specimens 
of this group which are now in the collections of the University 
of Utah, at Salt Lake City, and the Brigham Young Univer- 
sity, at Provo, Utah. This List is by no means complete, and 
as further collection in the state proceeds, no doubt, many new 
records will be added. 

At this time I wish to express my appreciation and gratitude 
to Dr. R. V. Chamberlin and Air. A. M. Woodbury under 
whose direction this work was undertaken, and whose sugges- 
tions and criticisms have proved invaluable. I wish to thank 
Dr. V. M. Tanner of the Brigham Young University who has 
so generously turned his collection over to me, and finally Dr. 
J. M. Aldrich of the U. S. National Museum, who has verified 
all my determinations and has so kindly returned all specimens 
sent to him. He has also given me many references to litera- 
ture that would have otherwise taken much time to find. 

VIVIANIA GEORGIAE B. & B. St. George, 1924, A. M. Wood- 


Campus, Salt Lake City, 1929, L. A. Woodbury. 

LINNAEMYIA COMTA Fall. Cedar City, 1919; Miners Peak, 
Iron Co., 1919; Parowan, 1919, H. R. Hagan. 

ERNESTIA AMPELUS Wlk. Flaming Gorge, Green River, 1926, 
V. M. Tanner; Salt Lake City, 1915, H. R. Hagan. 

METAPHYTO GENALIS Coq. Salt Lake City, (U. of U. 
Campus), 1918, H. R. Hagan. 

PHOROCERA FLORIDENSIS Ins. St. George, 1919, H. R. Hagan, 

8000 ft. (Near Provo), V. M. Tanner. 

TACHINOMYIA sp. Zion National Park, 1929, Coll. A. M. 

GONIA SEGUAX Will. Salt Lake City, 1920, on blossoms of 

* Contribution from the Zoological Laboratory of the University of 
Utah. No. 38. 


Millctus, Coll. T. R. Chamberlin. 

G. EXUL Will. Logan, 1929; Yosemite National Park, Calif., 

1925, Coll. V. M. Tanner; Bismarck, N. D. M. W. Reese. 

G. FRONTOSA Say. Salt Lake City, 1924-1928, Coll. A. M. 
Woodbury; Provo, 1928, J. A. Rowe. 

G. sp. ? Three other specimens of Gonia are in our collection 
which have the following records : Hamlin Valley, 1928, on 
Opuntia sp?; Springdale, 1928, V. M. Tanner; Santa Clara, 
1928, A. M. Woodbury; Flaming Gorge, on thistles, 1926, V. 
M. Tanner. 

Co., 1926, Clarence Cottam. 

TROCHILODES SKINNERI Coq. Aspen Grove, Elev. 8000 ft.. 
1928, V. M. Tanner. 

PELETERIA ITERANS Wkl. Salt Lake City, 1915-1923, T. R. 
Chamberlin; Cedar City, 1919; Bellevue, 1919, H. R. Hagan. 

P. CORNIGERA Curr. Aspen Grove, Elev. 8000 ft., 1929, V. 
M. Tanner. 

P. INCONFESTA Curr. Aspen Grove, Elev. 8000 ft., 1929, V. 
M. Tanner. 

P. CAMPESTRIS Curr. Maple Canyon, 1923, S. Aldous; St. 
George, 1919, H. R. Hagan; Cedar City, 1919, H. R. Hagan; 
Tooele, 1927, A. M. Woodbury; Eureka, 1927, A. M. Wood- 

P. TOWNSENDI Curr. St. George, 1929, V. M. Tanner. 

ARCHYTAS LATERALIS Macq. Santa Clara, 1919, H. R. Hagan. 

PARACHYTAS DECISA Wlk. Sheep Creek, Duschesne Co., 

1926, C. Cottam; Lake Hotel, Yellowstone National Park, 1929, 
V. M. Tanner; Parowan Canyon, 1918, H. R. Hagan. 

FABRICIELLA ELEGANS Wied. Collected in Utah but exact 
locality unknown. 

F. DAKOTENSIS Towns. Wellsville Canyon, flying among the 
flowers, 1926, V. M. Tanner. 

F. ROSTRATA Tothill. Cedar City, 1919; Salt Lake City, 
1915-19, S. J. Snow. 

F. ACUMINATA Tothill. Maple Canyon, San Pete Co., 1923, 
S. Aldous. 

F. SPINOSA Tothill. Male Canyon, Sanpete Co., 1923; Paro- 
wan, 1919; Miners Peak, Iron Co., 1923, A. M. Woodbury. 

HYSTRICIA ABRUPTA Wied. Aspen Grove, Elev. 8000 ft., V. 
M. Tanner. 

DEJEANIA VESTATRIX O. S. Parowan Canyon, 1923; Maple 
Canyon, Sanpete Co., 1924; Zion National Park, 1924; Coll. 


A. M. Woodbury. Prove, 1929, V. M. Tanner; Sheep Creek, 
Duschesne Co., 1926, C. Cottam. 

PARADE JEANI A RUTILOIDES Jaen. Box Canyon (Maple Can- 
yon?) 1923, Coll. A. M. Woodbury. 

JUKINIOPSIS ADJUST A V. I. \V. Box Canyon, Sanete Co., 
1923 ; St. George, 1923, A. M. Woodbury. 

WOHLFAHRTIA MEiGENii Schin. Cedar City, 1919, H. R. 

MASIPHYA CONFUSA Aid. Parowan Canyon, 1919, H. R. 

APHTIA OCYPTERATA Towns. Aspen Grove, Elev. 8000 ft.. 
1928, V. M. Tanner. 

Dynastes tityus in Pennsylvania and Delaware (Coleop.: 


Dear Dr. CALVERT : I was much interested in your Dynastes 
tit \nis paper in the June NEWS, partly because the insect has 
turned up here in New Castle County, Delaware, twice to my 
knowledge, and partly for a reason which I will explain. First, 
I have an earlier published record for "Pennsylvania". If at 
the Academy you will take down Vol. IV (1774) of DeGeer's 
L'Histoirc dcs Insect cs, and turn to page 306, you will find this 
record, and reference to an illustration of the insect, PI. 18, 
fig. 10. A portion of the text reads: "M. Acrelius m'a envoye 
ce Scarabe de Pensylvanie, ou, il 1'a trouve dans les bois, * * 
M. Acrelius m'a dit, que le Scarabe pince tres-fort avec ses 
deux grandes comes, que se recontrent avec leurs pointes quand 
il hausse le tetc." And now comes my other reason for special 
interest in DeGeer's insects of 'Pensylvanie'. Acrelius was the 
Swedish pastor at Christina (Wilmington, Delaware); many 
if not most of the North American insects described by DeGeer 
were sent him by Acrelius, with frequent text references to 
this fact, sometimes "captured by Acrelius in his garden", etc. 
Acrelius was here from 1749 to 1756. After his return to 
Sweden he wrote "A History of New Sweden", which has been 
translated into English and published by the Historical Society 
of Pennsylvania, 1874. In the preface to his "History". Acre- 
lius wrote "Although my recreation consisted, in a great 
measure, in the collection of insects, birds, fish, quadrupeds, 
plants, ores, gravels, clay, etc., which I gathered at the expense 
of his Excellency, the Chamberlain, Mr. Charles deGeer, for 
his valuable cabinet". * * * In his day, what is now Delaware, 


spoken of as the three lower counties on the Delaware, was 
part of the Province of Pennsylvania. Acrelius was "Provost 
of the Swedish Churches in America, and Rector of the Old 
Swedes' Church, Wilmington, Del." and undoubtedly was 
familiar with portions of Pennsylvania proper, as well as with 
the three lower counties (now Delaware). It would he inter- 
esting to go through DeGeer more thoroughly than I have at- 
tempted to do, and to determine in how many instances his 
references to collections by Acrelius are definite enough to 
change type localities from "Pensylvanie" to New Castle 
County, Delaware. 

The Swedish pastors several of them at least took a keen 
interest in natural history. In the library of the Pennsylvania 
Historical Society, Philadelphia, is a type-written copy (trans- 
lation) of the journal of Hesselius, who took charge of Chris- 
tina Parish, 1713. This 80-page manuscript (never published, 
I believe) is largely taken up with natural history observations, 
and includes a most interesting account of the 17-year cicada, 
as he observed it and inquired into its history. I do not recall 
that he mentions Dynastcs, which I suppose has always been a 
rarity here; the two captures referred to in the early lines of 
this letter were taken perhaps twenty years ago (they are in 
the collection of our local Society of Natural History), and 
I'm not sure that record was made (or if made, preserved) of 
their dates of capture. 

I'm sorry that Acrelius, as he says, "carefully abstained from 
the department of Natural History" (meaning, I suppose, for 
publication) "inasmuch as the celebrated Professor Kalm, 
somewhat before, and during my time, was visiting the same 
regions for this special object". I hope, some day, you'll take 
a look at the Hesselius paper, which I took notes from several 
years ago and found very interesting. 

In the first edition of Say's "American Entomology," of 
which I believe a copy is kept under lock and key at the 
Academy (Mr. Cresson will recall it), plate II and text (pages 
not numbered) relate to "Soarabacus htyns", and fix the date 
of its occurrence in the old cherry tree at Philadelphia at about 
1813 ("about four years ago", Say's publication being dated 

FRANK M. JONES, Wilmington, Delaware. 
2000 Riverview Avenue, 


Entomological Literature 



Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, 
however, whether relating to American or exotic species will be recorded. 

The numbers within brackets I ] refer to the journals, as numbered 
in the list of Periodicals and Serials published in the January and June 
numbers (or which may be secured from the publisher of Entomological 
News for lOc), in which the paper appeared. The number of, or annual 
volume, and in some cases the part, heft, &c. the latter within ( ) 
follows; then the pagination follows the colon : 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their 
first installments. 

*Papers containing new forms or names have an preceding the 
author's name. 

(S) Papers pertaining exclusively to neotropical species, and not so 
indicated in the title, have the symbol (S) at the end of the title of 
the paper. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Rec- 
ord. Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied 
Entomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

JJ(p Note the change in the method of citing the bibliographical refer- 
ences, as explained above. 

Papers published in the Entomological News are not listed. 

GENERAL. Barnes, W. Obituary. By Schaus, Rusck 
& Heinrich. [ 10J 32: 114, ill. Caiman, W. T. The taxo- 
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287. Dow, R. Notes on the prey of wasps. [5] 37: 181- 
182. Gronemann, C. F. Fifty common plant galls of the 
Chicago area. [Field Mus. N. H.] Bot. Leafl. 16: 30pp., ill. 
Handlirsch, A. Handbuch der zoologie. IV. Progoneata. 
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Support of the Zoological Record. [Science] 72: 247. Mc- 
Dunnough, J. H. Insects from Baffin Island. [Bull. Nat. 
Mus. Canada] 53: 118. Mellor, J. E. M. An ant-proof 
shelf for use in either laboratory, kitchen, or larder, in coun- 
tries where ants are a nuisance. [Bull. Soc. R. Ent. Egypte] 
1930: 36-37, ill. Metcalf, Z. P. Nomenclature. [Science] 
72: 318-319. Mickel, C. E. Descriptions plus types vs. de- 
scriptions alone. [5| 37: 118-131. Ramaley, F. Specializa- 
tion in science. |68| 72: 325-326. Rendell, E. J. P. Depre- 
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[10] 32: 104-113, ill. Ressler, W. Entomologie uml natur- 
schutz. 1 18J 24: 203-209. Richmond, H. A. A coleopten.u- 
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32, ill., cont. Wood, H. E. Priority in family, order and 
higher group names. [68] 72: 219-220. Woodworth, C. W. 
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Changing the chirp-rate of the snowy tree cricket Oecan- 
thus niveus with air currents. [68] 72: 347-349. Baum- 
gartner & Payne. Tntra vitam technique for the study of 
the living cells of insects. [68] 72: 199-201, ill. Borgmeier, 
T. Zur morphologic und biologic von Pseudohypocera 
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A. Evaporation from the meal-worm (Tenebrio) and at- 
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577, ill. Crampton, G. C. Some anatomical details of the 
pupa of the archaic tanyderid dipteron, Protoplasa fitchii. 

[10] 32: 83-95, ill. Cres'sman, A. W. The feeding rate of 
the Australian lady beetle, Vedalia cardinalis. [47] 41 : 197- 
203, ill. Crevecoeur, A. Y a-t-il coexistence normale de la 
reine et d'ouvrieres pondeuses dans les ruches d'abeilles? 
[33] 70: 209-215. Delkeskamp, K. Biologische studien 
uber Carabus nemoralis. [46] 19: 1-58, ill. Dubuisson, M. 

Cardiac automatism in insects. [The Collecting Net] 5: 
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of Dorcus parallelopipedus. [Jour. Linnean Soc., London] 
37: 93-108, ill. Friedrich, H. Weitere vergleichende unter- 
suchungen iiber die tibialen scolopalorgane bei orthopteren. 
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plasmatiques des cellules sexuelles males chez Phryganea 
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Mail, G. A. Viability in eggs of Aedes campestris (Culici- 
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Pflugfelder, O. Zur embryologie des skorpions Hormurus 
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Tokunaga, M. -The morphological and biological studies 
on a new marine cranefly Limonia ( Hicranomyia ) Monos- 
tromia, from Japan. [Mem. Coll. Agric. Kyoto Imperial 
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po trachealnim systemu larev hmyzu dvojkridleho. [Caso- 


pis] 26: 68-88. ill. Wiedemann, J. F. Die zellulosever- 
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Yung-Tai, T. Recherches sur I'histogenese et 1'histophys 
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Suppl. 12: 144pp.. ill. 


une larve d'acarien parasite cle rhoinme et des aniniaux -n 
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361, ill. Attems, G. Myriapoda. 2. Scolopendromorpha. 
[Das Tierreich] 54: 308pp.- ill. Bristowe, W. S. Xotes 
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II. Aquatic spiders. III. Miscellaneous. [75] 6: 334-353, ill. 
*Bryant, E. B. New species of the genus Xysticus ( Arach- 
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of the Jordan Lake Region. [Trans. \Yisconsin Acad. Sci., 
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Tier-reichs in wort und bild. Bd. V. Abt. 2, Myriapoda. 
Diplopoda. Lief. 10: 1523-1674, ill. 


N. Some new Neotropical Neuropteroid insects. [5] 37: 
183-191, ill. Lestage, J. A. La dispersion holarctique de 
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6: 305-317. ill. 

HEMIPTERA. *Hottes, F. C. Aphid homonyms. |95| 
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LEPIDOPTERA. -Clark, B. P. Sundry notes on 
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S])hingi(len. (S) |M| 44: L30-131, ill. [18] 24: 217-220. 
Gunder, J. D. Butterflies of Los Angela (Omit}-. Cali- 
fornia. |38| 29: 39-95, ill. *Hall, A.- Xew forms of Xym 
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(>3: 15f> 160. *May, E. Agrias clandia roquetlei. (S). 
[Bol. Mus. Xac., Rio de Jaiu-in.| 5: 35-38, ill. *McDun- 
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[4] 62: 180-183, ill. *Meyrick, E. Exotic Microlepidop- 


tera. (S). [3] 577-608. Talbot, G. A monograph of the 
Pierine genus Delias. Part 5: 220-259, col. pi. 

DIPTERA. Bangerter, H. - - Mucken-Metamorphosen 

III. [56] 9: 97-102. Borgmeier, T. Ueber das vorkommen 
der larven von Hermetia illucens (Stratiomyidae) in den 
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E. T., Jr. Notes on and descriptions of some neotropical 
Neriidae and Micropezidae. |1] 56: 307-362. Fulmek, L. 
Sciarinae (Mycetophiliden) als blattminierer. [89] Syst., 
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*Hull, F. M. Some notes and descriptions of Cerioidine 
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O. Neue Tabaniden imd Zusatze zu bereits beschriebenen. 
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8: 386-393, ill. *Parent, M. O. Especes nouvelles de Doli- 
chopodides conservees an Museum National d'Histoire 
Naturelle de Paris. (S). [An. Soc. Sci. Bruxel.], (B), 104: 
86-115, ill. Stear, J. R. Muscid larvae taken in "Sciara 
Army Worm". [5] 37: 175. *Van Duzee, M. C The Doli- 
chopodid genus Nematoproctus in North America. [5] 37: 

COLEOPTERA. Brimley, J. F. Coleoptera found in 
the Rainy River District, Out. [Canadian Nat.] 44: 135-140. 
Cockerel"!, T. D. A. Fossil beetle elytra. [5] 37: 176. Csiki, 
E. Coleopterorum Catalogues. Pars 112. Carabidae : Har- 
palinae IV. 529-737. Fletcher, F. C. The type locality of 
two species of Staphylinidae. [4] 62: 190. Frost, C. A. 
Paratenetus crinitus. [5] 37: 176-177. Kingsbury, E. W. 
Note on the distribution of two species of Coleoptera. |5] 
37: 177. *Luederwaldt, H. Tres novas especies do genero 
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Nac., Rio de Janeiro] 5: 71-72. Obenberger, J. Coleopter- 
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D. B. Sobre um coleoptero perfurador de cabos tclephoni- 
cos observado em Pernambuco (Megaclerus stigma. Cer- 
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P. A note on the parasitic beetle. Hernia minutipennis. 
1 5 J 37: 155-156. *Reichensperger, A. -- Subgenera von 
Paussus und die gattung Hylotorus, sowie beitrage zur 
kenntnis afrikanischer und sudamerikanischer Myrmeko- 
philen (Pauss. Clavig. Hist.). (S). [2J 26: 71-85, ill'. 

xli, '30] KNTO.MOLOCir.U. .\K\VS 311 

HYMENOPTERA. Gibson, A. Bumblebee occupying 
Oriole nest. [Canadian Nat.J 44: 146. Lutz, F. E. Obser- 
vations on leaf-cutting ants. [4U| 388: 21pp.. ill. *Mitchell, 
T. B. A contribution to the knowledge of neotropical 
Megachile with descriptions of new species (Megachilidae). 
[1] 56: 155-305, ill. Rau, P. The nesting habits of the 
twig-dwelling bee, Prosopis modestus. [5J 37: 173-175. 
^Roberts, R. Seven new names in the genus Tiphia (Sco- 
liidae). [4] 62: 189-190. *Ross, H. H. The genera Selan- 
dria and Coryna in America north of Mexico. (Tenthredini- 
dae). [4] 62': 184-189, ill. Wheeler & Darlington. Ant- 
tree notes from Rio Frio, Columbia. [5j 37: 107-117. 

SPECIAL NOTICES. Danmarks Fauna. Biller VIII. 
(Haliplidae, Dytiscidae & Gyrinidae.). By V. Hansen. The 
descriptions and illustrations of the larvae in this work on 
Danish Coleoptera will probably be interesting to those 
studying these immature stages. 233pp., ill. Die Tierwelt 
Deutchlands. Zweiflugler oder Diptera. IV. Syrphidae and 
Conopidae. By P. Sach and O. Krober. A valuable paper to 
students of these families. 142pp., ill. 

Doings of Societies 


The seventh annual meeting of The Rocky Mountain Con- 
ference of Entomologists was held in Pingree Park, August 18 
to 23, 1930, inclusive. This again took the form of an informal 
meeting at the State Agricultural College Forestry Lodge in 
the mountains. Members of the families of a number of the 
entomologists joined in the occasion. A total of 52 were 
present. The following are those that were directly interested 
in entomology : 

C. L. Marlatt and \Y. H. Larrimer, Washington, D. C. ; C. 
P. Gillette, Carl A. Bjurman, Mrs. Esther Travis, Miss Miriam 
A. Palmer, John L. HOITIKT, Sam C. McCampbell. Leslie B. 
Daniels, Geo. M. List, F. T. Cowan, C. R. Jones, R. G. Rich- 
mond and Bernard Travis, Fort Collins, Colorado; Hernard 
Liston and Rowan I'otter, Wichita, Kansas; A. \\ . Lingquist, 
Manhattan, Kans. : |<"lm C. I lamlin, Geo. |. Reeves and I. M 
Hawley, Salt Lake City, Utah; W. A. Shands and I). G. Rice, 
Grand Junction, Colorado; C. J. Drake and Tom A, I'.rindley, 
Ames, Iowa; J. H. Xevvton, I'aonia, Colo.; A. 1'. Stnrtevant 
and C. L. Corkins. Laramie, Wyoming; Leonard I lasenian, 
Colombia, Mis.souri; Wilber G. Fish, Ithaca, X'ew York, and 
Elwood H. Sheppard, Reading, Minnesota. 


A total of ten sessions were held during the week for discus- 
sion and presentation of papers. The following is a list of the 
formal subjects discussed: 

Orthoptera. The Control Campaign Against the Mormon 
Cricket, F. T. Cowan. 

Coleoptera. The Rose Snout Beetle, J. L. Hoerner ; The 
Potato Flea Beetle, L. B. Daniels; Alfalfa Weevil Population, 
J. C. Hamlin; Notes on the Alfalfa Weevil, I. M. Hawley. 

Hymenoptera. Food Habits of the Agricultural Ant, C. R. 

Homoptera. The Beet Leaf Hopper, \V. A. Shands ; Gen- 
eric and Specific Characters of Aphids, M. A. Palmer. 

Apiculture. Work of the Intermouhtain Bee Station, A P. 
Sturevant ; Metabolism Studies of the Honey Bee, C. L. Cork- 

General. Onion Insects of Iowa, C. J. Drake; Importance 
of Insect Physiology and Morphology, Leonard Haseman ; The 
Work of the LInited States Bureau of Entomology, and the 
Mediterranean Fruit Fly Situation, C. L. Marlatt ; New or 
Outstanding Insects of the Year, Leonard Haseman, J. H. 
Newton, C. J. Drake, G. I. Reeves, A. W. Lindquist, B. Liston, 
R. Potter, W. A. Shands, F. T. Cowan, S. C. McCampbell, 
C. P. Gillette ; Early Notes on Colorado Insects, C. P. Gillette ; 
Red Clover Pollinization, R. G. Richmond ; Temperature and 
Humidity Control Boxes, T. A. Brindley ; Cherry Insects of 
Northern Colorado, G. M. List ; Some External Parasites of 
the Rodent Family, Sciuridae, in Colorado, S. C. McCampbell : 
Heat, Caramelization and Regranulation of Honey, R. G. Rich- 

Symposium. Research in Entomology: Training for Re- 
search, C. P. Gillette ; Organization for Research, C. L. Mar- 
latt ; Opportunities in Research, W. H. Larrimer ; What is 
Wrong in Entomological Research, The Youngsters. 

It was the unanimous opinion of those present that this type 
of meeting should be continued. 

The officers elected for 1931 were C. P. Gillette, Chairman : 
George I. Reeves, Vice-Chairman ; George M. List, Secretary; 
C. R. Jones, Treasurer. GEORGE M. LIST, Secretary. 


ENT. NEWS, Vol. XLI, page 242, July, 1930. The author of the article 
credited to Orfila, R. N. La primera exposicion Entomologica Argentina 
efectuada en Buenos Aires del 19 al 25 de Septiembre de 1928, should 
have been given as Dallas, E. T., and the correct reference is |104| 
2: 121-156. 

Subscriptions for 1931 are now payable. 



Vol. XLI 

No. 10 

CSC E r 

1 : .-, 





Gunder North American Institutions Featuring Lepidoptera XIX . . 
Gertsch and Woodbury Spiders found in the Stomachs of Sceloporus 

graciosus graciosus (B. & G.) (Araneina) 

Knight Descriptions of Four New Species of Mimetic Miridae 

(Hemiptera) 319 

Nelson The Sexes of Andrena hitei Cockerell (Hym. : Andrenidae). . 322 
Wickwire and Calale Some Mating Habits of Callosamia promethea 

and Telea polyphemus (Lepid.: Saturniidae) 323 

Klots On the Naming of Individual Variants in Lepidoptera 324 

Hungerford An Unusual Nest of Vespula (Dolichovespula) arenaria 

Fabr. ( = V. diabolica de Saussure) Hym.: Vespidae) 329 

Beamer Maternal Instinct in a Membracid (Platycotis vittata) (Ho- 

moptera) 330 

Robertson Proterandry and Flight of Bees. III. (Hym.: Apoidea). 331 

Entomological Literature 336 

Review Recent Works of R. E. Snodgrass 341 


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Plate XXIX. 





VOL. XLI. DECEMBER, 1930 No. 10 

North American Institutions Featuring Lepidoptera. 

XIX. Entomological Institutions in Mexico. 

By J. D. GUNDER, Pasadena, California. 

(Plates XXIX-XXXIII). 

Mexico, to North American entomologists, is one of the most 
interesting countries in the world for it presents a field of vir- 
gin and almost unlimited possibility. With a great diversity of 
climate and vast land areas, ranging from tropical to near 
arctic on the lofty peaks, its variety of forms can only be 
compared to certain of the western countries of South America. 
Before the great Ice Age began and before the glaciers domi- 
nated our territory. North America was inhabited, not only by 
the present fauna and flora, but also by a great number of the 
southern plants and animals, which retreated to the south before 
the cold and found refuge in the plains and mountains of 
Mexico. The entomological fauna of Mexico is therefore of 
interest to every taxonomist and student collector and espe- 
cially to those in south-western United States, not only for 
the great similarity which exists, for example, between the 
insect world of Arizona and of Sonora, or between Texas and 
Tamaulipas, but chiefly for the stock of preglacial fauna now 
distributed over the mountains of this southern Republic. It is 
too early, of course, to discuss from a zoological point of view, 
the history of Mexican insect life, which is very imperfectly 
known. Unfortunately Mexican entomology is still in its 

Many species of Lepidoptera from Mexico were originally 
described by Linnaeus and his associates and in recent years 
since the publication of the Bioloyia Centrali- Americana, re- 
search work has been greatly stimulated. F. D. Godman and 
Osbert Salvin prepared the Biologia parts relating to the 
Rhopalocera and Herbert Druce and others completed the 
Heterocera sections. 



The oldest of the Mexican lepidopterologists and the owner 
of the largest collection of Mexican butterflies and moths is 
Mr. Robert Muller of Mexico City. See Plate XXXIII. Aided 
by numerous local collectors and for over a period of 40 years, 
he has accumulated nearly 5000 species, including Pyralids. 
Practically all his new species and forms, numbering nearly 
1000, were described several years ago by the late Dr. H. G. 
Dyar and by Schaus, Busck and Clark and the types of prac- 
tically everything are in the National Museum at Washington, 
except paratypes which were retained by Muller. There are 
still some 500 undescribed lepidoptera in the collection, mostly 
Noctuids and Geometrids. Recently Mr. Miiller's nephew. 
Prof. Max Draudt, a well known collaborator of Seitz, has pub- 
lished some new forms of Noctuids and Bombycids from this 
outstanding collection. Another lepidopterist of note in Mexico 
is Mr. Pablo Petersen of Puebla. His collection, though ex- 
tensive, does not contain type material. 

At the present time organized entomological investigation, 
including the study of lepidoptera, is being carried on by three 
separate institutions or at three individual centers of research. 
All are in Mexico City and each has men in charge who are 
thoroughly scientific and capable, so that the next decade should 
see a more rapid advancement in entomological knowledge 
within the Republic. 

FIRST. At the Mexican Plant Protection Service of the Min- 
istry of Agriculture, which combines the activities of the U. S. . 
Bureau of Entomology, of the Plant Quarantine and Control 
Administration, the Insecticide & Fungicide and of the Phyto- 
pathological Service of the U. S. Bureau of Plant Industry. 
The building of the Department of Research, which includes a 
chemical, a bacteriological, a mycological and an entomological 
laboratory, with insectaries and experimental fields, is shown 
at the top of Plate XXIX and is under the direction of Dr. 
Alfonso Dampf. This building is quite new, being only recently 
occupied and the grounds were not in shape when the photo was 
taken. The Department possesses a collection of Mexican in- 
sects in all Orders and a special collection of agriculture pests. 
Breeding experiments with material from all parts of Mexico 


Plate XXX. 





yield interesting specimens, especially in Lepidoptera and Cole- 
optera. Plate XXXII shows a silk nest of Eutach\f>tcra psidii 
built by living caterpillars and the man to the left is Leopold 
Conradt, curator of the Republic's entomological collections. 
He is an old experienced field man who has made entomological 
trips to central Asia and tropical Africa, and who collaborated 
with Godman & Salvin as editors when they were assembling 
data, especially on Coleoptera from Guatemala and Mexico as 
well. The man to the right in the picture is Mr. Ignacio II. 
Olmedo, a capable young entomologist from the Department. 
Dr. Dampf is organizing and building up Mexico's entomo- 
logical service and he is doing about what Riley and Howard 
accomplished for the United States in the early days. Condi- 
tions in Mexico are quite different, both politically and eco- 
nomically however. The Doctor was born on the small island 
of Dagoe in the Baltic Sea, between Sweden and Esthonia, 
November 20, 1884. He went to school in Reval, Esthonia, 
where he had the good fortune to come in touch with that first 
class lepidopterist and scientist, Wilhelm Petersen, known 
through his profound investigations on the morphology and 
anatomy of Lepidoptera. The University years were spent in 
Konigsberg, the home of Immanuel Kant, the great philosopher, 
and the doctors' degree was received in 1909, when he entered 
the staff of the Zoological Museum of the University, as as- 
sistant keeper of the collections with a view of preparing for 
a professorship. A trip in 1910 to Egypt and in 1912 to the 
Faroe Islands in the North Atlantic were used to collect entomo- 
logical material. In 1913 he followed a call of the Imperial 
Colonial Office and became Government Entomologist in Ger- 
man East Africa, now Tanganyika Territory. At this time a 
fascinating period of travel and collecting began, only to be 
interrupted and ended by the world war. Dr. Dampf was for 
a year and a half Director of the Cotton Experiment Station at 
Mpanganya on the Rufiyi River near which wild elephants, 
zebras, waterbucks and hippopotamuses abounded. Later he 
enlisted under the immortal Lettow-Vorbeck and went into the 
brush to defend East Africa against a foe who was a hundred 
times stronger and more numerous. The years of 1918 and 


1919 were passed in Egypt (entomological results unpublished) 
and between 1920-23 quiet entomological work was again con- 
tinued in the old City of Konigsberg. By October, 1923, the 
old continent was changed for the new and Dr. Dampf was 
invited to Mexico by the government to become professor of 
entomology and parasitology. Numerous field trips through 
Mexico followed, including a six months' expedition on horse- 
back into Yucatan, British Honduras and Guatemala. These 
excursions yielded the necessary knowledge of the land and folk 
and brought an enormous amount of material together which 
is still being sifted. In 1927 the Plant Protection Service of 
the Mexican Government was founded and Dr. Dampf was ap- 
pointed Head of the Research Department, a position which he 
still holds. His 85 publications comprehend Lepidoptera, 
Aphaniptera (fleas), Diptera and agriculturally and medically 
important subjects. He has just finished an article on an in- 
teresting lepidopteron from baltic amber and recently sent in a 
description of the first Mexican Paussid (Ins., Coleoptera). 
Also he is working on a monograph of the Mexican Simuliids 
(black flies or buffalo gnats). His personal collection includes 
Microlepidoptera, slides of fleas and insects of economic im- 

SECOND. The Department of Public Health in Mexico City 
with its dependency, the Institute of Hygiene, is where studies 
in medical entomology are being carried on. The entomological 
laboratory at the Institute is under the direction of Prof. C. C. 
Hoffmann, who is actively working on the mosquitoes of 
Mexico. He has published extensive papers on Mexican ticks 
and has investigated the transmission of a filariasis by the 
Simulium gnats. Prof. Hoffmann has a fine personal collec- 
tion of Mexican Lepidoptera and has described several species 
and forms. His collection is probably next to Miiller's in size 
and is being continually built up. It has the reputation of being 
in perfect order and up-to-date. A portrait of Prof. Hoffmann 
is found on Plate XXXI together with those of I. Ochoterena 
and Dr. W. J. Holland. Dr. Holland was in Mexico City this 
last spring setting up a replica of the skeleton of the dinosaur 
Diplodocus carncgci for the National Museum and I am indebted 


Plate XXXII. 

I.I (ii'oi i) C'o\ K \n\ i I. eft i ami 1 . 1 1 . ( M.\i I no ; Ri^ht \ I loldint; a Silk 
NfM of the Social Living C'ati-rpillai> of /Sy.)i^t>0X/;'X(X/^.>X& 

Eulachyptera f>siifii 












to the Doctor for this picture. He also furnished me with 
certain data concerning entomological conditions in Mexico. 

THIRD. At the Biological Institute of the Mexican National 
University various phases of entomological study are continu- 
ally in progress. This Institution was formerly under the 
supervision of the Mexican Secretary of Agriculture, but last 
year came under the control of the University. The actual 
director is Prof. Isaac Ochoterena who is a fine scientist and 
known more as a pathologist and botanist. Portrait on Plate 
XXX. His staff works on problems of pure and applied science, 
as on hydrobiology and microbiology and on the flora and fauna 
of Mexico in general, etc. Prof. Hoffmann and Prof. Leopoldo 
Ancona H. are on the entomological staff of this Institute and 
they have published various and many papers on Mexican 

Prof. Isaac Ochoterena was born at Atlixco, Puebla in 1885 
and he is the son of the late Colonel Pedro Ochoterena, who 
was a distinguished Mexican militarist in the defense of his 
Country at the time of the so-called Maximilian Government. 
Prof. Ochoterena's early studies were accomplished in the old 
National Preparatory School and a few years afterwards he 
was appointed Inspector of Education in the State of Durango. 
Later he was called to the chair of embryology and histology 
of the National Medical College and to professorship in the 
Military Medical School. He has written a text book on 
biology and published some 76 scientific papers, of which a 
third or more are dedicated to the histology of the nervous 

Prof. Ochoterena is head of the National Museum of Natural 
History in Mexico City which is fostered by the Biological In- 
stitute of the University. It is located on Calle Chopo and 
occupies a huge building constructed of steel and glass (Plate 
XXX). This building was erected a number of years ago as 
one of the structures used by the International Exposition. At 
the time it was filled with Japanese exhibits. Its replacement 
by a thoroughly modern museum building has been for a long 
time agitated. This Museum, which is the principal one in 
Mexico, originates from the union of several ancient museums 


and from the collections of the Mexican geographical explora- 
tions. Prominent naturalists such as Villada, Urbina, Rovirosa, 
Herrera, Mendoza, Penafiel, Patoni, Ferrari-Perez and a local 
host of others have contributed towards its contents. The 
botanical department boasts of a splendid herbarium and there 
is a well classified collection of rocks and minerals. The library 
of the Institution contains a rich selection of books and pamph- 
lets numbering more than twenty thousand. The collections of 
insects on display are largely synoptic in character, and, while 
many Mexican insects are shown among the Lepidoptera, there 
are also fair series of the Lepidoptera of other parts of the 
world. I believe this Museum houses the only public display, 
or only good public display, of insects in Mexico. 

[This article concludes the series on "North American Insti- 
tutions featuring Lepidoptera" which has been running con- 
tinuously in the NEWS since February, 1929. I would like to 
take this opportunity of expressing my sincere thanks to the 
many entomologists who have made possible the numerous 
plates and these pages of text. The future will decide whether 
they have been worth while. AUTHOR.] 

Spiders Found in the Stomachs of Sceloporus graciosus 
graciosus (B. & G.) (Araneina). 

The following list represents the species of Spiders found 
in the stomachs of a series of lizards of the species Sceloporus 
graciosus graciosus (B. & G.), which were collected at local- 
ities in Utah as indicated below. 

Mr. Gertsch identified the spiders, most of which were 
GNAPHOSIDAE Gen. et sp? Fillmore Canyon, June, 1927, U. 

of U. Zool. Exp. 
ARANEA sp? Fillmore Canyon, June, 1927, U. of U. Zool. 


XYSTICUS SIMPLICIOR Chamberlin and Gertsch. Fillmore Can- 
yon, June, 1927, U. of U. Zool. Exp. 
LYCOSA AVIDA (Walckenaer). Ephraim, Utah. 
PELLENES HIRSUTUS Peckham. Hatch, Utah, June, 1927, U. 

of U. Zool Exp. 
PELLENES OREGONENSIS Peckham. Hatch, Utah, June, 1927, U. 

of U. Zool Exp. 
PHIDIPPUS sp? Fillmore Canyon, June, 1927, U. of U. Zool. 



University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

xli, '30] KXTOMor.ociicAi. \i-.\vs 319 

Descriptions of Four New Species of Mimetic 
Miridae (Hemiptera).* 

By HARRY H. KXICIIT, Ames, Iowa. 
Coquillettia nigrithorax n. sp. 

Clavus white and therefore suggestive of Van I)., but 
differs otherwise in the black color of head, thorax and legs ; 
also differs in the smaller size and relatively longer rostrum. 

$ . Length 4.3 mm., width across base of cuneus 1.3 mm. 
Head: width .69 mm., vertex .30 mm. Rostrum, length 1.3 
mm., just attaining hind margin of sternum. Antennae: seg- 
ment I, length .26 mm.; II, 1.21 mm.; Ill, 1.12 mm.; IV, 
.56 mm. ; black. Pronotum : length .69 mm. ; width at base 
1.12 mm. 

Color black, coxae and femora of front legs, and sometimes 
lower half of face, brown with orange tinge. Clavus opaque 
white, tinged with yellow, blackish at base ; corium clear white, 
black on apical third ; embolium pale, fuscous at base and black 
on apical third. Cuneus opaque white on basal half, tinged 
with yellow bordering the black on apical half. Membrane 
uniformly blackish, pale with milky tinge across basal three- 
fifths of larger areoles. Ostiolar peritreme and posterior mar- 
gin of third abdominal segment white as in allied species. 

Holotypc: $ September 9, 1928, Tucson, ARIZONA (A. A. 
Nichol) ; author's collection. Paratypcs: 3 $ August 16, 
Apache County, 2 August 18, 1927, Socorro County, Arizona 
(R. H. Beamer). 

Coquillettia granulata n. sp. 

Allied to atrithorax, but differs in the smaller size, white 
discal area of membrane, and the fine, white granular coating 
on all parts of the body. 

$ . Length 3.4 mm., width .98 mm. Head: width .69 mm., 
vertex .31 mm. Rostrum, length 1.17 mm., reaching to near 
posterior margins of middle coxae. Antennae: segment 1, 
length .21 mm.; II, 1.08 mm.; Ill, broken; black. Pronotum: 
length .62 mm., width at base .99 mm. 

Black, juga and lora brownish: all parts of body including 
hemelytra and legs, finely coated with a white granular exuda- 

* Contribution from the Dept. of Zoology and Entomology, Iowa State 
College, Ames, Iowa. 


tion which is rather similar to that found in many species of 
Platytylellus. Hemelytra black, transversely white across clavus, 
corium, and embolium between tip of scutellum and tip of 
clavus; basal two-fifths of cuneus opaque white. Membrane 
fuscous, larger areoles and discal area between and extending 
distad to slightly beyond a line connecting tips of cunei, milky 
white. Ostiolar peritreme and posterior margin of third abdo- 
minal segment, white. 

9 . Length 3.4 mm. ; wingless, ant-like. Uniformly black, 
covered with a fine granular white residue as in the male. 
Head: width .74 mm., vertex .60 mm.; length .99 mm., rather 
thick. Pronotum : length .58 mm., greatest width (.62 mm.) 
across coxal clefts which are visible from above; strongly and 
evenly convex but more cylindrical than globose. Without 
vestige of wings ; tergite of first abdominal segment strongly 
arched, pale; posterior margin of second tergite and the pos- 
terior half of the sternite of third segment, pale. Abdomen 
behind the third segment strongly globose, sparsely clothed 
with pale pubescence. 

Holotype: $ May 21, 1909, West Wats, UTAH (E. D. Ball) ; 
author's collection. Allotype: same date as the type. Para- 
types: 3 $ , taken with the types. The writer is indebted to 
Dr. Ball for this species which was received unmounted in a 
pill box with a few other specimens. 

Sericophanes albomaculatus n. sp. 

Allied to triangularis Kngt., and having very similar white 
markings, but differs in the more convex scutellum and in the 
shorter second antennal segment which is not equal to basal 
width of pronotum ; also differs in the dark brown color and 
blackish membrane. 

$ . Length 3.6 mm. , width 1.09 mm. Head: width .69 mm., 
vertex .32 mm. Rostrum, length 1.64 mm., reaching upon 
fourth ventral segment, dark fuscous brown. Antennal seg- 
ment I, length .216 mm., pale brownish; II, .92 mm., brown to 
fuscous; III, .65 mm., dark fuscous; IV, .56 mm., blackish. 
Pronotum: length .64 mm., width at base 1.05 mm.; disk dark 
chestnut brown, shining, calli, collar, and anterior half of 
propleura, reddish brown. Scutellum conically produced, dis- 
tinctly higher than in triangularis; mesoscutum declivent, slop- 
ing sharply downward to the grooved line separating the scutel- 
lum. Hemelytra dusky brown, fuscous bordering the white 


spots and inner apical angles of corium ; white spots nearly as 
in triangulanSj a subtriangular white spot on basal half of 
corium, its apex on clavus and base on embolium ; a smaller 
white spot on corium bordering base of cuneus, also a small 
round spot on corium bordering claval suture just before apex 
of clavus. Cuneus dark chestnut brown to blackish, shining; 
embolium brownish black between the white spots, also shining. 
Membrane and veins uniformly dark fuscous. Ventral sur- 
face and legs dark brown to blackish, hind coxae, ostiolar 
peritreme, and middle coxae except base, white. Dorsum 
sparsely clothed with erect, long pale hairs, also intermixed with 
some shorter pubescent hairs. 

Holotypc: $ , Fort Davis Mountains, TEXAS (O. C. Poling) ; 
author's collection. 

Cyrtopeltocoris gracilentis n. sp. 

Allied to albo-fasciatus Reut., but differs in the longer second 
antennal segment, more slender head and more strongly arched 

$ . Length 3.5 mm., width across base of cuneus 1.04 mm. 
Head: width .69 mm., vertex .30 mm.; from base of vertex to 
tip of tylus .60 mm., height of an eye .35 mm. Antennae: 
segment I, length .23 mm.; II, 1.04 mm.; Ill, .86 mm.; IV, 
.60 mm. ; pale dusky, last two segments more brown. Prono- 
tum : length 1.04 mm., width at base .86 mm. Scutellum more 
strongly convex or conically produced than in albo-fasciatus. 
Color reddish brown to dark brown and with white marks 
nearly as in albo'-fasciatus. With band of white crossing clavus 
midway between tip of scutellum and tip of clavus and extend- 
ing across corium to radial vein ; also white on tip of corium 
bordering cuneus. Membrane and veins uniformly pale fus- 
cous. Legs brown, hind and middle coxae and the trochanters, 
pale ; apices of tibiae pale ; tarsi, fuscous apically. Clothed with 
fine, short, pale pubescence, sparsely intermixed on hemelytra 
and scutellum with a few long, erect pale hairs. 

Holotypc: $ September 5, 1926, Eufaula, ALABAMA (H. H. 
Knight), collected at light; author's collection. 

I have previously recorded this specimen as Cyrtopeltocoris 
albo-fasciatus Reut. (Can. Ent., lix, 1927, p. 41), but more 
critical study shows that it is structurally distinct, although 
having a very similar color aspect. 



[Dec., '30 

The Sexes of Andrena hitei Cockerell 
(Hym. : Andrenidae). 


In 1907 Professor T. D. A. Cockerell described in the Annals 
and Magazine of Natural History Andrena hitci from Boulder, 
Colorado. The species was described from the female, a strik- 
ingly attractive species of Andrena. Ever since an unsuccessful 
search has been made for the male. There is no male in this 
region which looks like the female, but this is not astonishing 
for often the male is very unlike the female. Curiously enough 
there is a beautiful Andrena in the European fauna which 
looks so much like our species that the two can be confused. 
The most conspicuous difference is the size, the European 
species, A. fulva Schrank, being larger than hitci. The male 
of the European species is known. Professor Cockerell re- 
ceived some of these males and at once was struck by the 
thought that the male of hitci might be similar to that of 
fulva. I was asked to see if I could find a male which an- 
swered the requirements. Several species were near but no 
good evidence was present to prove that any one was the 
correct male. 

I have been working on the genitalia of Andrena and in view 
of the results from this work I felt that the correct male could 
be found by means of the genitalia. 


Fig. 1. Andrena hitci, Cockerell (nibifloris Viereck and Cockerell). 
Specimen from Florissant, Colorado. 

Fig. 2. Andrena julva, Schrank. Specimen from Europe. 

A. Genital armature. B. Eighth ventral plate. C. Seventh ventral plate. 

I made dissections of fulva and the possible males of hitei, 
and the results were even better than had been expected. I 
found that only one male had genitalia which closely resembled 

xli, '30] ENTOMOLOGICAL \K\YS 323 

those of inlva. This male also most nearly meets the other 
requirements as shown by fulva. 

This male was described as A. ribifloris in 1914 by Viereck 
and Cockerell in a paper "New North American Bees of the 
Genus Andrena" in the Proceedings of the United States Na- 
tional Museum, vol. 48, p. 32 (1914). The species was 
described from Florissant, Colorado, and has since been col- 
lected near Gresham in Boulder County. The female of the 
species was not found at Florissant but it is not uncommon 
to find the males of Andrena without accompanying females. 
I have collected A. hitei at Boulder, visiting flowers of Ribes, 
the genus of plants from which the male ribifloris was col- 
lected. According to Viereck (in letter to Cockerell) A. hitei 
occurs also in Nebraska and Montana. Without any reasonable 
doubt ribifloris is the male of hitei. The name hitei has priority 
over the name ribifloris. 

Some Mating Habits of Callosamia promethea and Telea 
polyphemus (Lepid.: Saturniidae). 

On June eighteenth a female Callosamia promethea moth 
emerged from a cocoon on our screened porch and by three 
o'clock in the afternoon a flock of males had collected. One 
of these was introduced into the cage with the female and 
mated immediately. For experiment's sake, another male was 
introduced into the cage. He' shortly found his way to the 
mated pair and tried persistently to force them apart with his 
feet, abdomen and claspers. Being unsuccessful, he obtained a 
grip on the female's abdomen close to the first male and clung 
there until we pulled him off. 

That same evening two female moths of Telca polyphemus 
were tied out for mating. On the morning of June the nine- 
teenth, we examined them at 4.30 o'clock and found one with 
two males clinging to her in exactly the same manner as the 
\Promcthca male of the previous afternoon, while the other 
female moth was alone. We took the moths in and removed the 
superfluous male from the mating pair and placed him with 
the lone female. lie mated with her but they did not stay to- 
gether long. 

This may be a common occurence, but in our many years 
of observation we have never seen it happen before or read of 
its happening. 



On the Naming of Individual Variants in 

By ALEXANDER B. KLOTS, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

(Continued from page 302). 



The purpose of taxonomy is twofold. In the first place the 
taxonomist must differentiate organisms and attach to each one 
a scientific name so that ready reference may be had to it by 
means of this name. This is nomenclature, and one of its most 
fundamental principles is that the name of an organism should 
furnish a permanent, easy and convenient index to the organ- 
ism. Secondly the taxonomist, by a study of all possible char- 
acters, attempts to so classify organisms that his sytem of 
classification will show the past and present relationships of 
the organisms to each other. This is phylogeny. 

Phylogeny is of undeniable importance, but must not be 
allowed to overburden nomenclature. From the binomial system 
of Linnaeus we have progressed to a recognized trinomial 
system. The use of subgenera is still optional, but such use 
means many quadrinomials. Numerous workers may take ex- 
ception to this (9) but on the whole the use of the quadri- 
nomial is well established. Surely this is far enough. 

Let us then see what would be the result if, following the 
system of naming advocated by Gunder we should attempt to 
classify a hypothetical species which possessed all of the forms 
that this system holds nameable. Such species may conceiv- 
ably exist, although the writer is glad to say that he has not 
seen any printed reference to such a conglomeration . The 
result would be: Claudius (Mcgaclaudius) crosbyi accident alls 
f. loc. pasadenensis f. aest. megacephalus f. 9 inimicits f. tr. 
absurdus Jones. That is an example of phylogeny overbalanc- 
ing nomenclature. Very few taxonomists could stand the con- 
tinued strain of association with such horrors. 

In view of the possibility of such absurdities becoming an 


everyday occurrence it seems that serious consideration should 
be given to the emendation of Article 14 of the International 
Code of Zoological Nomenclature suggested by the British 
National Committee on Entomological Nomenclature (10). 
According to this emendation any term used as a "name" for 
any concept lower than subspecies would have no status in 
respect of priority. The effect of this in lightening the burden 
of nomenclature would undoubtedly be excellent. However 
even with the rigid definition of "subspecies" as "being a geo- 
graphical or (in the case of parasites) host variation" speci- 
mens might be named as "subspecies" by over-enthusiastic 
workers, or by individuals over-anxious to see their names in 
print, which did not entirely merit that definition. 

In fairness to Mr. Gunder the author must state that in the 
previously cited "octonomial" the only category originated in 
Mr. Gunder's system is that of "local form". Even that is 
not strictly original with him, being identical with various cate- 
gories of Continental authors. 

In Barnes and Benjamin's Check List of North American 
Diurnals (11) now four years old, 18 names are listed under 
Eurymtis philodlce (Godt.) as either valid names or synonyms 
applicable to categories lower than subspecies. Still more such 
names have since been applied, I believe. It so happens that 
we know something about the genetics of philodicc (3) but 
even with the knowledge that the white female form of this 
species is Mendelian, or perhaps because of this knowledge, it 
is the opinion of many (13, 14) perhaps of most entomologists 
that these forms should not be given scientific names . In drop- 
ping them the burden of the overworked taxonomist and cata- 
loguer would be immeasurably lightened. In the genus Euphy- 
dryas the case is even worse. In his recent revision of the 
genus, which, incidentally, includes some really valuable taxo- 
nomic work, Gunder lists 23 such names under /:. chalcedony 
(Dbldy. & Hew.) (12). 

In the same check list we find that under Hiisilarcliui <vc/(/V- 
tncyrii (Edw.) the name sine fascia ( Kdw.) is used to designate 


the race from Arizona, while angustifascia B. & McD. is 

listed as "f. norm.". The absurdity for the necessity for such 
procedure becomes apparent when we consider' that sine fascia 
applies to a rare individual variant, while the great majority 
of specimens of the race are angustifascia. That a name ap- 
plied to a rare aberration should have to be used to include 
all of the normal specimens as well and that a separate name 
should then have to be applied to these is against all taxonomic 

Needham (9) has recently entered a plea for the use of com- 
mon sense in limiting the length of names, in which all thinking 
zoologists and botanists cannot but join. The International 
Commission on Zoological Nomenclature has taken a most 
praiseworthy stand in the matter by holding as invalid such 
names as Brachyuropushkydermatogammarus. What then are 
we to think of such names as hemiluteofuscus and nigrisuperni- 
pcnnis as applied by Gunder to "transition forms" of Euphy- 
dryas chalccdona and colon respectively (11)? It is as if 
"octonomials" were not enough and we must needs break the 
taxonomist's back with such jaw-twisters. 

Inasmuch as at least a considerable number of individual 
variants are probably mutations, the naming of such individuals 
would actually be objectionable to geneticists. To the geneti- 
cist belongs the right to designate these individuals after his 
own fashion. He has his own system of so doing, one much 
better adapted to his peculiar needs than that of formal scien- 
tific nomenclature, and he should be permitted to apply it as 
he wishes. 

All this does not mean that the writer considers that the 
taxonomist should have nothing to do with individual variants. 
If he is a good taxonomist he will indeed be vitally interested 
in them, for he sees that in many of them there is the stuff 
of which evolution is made. But if he is a wise taxonomist he 
will leave their detailed study to the geneticist who specializes 
in that study, and will be content to accept the geneticist's con- 
clusions about them. He can help the geneticist by collecting 


variants and by figuring them and publishing data on them, 
thus giving the geneticist an idea of what experimental material 
may be available. Such work can also be of value to the col- 
lector who may be at a loss as to what name to apply to an 
aberrant specimen, and who might otherwise unwisely name it 
as a species or subspecies. As such it should be encouraged 
and given every help ; but it should not be considered as a part 
of scientific nomenclature. 


1. Individual variants whose aberrant characters are non- 
inheritable can have no effect on the evolution of their species. 
Individual variants whose aberrant characters are inheritable 
may have a very decided effect upon the evolution of their 
species. In any case the detailed study of such variants should 
be undertaken only by a properly qualified geneticist and is not 
a part of the work of the taxonomist, although the results of 
such study are of profound interest to him. 

2. Any attempt to classify individual variants by pheno- 
typic characters alone is necessarily superficial and may be 
extremely misleading. While such classifications may be of 
interest they can be of value only if all phenotypic characters 
are taken into account. 

3. The term "transition form" as defined by Gunder is 
superfluous, meaning no more than "Mendelian form" or "mu- 
tant". "Transition form" as used by Gunder has come to mean 
no more than "series of aberrations" and is therefore superflu- 
ous in this sense as well. 

4. Scientific names should not be applied to any concept 
lower than subspecies, and when so applied should have no 
status in scientific nomenclature. If designation of such forms 
is necessary this should be done in some manner which cannot 
be confused with scientific nomenclature. 

5. Open discussion in print by taxonoinists and geneticists 
of the subject of classification and designation of concepts less 
than subspecies is very much to be desired. 



1. GUNDER, J. D. 1927. Transition forms (Lepid. : Rhopa- 
locera). ENT. NEWS. 38:263-271. PL 5-10. 

2. COCKERELL, T. D. A. 1930. Variation in Lepidoptera. 
Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 25:9-10. 

3. GEROULD, J. H. 1923. Inheritance of white wing color, 
a sex-limited (sex-controlled) variation in yellow Pierid 
butterflies. Genetics. 8:495-551. 

4. GUNDER, J. D. 1929. New Butterflies and sundry notes. 
Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 24:325-332. 2 pi. 

5. FISCHER, E. 1901, 1903. Lepidopterologische Experi- 
mental-forschungen. Allg. Zeitschr. f. Entom. 6:49-51, 
305-307, 325-327, 377-381 and 8:221-228, 269-284, 316- 
326, 356-368. 

6. STANDFUSS, M. 1899. Gesamtbild der bisher vorgenom- 
menen Temperatur- und Hybridationsexperimente. In- 
sektenborse. Vol. 16. 

7. HARRISON, G. W. H. and GARRETT, F. C. 1926. The 
induction of melanism in the Lepidoptera and its subse- 
quent inheritance. Proc. R. Soc. London. (B) 99:241-263. 

8. MEIJERE, J. C. H. DE. 1910. Uber Jacobsons Zuchtung- 
versuche beziiglich des Polymorphisms von Papilio mem- 
non L. $ , und iiber die Vererbung secundarer Gesch- 
lechtsmerkmale. Zeitschr. f. indukt. Abstamm. u. Vererb. 

9. NEEDHAM, J. G. 1930. Scientific names. Science. 71 (n. 
ser.) : 26-28. 

10. Report of the British National Committee on Entomolog- 
ical Nomenclature. Proc. Ent. Soc. London. 1928. 1R-13R. 

11. BARNES, W. and BENJAMIN, F. H. 1926. List of the 
diurnal Lepidoptera of boreal America north of Mexico. 
Bull. South. Calif. Acad. Sci. 25 :3-27. 

12. GUNDER, J. D. 1929. The genus Euphydryas Scud, of 
boreal America (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae). Pan-Pac. 
Entomologist. 6:1-8. 

13. LINDSEY, A. W. 1924. Some problems of taxonomy. 
Denison Univ. Bull. Journ. Scientific Laboratories. 20: 

14. FERRIS, G. F. 1928. The principles of systematic ento- 
mology. Stanford Univ. Publications, Univ. Series, Bio- 
logical Sciences, Vol. 5, No. 3. 


Plate XXXIV. 

* * 



An Unusual Nest of Vespula (Dolichovespula) 

arenaria Fabr. (==V. diabolica de Saussure 1 ). 

(Hym.: Vespidae). 

(Plate XXXIV.) 
By H. B. HUNGERFORD, Lawrence, Kansas. 2 

Our paper-making wasps are among the most generally 
known insects. Even the casual ohserver recognizes these wasps 
and their paper nests and has proper respect for the ability of 
the insects to resist undue familiarity. The more observing 
student finds the habits of these wasps of absorbing interest. 
He knows from experience that much of the sinister reputation 
of these little creatures can be discounted. With due regard 
for their nervousness and respect for their proper rights one 
may learn a great deal about the home life of these paper 
makers. The material of which their nests are made is com- 
posed of fibers of weathered or decayed wood properly masti- 
cated. We have two common sorts of "paper makers", the 
Polistes that suspend a single open comb from some support 3 
and the Vespas which have two or more combs, one beneath 
the other enclosed in a paper bag. The Polistes in their open 
combs can be studied with ease. The Vespas, on the other 
hand, which live either in a covered house suspended from a 
tree limb or other support or in the ground are not observable. 
The accompanying photographs show how one colony of 
Vespula arenaria Fabr. (--- V. diabolica de Saussure) built an 
"observation hive" of its own free will and accord. This was 
in an old abandoned log cabin at the south end of Munro Lake, 
Cheboygan County, Michigan. The nest was built between a 
window and the rough boards used in "boxing up" the window 
on the outside. The interspace between glass and board was 
approximately one inch. The wasps had gained entrance 
through a crack between the boards and fashioned an interest- 
ing sectional nest. This nest was one inch thick four and a 
quarter inches wide, by four and a half inches high. It con- 
sisted of two layers of comb and was covered with nine layers 

1 Determination made by Doctor J. Chester Bradley. 

2 Contribution from the Biological Station of the University of Michi- 
gan, Douglas Lake, Michigan. 

s See Phil Rau, Ecology, Volume X, No. 2, April, 1929. 


of paper, the edges of which adhered closely to the glass on 
one side and to the board on the other. These several paper 
walls with their interspaces, make a splendidly insulated shelter. 
The wasps were studied, of course, from the inside of the 
house where their activity in the nest could be observed through 
the glass window pane. There was a remarkable difference in 
the temperature between the surface of the glass in front of 
the nest and elsewhere on the window that in front of the nest 
was decidedly warm, elsewhere it was cool to cold, depending 
upon the weather. These Vespas heated their brood chamber 
and maintained the temperature against the lowered degrees 

On August 9th, 1929, Doctor George Nichols made some 
flash light photographs of the nest as seen from within the 
building and Mr. F. Gray Butcher and I placed a charge of 
carbon bisulphide in the space and then carefully loosed the 
nest from the window pane and now have it mounted with 
its board support in a small case for exhibition at the Biological 
Station of the University of Michigan on Douglas Lake. We 
caught one queen and twenty-five workers. There were others 
flying about. 

Maternal Instinct in a Membracid (Platycotis 
vittata) (Homop.). 

By R. H. BEAMER, Dept. of Entomology, University of Kansas, 

Lawrence, Kansas. 

(Plate XXXV.) 

Numerous nymphs of Platycotis vittata were taken in the 
Sequoia National Forest, Tulare Co., California, on a broad 
leafed oak. Persistent use of nets, however, failed to procure 
a single adult and the party began scanning the tips of oak 
twigs for nests of nymphs in the hopes of finding out more 
about this interesting membracid. Soon a cluster of very small 
nymphs was located and, sitting an inch or so down the twig 
from the nearest little one, was an adult female. Continued 
examination of the nearby oaks revealed several nests and in 
almost every case, a female stood sentinel, always between the 


Plate XXXV. 




young and the body of the tree. She would move around the 
limb when approached but would allow herself to be taken 
rather than fly away from her perch. The occurrence was too 
regular to be a mere coincidence and it was conjectured that the 
mother must actually guard her young throughout their 
nymphal stages. As if to add the needed proof for the obvious 
conclusion, a small wasp (Vespidae), flew toward a nest of 
5th instar nymphs. When it approached to within an inch 
or so of the twig, the membracid flew at it. The wasp deflected 
its course circled and returned. The membracid, which had 
alighted on the twig on the other side of her nest, dashed at 
the wasp again. Again the wasp missed the twig but returned 
in a few seconds. Each time as the wasp approached, the 
mother raised her wings to be ready and when the wasp drew 
near, she dashed at it with such fury as to frighten it away. 
Once the vespid alighted on the nymphs but was instantly 
attacked and left without its prey. After perhaps a dozen 
attempts the vespid apparently grew discouraged and departed. 
The membracid flew to her young, crawled over the spot where 
the vespid had alighted, apparently examined to see that they 
were uninjured ; then, making sure all was well again flew to 
the twig just below the nest, turned her head toward her young 
and stood immobile. 

The twigs where the young are found are marked with small 
punctures arranged in spiral form part way around the limb. 
The rows of spirals are perhaps y 2 inch apart. The nymphs sit 
very close together on the limb often overlapping each other and 
cling tenaciously to their support. 

The accompanying photograph (Plate XXXV) shows the 
mother guarding her young. 

Proterandry and Flight of Bees. III. 
(Hym.: Apoidea.) 

By CHARLES ROBERTSON, Carlinville, Illinois. 
The first paper was in ENT. NEWS 29:341, the second in 41 : 
154. Except in Bombidae and I lalictidar, cases in which the 
male is first and the female last may be regarded as normal 
and the rest fragmentary. Some bees, however, are known to 
be proterogynous. 


$ first, 9 last, fragmentary. 

ANDRENA SALICACEA $ March 25- April 2, 9 April 16-26. 
EPIMELISSODES ILLINOENSIS 3 July 13, 9 July 16-Aug. 13. 
PROSOPIS THASPII $ May 8, 9 June 9-15. 

$ first, 59 end together. 

CLISODON TERM IN ALLS $ May 25-July 27, 9 June 6-July 27. 
NOMADA CRESSONII $ April 20-May 18, 9 May 3-18. 
PROSOPIS EULOPHI $ May 12-June 15, 9 June 13-15. 
TRIEPEOLUS HELIANTIII $ Aug. 11-Oct. 3, 9 Sept. 18-Oct. 3. 

$ first and last. 

COLLETES NUDUS $ June 20-Aug. 2, 9 July 10-27. 
HOLCOPASITES ILLINOENSIS $ June 6-Aug. 23, 9 June 9- 

Aug. 9. 
NOMADA PARVA $ May 5-29, 9 May 11-14. 

SIMPLEX $ March 26- April 11, 9 April 10. 
VICINA S Sept. 8-Oct. 19, 9 Sept. 15-Oct. 15. 
XANTHIDIUM LUTEOLOIDES $ April 4- May 5, 9 April 21- 

May 3. 
PERDITA OCTOMACULATA $ Aug. 13-Sept. 24 9 Aug 17- 

Sept. 20. 

PERDITELLA BOLTONIAE $ Aug. 30-Sept. 8, 9 Sept. 3. 
PROSOPIS SANICULAE $ May 15-Sept. 13, 9 May 31-July 8. 
TRIEPEOLUS NEVADENSIS $ July 7-Sept. 6, 9 July 26-Aug. 27. 
REMIGATUS $ June 28-Sept. 3, 9 July 9- Aug. 29. 

$ 9 first, 9 last. 

ANDRENA CARLINI March 20, $ ends April 28, 9 June 9. 
INTEGRA May 23, $ ends June 8, 9 June 23. 
NUBECULA Aug. 13, $ ends Sept. 25, 9 Oct. 30. 
SALICIS March 17, $ ends April 22, 9 May 2. 
SALICTARIA March 31, $ ends April 29, 9 June 22. 
OPANDRENA ZIZIAE May 3, $ ends May 26, 9 June 17. 
PARANDRENA ANDRENOIDES March 20, S ends May 17, 9 

June 5. 
PTERANDRENA SOLIDAGINIS Aug. 13. 5 ends Oct. 19 9 Oct. 


PTILANDRENA POLEMONII April 14, rf ends May 11, 9 May 20. 
TRACHANDRENA CLAYTONIAE April 10, $ ends Mav 12 9 

June 19. 

COLLETES AESTIVALIS May 8, $ ends June 23, 9 July 1. 
ASHMEADIELLA BuccoNis June 6, $ ends June 13, 9 Aug. 29. 
COELIOXYS SAYI May 21, $ ends Sept. 12, 9 Oct. 4. 
MEGACHILE MENDICA May 16, $ ends Sept. 30, 9 Oct .11. 

xli, '30] ENTOMol.or.lCAL XK\VS 333 

PROCHELOSTOMA PHILADELPIH May 8, <5 ends June 23, 9 

June 26. 
SAYAPIS POLLTCARIS June 25, o ends July 6, 9 July 10. 

AXTHEMURGUS PASSF F L< IRAK (illy 21, 6 Cllds Aug. 30, 9 

Sept. 9. 
CALLIOPSIS ANDRENIFORMIS May 30, <? ends Sept. 19, 9 Oct. 


HETEROSARUS PARVUS May 28, $ ends June 15, 9 Oct. 23. 
PSEUDOPANURGUS ASTERIS Aug. 23, $ ends Oct. 21, 9 Oct. 23. 

$ 9 first, $ last. 

ANDRENA ILLINOENSIS March 25, $ ends May 24, 9 May 22. 
( )PAXI>REXA PERSONATA April 24, $ ends June 11, 9 June 8. 

9 first and last. 
AXDREXA MAXDIBULARIS $ March 29-April 25. 9 March 17- 

May 22. 

NASONII $ May 3-18, 9 April 21-May 31. 
IOMELISSA VIOLAE $ April 11-29, 9 March 30-May 20. 
( )I'AXDRENA BIPUNCTATA $ March 25-May 22, 9 March 17- 

June 1. 

SEROTIXA $ May 12-June 25, 9 May 4-July 7. 
PTERAXDREXA aliciae $ Aug. 24-26, 9 Aug. 13-Sept. 20. 
PTILAXDREXA erigeniae $ April 5-May 3, 9 March 25-May 

TRACHANDRENA hippotes $ April 12-May 18, 9 April 10- 

lune 29. 

MARIAE $ March 26- May 5. 9 March 25-May 17. 
NUDA (5 May 1-June 13, 9 March 17-June 16. 
SPIRAEANA $, June 1, 9 May 30-June 11. 
A.MEGILLA WALSHII $ July 14-31, 9 July 6-Sept. 20. 
CERATIXA DUPLA <? March 21 -Oct. 23, 9 March 17-Nov. 6. 
EPEOLUS PUSILLUS Aug. 26-Sept. 25, 9 Aug. 14-Oct. 23. 
EPIMELISSODES ATKII-I'S 6 Aug. 21, 9 Aug. 4-Sept. 8. 
MEUSSODES TRIXODIS t, July 3-Si-pt. 25, 9 June 14-Oct. 6. 
COELIOXYS RUFITARSIS 6 July 11-17, 9 July 4-Oct. 19. 
DlCERATOSMIA CONJUNCTA o April 28, 9 A])ril 14-July 4. 
HnpuTis CVLIXDRICCS 6 April 27-May 15, 9 April 21-July 


XKOTRYPETKS KARP.ATI'S $ Juiu- 20, 9 June 15-July 17. 
.\AXTiKi>ARrs LATiMAxrs $ June 7-Oct. 6, 9 May 28-Oct. 

HOLONOMAUA Ai i AiuLis $ April 23-june 21, 9 Ajiril 18- 

June 28. 
PLACIDA 6 Sept. 8-27, 9 Sept. 6-Oct. 19. 



Sept. 12. 

SOLIDAGINIS $ Aug. 12-Sept. 7, 9 Aug. 11- 

Oct. 4. 

VERBENAPIS VERBENAE $ July 2-Sept. 1, 9 June 28-Sept. 10. 
ZAPERDITA MAURA $ July 17- Aug. 1, 9 July 7-Sept. 3. 
PROSOPIS ILLINOENSIS $ May 12-Aug. 30, 9 May 9-Sept. 20. 

9 first, $ last. 

CALLIOPSIS COLORADENSIS $ Aug. 21 -Sept. 24, 9 Aug 20- 

Sept. 19. 

MEGACHILE PETULANS $ June 19-Sept. 20, 9 June 17-Sept. 2. 
PSEUDOPANURGUS ALBITARSIS $ June 11 -Sept. 8, 9 May 29- 

Sept. 5. 

AGAPOSTEMON RADIATUS 9 April 1-Nov., $ June 21 -Nov. 

SPLENDENS 9 May 1-Oct. 28, $ July 13-Oct. 28. 

TEXANUS 9 April 10-Oct. 21, $ July 11-Nov. 

VIRESCENS 9 May 8-Nov., $ July 21-Nov. 
AUGOCHLORA FERViDA 9 May 10-Nov., $ July 5-Oct. 28. 

VIRIDULA 9 March 25-Oct. 30, $ July 2-Oct. 20. 
CHLORALICTUS ALBIPENNIS 9 May 8-Oct. 3, $ July 17. 

COERULEUS 9 April 10-May 15, $ June" 15. 

COREOPSIS 9 April 14-Nov., $ June 18-Nov. 

CRESSONII 9 March 17-Sept. 26, $ July 2-Oct. 31. 

ILLTNOENSIS 9 April 1-Nov., $ July 9-Nov. 

NYMPHAEARUM 9 May 5-Aug. 12, $ July 27. 

OBSCURUS 9 April 23-Oct. 15, $ June 6-Nov. 

PILOSUS 9 March 17-Nov., $ June 6-Nov. 

PRUINOSUS 9 March 21 -Aug. 25, $ June 7-Oct. 24. 

SPARSUS 9 March 21-Nov., $ June 4-Nov. 

TEGULARIS 9 March 26-Nov., $ June 10-Oct. 25. 

VERSATUS 9 March 17-Nov., $ June 6-Nov. 

ZEPHYRUS 9 March 21-Nov., $ June 7-Nov. 
CURTISAPIS CORIACEA 9 April 5-Sept. 30, $ July 23-Oct. 19. 

FORBESII 9 March 28-Oct. 31, $ June 15-Oct. 28. 

FUSCIPE^NIS 9 June 14-27, $ Oct. 1-Nov. 
DIALICTUS ANOMALUS 9 May 9-Oct. 31, $ Oct. 11-31. 
EVYLAEUS ARCUATUS 9 March 25-Nov., $ June 14-Aug. 8. 

FOXII 9 March 25-Sept. 20, $ June 8-July 8. 

NELUMBONIS 9 May 22- Aug. 20. 

PECTINATUS 9 June 11-Aug. 25. 

PECTORALIS 9 April 16-Nov., $ June 16-Nov. 

QUADRIMACULATUS 9 April 22-Oct. 18, $ July 10-13. 

TRUNCATUS 9 April 26-Aug. 13, $ June 29. ' 


HALICTUS LEROUXII 9 March 17-Oct. 1 (| . June 10-Aug. 26. 

PARALLELUS 9 May 10-Aug. 29. $ June 24-Oct. 10. 
ODONTALICTUS LIGATUS 9 March 31-Xov., $ June 6-Nov. 
OXYSTOGLOSSA CONFUSA 9 March 25-Xov.. $ June 18-Oct. 30. 

PURA 9 March 21 -Nov., $ June 8-Nov. 

SIMILIS 9 April 18-Xov., $ June 16-Oct. 2S. 
PARALICTUS CEPHALICUS 9 May 9-July 21, $ July 15. 

PLATYPARIUS 9 March 17-Nov., $ Sept. 20-23. 

SIMPLEX 9 April 17- June 26. 

5 EL ADO N i A FASCIATA 9 March 17-()ct. 31, $ June 9-Oct. 31. 

Of the females, 17 begin in March. 12 in April, 9 in May, 
2 in June; 17 end in November, 11 in October, 3 in September, 

6 in August, 1 in July, 2 in June, 1 in May. Of the males, 20 
begin in June, 8 in July; 13 end in November, 12 in October, 2 

in August, 1 in July. 


DlALONIA ANTENNARIAE 9 April 18-Oct. 2, $ Sept. 4. 

DREPANIUM FALCIFERUM 9 April 11-July 26, & July 7. 

MACHAERIS STYGIA 9 April 24-Oct. 15. 

PROTERANER RANUNCULI 9 April 25-Sept. 19, $ April 26- 

Oct. 28. 
SPHECODES ARVENSIS 9 March 31-Aug. 17, $ June 14-Aug. 


HERACLEI 9 May 17-Aug. 24, $ July 13-Aug. 2. 
MINOR 9 April 20-July 29. 

SPHECODIUM CRESSOXII 9 April 19-Oct. 23, $ June 11-Oct. 

SMILACINAE $ June 19-Allg. 11. 

Of the females, 1 begins in March, 6 in April, 1 in May; 2 
end in July, 2 in August, 1 in September. 3 in October. Of the 
males, 1 begins in April, 3 in June. 1 in July; 3 end in August. 

2 in ( )ctober. 


BOMBIAS AURICOMUS 9 April 1 1 -( >ct. 23, 3 fuly 1-Sept. 24, 

$ July 9-Oct. 5. 
FRATERNUS 9 April 18-Sept. 16, " $ July 5-Oct. 9, 

$ July 30-Oct. 15. 
SEPARATUS 9 April 12-Oct. 25, 8 May 16-Oct. 8, 

$ July 5-Oct. 10. 
BOMI-.US AM ERICA NOR r.M 9 March 15-Nov., 8 May 18-Oct. 

24, 6 July 10-Oct. 27. 

in: MACULATUS 9 April 4-May 23, V May 14- July 28, 
$ July 7-21. 


IMPATIENS 9 April 7-Oct. 5, $ May 16-Nov., $ 

July 9-Nov. 
VAGANS 9 April 7-Sept. 3, 3 May 15-Oct. 1, $ 

July 27 -Oct. 3. 

PSITHYRUS LABORIOSUS ? June 22-Aug. 12, $ Aug. 11-Sept. 


VARIABILIS 9 April 28-Oct. 19, $ Aug. 4-Nov. 

Of females of Bombinae, 1 begins in March, 6 in April ; 1 
ends in May, 2 in September, 3 in October, 1 in November. 
Of the workers, 5 begin in May, 2 in July; 1 ends in July, 1 
in September, 4 in October, 1 in November. Of the males, 7 
begin in July; 1 ends in July, 5 in October, 1 in November. 

Except Proteraner, the Halictidae and Bombidae are really 
proterandrous. The early females belong with the males of 

the fall before. 


Entomological Literature 



Under the above head it is intended to note papers received at the 
Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, pertaining to the En- 
tomology of the Americas (North and South), including Arachnida and 
Myriopoda. Articles irrelevant to American entomology will not be noted; 
but contributions to anatomy, physiology and embryology of insects, 
however, whether relating to American or exotic species will be recorded. 

The numbers within brackets [ ] refer to the journals, as numbered 
in the list of Periodicals and Serials published in the January and June 
numbers (or which may be secured from the publisher of Entomological 
News for lOc), in which the paper appeared. The number of, or annual 
volume, and in some cases the part, heft, &c. the latter within ( ) 
follows; then the pagination follows the colon : 

All continued papers, with few exceptions, are recorded only at their 
first installments. 

Papers containing new forms or names have an * preceding the 
author's name. 

(S) Papers pertaining exclusively to neotropical species, and not so 
indicated in the title, have the symbol (S) at the end of the title of 
the paper. 

For records of Economic Literature, see the Experiment Station Rec- 
ord, Office of Experiment Stations, Washington. Also Review of Applied 
Entomology, Series A, London. For records of papers on Medical Ento- 
mology, see Review of Applied Entomology, Series B. 

^fNote the change in the method of citing the bibliographical refer- 
ences, as explained above. 

Papers published in the Entomological News are not listed. 

GENERAL. Andrews, J. S. The digestion of a mouse 
by a tarantula. [Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci.] 39: 305. Barnes, 
W. Biographical Note. By E. P. Van Duzee [55] 6: 16. 
Cockerell, T. D. A. The biota of Newfoundland. [4| 62: 
213-214. Comstock, A. B. Obituary. By G. W. Herrick. 
[12] 23: 889-890. Davis, J. J. Insects of Indiana for 1929. 
[Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci.] 39: 291-303. ill. de la Torre 
Bueno, J. R. What is a species? [19] 25: 229. DeLong, 
D. M. Contributions to biology of insects. [7j 23: 513-520. 


Felt, E. P. A popular guide to the study of insects. [N. Y. 
State Mus. Handb.] 6: 147pp., ill. Gibson, A. Contribu- 
tions to applied entomology. [7J 23: 537-542. Graham, S. 
A. Contributions to ecology of insects. [7J 23: 532-537. 
Gunder, J. D. A new insect camera of compact design. [4] 
62: 215, ill. Gunder, J. D. A new moth collecting gun. 
[19J 25: 208, ill. Gunder, J. D. A convenient collecting 
container for butterflies. [19| 25: 225, ill. Gunn, N. R- 
Obituary Note. By R. F. Sternitsky. [55 j 6: 19. Hutchins, 
R. E. A new method of making wing prints of the wings 
of butterflies. [4] 62: 215-216. Maheiix, G. Le Ouatrieme 
Congres International d'Entomologie. [98] 57~ 188-195. 
Mickel, C. E. Contributions to taxonomy of insects. [7] 
23: 507-512. Osborn, H. Biographical note. [7] 23: 397- 
398, ill. Rober, J. Die leistungen eines entomologischen 
instituts von weltruf. [14] 44: 201-208, ill. Sherborn, C. D. 
Index animalium. Parts 20-22, pp. 4931-5702, Index phyl- 
lochroma-ryzo. Silvestri, F. Aparato para recoleccion de 
pequenos artropodos. [Soc. Espariola Hist. Nat., Madrid] 
5: 11-13, ill. Stiles and Hassall. Key-catalogue of para- 
sites reported for primates (monkeys and lemurs) with their 
possible public health importance. [U. S. Hyg. Lab. Bull.] 
152: 409-601. Sweet, H. E. An ecological study of the 
animal life associated with Artemisia californica at Clare- 
mont, California. [13] 22: 75-115. Weiss, H. B More 
about Doctor Brickell's "Xatural History of North Caro- 
lina". [6] 38: 313-315. 


The alimentary tract of Phanaeus vinclex ( Scarabaeidae). 
[43] 30: 315-323, ill. Forbes, W. T. M. What is chitine? 
[68 J 72: 397. Gaebler, H. Die postembryonale entwick- 
lung des tracheensystems von Kristalis tenax. [46] 19:427- 
492, ill. Hayes, W. P. Contributions to morphology of 
insects. [7] 23: 521-525. Hertzer, L. Response- <>t~ the Ar- 
gentine ant (Iridomyrmex humilis) to external conditions. 
Studies on the Argentine ant queen ( Iridomyrmex humilis). 
[7] 23: 597-600, 601-609. Howe, M. B. A study of the tar- 
sal structure in Cicaddlidae. [43 1 30: 324-339, 'ill. Kraut- 
wig, M. Untersuchungen am Kornkafer ( Calandra gran- 
aria). [89] 52: 539-596, ill. Phillips, E. P. Contributions 
to physiology of insects. |7] 23: 525-531. Robinson, V. E. 
-The mouth-parts of the larval and adult stages of Der- 
mestes vulpinus. |7| 23: 399-414, ill. Saez, F. L Investi- 
gaciones sobrr los croinosomas de algunc- < irt('i])teros dc la 
America del Sur. 1, Xumero y (trganixacit'm de lo> coinplejd-. 
en cuatro generos de acridios. [Rev. Mus. La Plata] 32: 


317-363, ill. Swingle, M. C. Anatomy and physiology of 
the digestive tract of the Japanese beetle. [47] 41 : 181-196, 
ill. Weyer, F. Ueber ersatzgeschlechtstiere bei termiten. 
[46] 19: 364-380, ill. 


H. F. A new thrips-eating gall midge, Thripsobremia lio- 
thripis, gen. et. sp. n. (Cecidomyidae). (S). [22] 21 : 331-332, 
ill. *Chapman, P. J. Corrodentia of the United States of 
America: I. Suborder Isotecnomera. [6] 38: 219-290, cont. 
*Ewing, H. E. The taxonomy and host relationships of 
the biting lice of the genera Dennyus and Eureum, includ- 
ing the descriptions of a n. g., subg., and four n. s. (S). [50] 
77, Art. 20: 16 pp. *Ide, F. P. Contribution to the biology 
of Ontario mayflies with descriptions of new species. [4] 
62: 204-213, ill., cont. Mills, H. B. A preliminary survey 
of the Collembola of Iowa. [4] 62: 200-203. Montgomery, 
B. E. Records of Indiana dragonflies. IV. 1929. [Proc. 
Indiana Acad. Sci.] 39: 309-314. Ris, F. A revision of the 
Libelluline genus Perithemis. (S). [Univ. Michigan Mus. 
Zool.] Misc. Pub. 21: '50 pp., ill. Ulmer, G. Key to the 
genera of Ephemerida. [Bull. Dept. Biol., Yenching Univ., 
Pekin] 1, pt. 3: 1-18. ^Williamson & Williamson. Five 
new Mexican dragonflies. [Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. 
Michigan] No. 216: 34pp., ill. *Williamson & Williamson. 
-Two new neotropical Aeshnines. [Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. 
Univ. Michigan] No. 218: 15pp., ill. 

ORTHOPTERA. *Beier, M. New and rare Mantodea 
in the British Museum. (S). [75] 6: 432-460, ill. *Moreira, 
C. Forficulideos do Brasil. [Inst. Biol. Def. Agric., Rio de 
Janeiro] Bol. 7: 34pp., ill. *Rehn, J. A. G. On certain 
Tropical American genera of Stenopelmatinae w r ith descrip- 
tions of two new West Indian species (Tettigoniidae). [1] 
56: 363-373, ill. *Uvarov, B. P. Second species of the 
genus Marellia, Semiaquatic grasshoppers from S. America. 
[75] 6: 543-544. 

HEMIPTERA. Ball, E. D. The toadhoppers of the 
genus Phylloscelis ( Fulgoridae). [4] 62: 192-195. *Ball, 
E. D. A new species and variety of Scolops with notes on 
others (Rhynchota, Fulgoridae). [55] 6: 9-11. *Barber, H. 
G. Essay on the subfamily Stenopodinae of the New 
World. (S). [70] 10: 149-238, ill. *Beamer, R. H. Some 
Erythroneura of the obliqua group (Cicadellidae). [7] 23: 
417-456, ill. Beamer, L. D. & R. H. Biological notes on 
some western cicadas. [6] 38: 291-305. *da Costa Lima, A. 
Segunda nota sobre especies do genero Eucalymnatus 


(Coccidae). (S). [Mem. Inst. Oswaklo Cruz] 24: 85-87, ill. 
De Long, D. M. A monographic study of the North Amer- 
ican species of the genus Deltocephaliis. [Ohio State Univ. 
Stud. Ser.] 2, No. 13. *Gillette & Palmer. Three new 
aphids from Colorado. [7] 23: 543-551, ill. *Hungerford, 
H. B. Two new water bugs from the western U. S. A. 
(Nepidae and Notonectidae). [4] 62: 216-218. *Hunger- 
ford, H. B. New Corixidae from western North America. 
[55] 6: 22-26, ill. *Knight, H. H. New species of Cerato- 
capsus (Miridae). [19] 25: 187-198. Lehman, R. S. Some 
observations on the life historv of the tomato psyllid (Para- 
trioza cockerelli). [6] 38: 307-312. Muir, F On the classi- 
fication of the Fulgoroidea. [75 1 o: 461-478. *Muir, F. 
Three new species of American Cixiidae (Fulgoroidea). (S). 
[55] 6: 12-14, ill. *Walley, G. S. A new Arctocorixa with 
a note on synonymy (Corixidae). [19] 25: 203-206, ill. 

LEPIDOPTERA. *Box, H. E. A new moth borer of 
sugar-cane in Argentina (Pyralidae). [22] 21: 307-308, ill. 
*Forbes, W. T. M. Heterocera or moths (excepting the 
Noctuidae, Geometridae and Pyralidae) of Porto Rico 
and the Virgin Islands. [Sci. Surv. P. R. and Virg. Ids.] 12, 
pt. 1 : 171 pp., ill. Forbes, W. T. M. A new Mechanitis 
(Nymphalidae). [6] 38: 317-318. (S). *Forbes and Leon- 
ard. A new leaf-miner of cotton in Porto Rico. [Jour. 
Dept. Agr., P. R.] 14: 151-157, ill. *Gehlen, B. Neue 
Sphingiden. (S). [14] 44: 174-176, ill. *Keifer, H. H.- 
California Microlepidoptera IV. [55] 6: 27-34, ill. *Mey- 
rick, E. Exotic Microlepidoptera (S). 609-640. *Spitz, R. 
Ueber neue brasilianische insektenformen. [17] 47: 39-40, 
cont. Stichel, H. Lepidopterorum Catalogus. Pars 40. 
Riodinidae II: Nemeobiinae II et Riodininae I. 113-544. 
*Stichel, H. Eine neue Riodinicle von Amazonas. [18] 24: 
257-258. Tissot, A. N. A new food plant of the buckeye 
butterfly. [39] 14: 52. Van Duzee, E. P. Lepidomys irre- 
nosa [in Florida]. [55 1 7: 8. Zikan, J. F. Die "Schreck- 
augen" von Caligo eurylochus-brasilienis. (S). [17] 47: 33, 

DIPTERA. *Aldrich, J. M. American two- winged flies 
of the genus Stylogaster. (S). [50] 78, Art. 9: 27pp. da 
Costa Lima, A. Nota sobre a \Yycomyia (Denclromyia) 
luteoven tralis, 1901 (Culicidae). (S). [Mem. hist. Oswaklo 
Cruz] 24: 35-39, ill. da Costa Lima, A. Sobre especies do 
genero Miamyia. snbgenero Miamvia (Culicidae). (S). 
'[Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz] 24: 73-78, ill. *Frost, S. W.- 
The leaf-miners of Aquilegia, with a description of a new 


species. [7] 23: 457-460, ill. *Edwards, F. W. Notes on 
exotic Chaoborinae, with descriptions of new species (Culi- 
ciclae). (S). [75] 528-540, ill. Newcomb, E. J. (See under 
Hymenoptera). *Reinhard, H. J. Two new North Amer- 
ican species of muscoid flies (Tachinidae). [19] 25: 199-202. 
Rogers, J. S. The summer crane-fly fauna of the Cumber- 
land Plateau in Tennessee. [Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. 
Michigan] No. 215: 50pp., ill. *Schmitz, H. Diptera of 
Patagonia and South Chile. Part VI. Fascicle I. Sciado- 
ceridae and Phoridae. [Dipt. Patagonia & S. Chile] 6: 1-42, 
ill. Sellers, W. F. The identity of Zenillia blanda and Z. 
virilis, with notes on Z. blandita (Tachinidae). [7] 23: 568- 
576, ill. Shannon & Davis. Observations on the Anophe- 
lini (Culicidae) of Bahia, Brazil. [7] 23: 467-505, ill. *Van 
Duzee, M. C. Diptera of Patagonia and South Chile. Part 
V. Fascicle 1. Dolichopodidae. [Dipt. Patagonia & S. 
Chile] 5: 92pp., ill. *Van Duzee, M. C. The dipterous 
genus Sympycnus in North America and the West Indies. 
[55] 6: 35-47. 

COLEOPTERA. *Blaisdell, F. E. Studies in the 
Melyridae. VIII. [55] 6: 17-19. *Blake, D. H. Synonymies 
of Antillean Chrysomelidae, with descriptions of new 
species. [19] 25: 209-223. *Brown, W. J. Coleoptera of 
the north shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. [4] 62: 231- 
237, cont. *Fisher, W. S. Notes on the rhinotragine 
beetles of the family Cerambycidae, with descriptions of 
new species. (S). [50] 77, Art. 19: 20pp. Flanders, S. E.- 
Notes on the life-history of Lindorus lophanthae. [7] 23: 
594-596, ill. Leech, H. B. Notes on Phymatodes vulne- 
ratus with a new host record (Cerambycidae). [4] 62: 191- 
192. *Nevermann, F. Zwei neue Colydiiden aus Co^ta 
Rica. [2] 26: 110-114, ill. *Psota, F. J. The Moneilema of 
North America and Mexico, I. |Col. Contr.] 1: 111-141, ill. 
Rex, E. G. The Asiatic beetles in New Jersey. [N. J. Dept. 
Agric.J Circ. 178: 3pp., ill. *Schedl, K. E. Notes on the 
Pityophthorinae (Ipidae) I. Description of new species. [4] 
62: 195-199, ill. Snapp, O. I. Life history and habits of 
the plum curculio in the Georgia peach belt. [U. S. Dept. 
Agric. Tech. Bull.] 188: 91 pp., ill. 

HYMENOPTERA. *Bondar, G. Contribuigao para o 
conhecomento dos Hymenopteros phytophagos Calcidoide- 
os. (S). [Bol. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro] 6: 111-117. *Cock- 
erell, T. D. A. A new subgenus of Andrenine bees. [55 | 
7: 5-8. Cockerell & Blair. Rocky Mountain Bees. [40] 
433: 19pp., ill. Flanders, S. E. Races of Trichogramma 


minutum. [55] 6: 20-21. Newcomer, E. J. Notes on the 
habits of a digger was]) and its inqniline flies. [7] 23: 552- 
563, ill. Rau, P. The behavior of hibernating- Polistes 
wasps. [7| 23: 461-4<>n. Salt, G. Postscript to "Stylopized 
Vespidae". in Psyche. Vol. 36, 1929. pp. 249-282. [19] 25: 
226-228. Smith, H. D. The bionomics of Dibrachoides 
dynastes a parasite of the alfalfa weevil. [7] 23: 577-593, ill. 
*Smith, M. R. Descriptions of three new North American 
ants, with biological notes. |7] 23: 564-568, ill. 

SPECIAL NOTICES. Opuscula Ichneumonologica.- 
By O. Schmiedeknecht. Suppl. Bd. Fasc. 8. Completes the 
genus Amblyteles and begins Platylabus. p. 65-140; 1-4. 

EVANS SNODGRASS, U. S. Bureau of Entomology. Volume Five 
of the Smithsonian Scientific Series (Editor-in-chief Charles 
Greeley Abbot, D.Sc., Secretary of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion. Published by Smithsonian Institution Series, Inc., New 
York) 1930. Pp. 10 (unnumbered), iv, 362. 15 pis. in colors, 
186 text figures. [The books of this series are for sale only 
in the complete set.*] 

AYe have a strong suspicion, derived from the preface of 
this entertaining volume, that the author, chiefly and favorably 
known as a morphologist and physiologist, has endeavored to 
make the subject of his studies not the "dry and tedious" matter 
which the reading public has considered it to be. As far as 
an entomological and therefore biased reader may judge, he 
has certainly succeeded. \Yho can resist this description of the 
termite queen and king? "With the increase in the activity 
of her ovaries, her abdomen enlarges and she takes on a 
matronly appearance, attaining a length fully twice that of 
her virgin figure and a girth in proportion. The king, how- 
ever, remain'- faithful to his spouse; and he, too, may fatten up 
a little, sufficiently to give him some distinction among hi> 
multiplying subjects. The termite king is truly a king, in 

* The publishers (50 Church St., Xc\v York), have supplied the follow- 
ing information. Smithsonian Scientific Series is -old in complete sets 
of twelve volumes, ei.nht of which are ready for delivery. Subscriptions 
are taken for the conn ' '. bound, in buckram $150, in paivhment or 

red leather $198. A royalty of 10^' of the sales price is paid to the Smith- 
sonian Institution by the publishers and it is understood these funds are 
used lor research purposes. Subjects of the other eleven \ohimes are 
briefly: 1. The Smithsonian Institution, _'. The Sun, 3. Minerals, 
4. North American Indians, 6. Wild Animals, 7. Man, 8. Cold-flooded 
Vertebrates, 9. Warm-Blooded Vertebrates, in. plant Life, 11. Inver- 
tebrates, 12. Mankind in China. 


the modern way, for he has renounced all authority and re- 
sponsibility and leads a care-free life, observing only the de- 
corums of polite society and adhering to the traditions of a 
gentleman ; but he also achieves the highest distinction of 
democracy, for he is literally the father of his country." (p. 
139). "The golden rule of the termite colony is 'feed others 
as you would be fed by them'." (p. 144). 

There are ten chapters : I. The Grasshopper [growth, de- 
velopment, enemies] ; II. The Grasshopper's Cousins [the salta- 
tory Orthoptera with an interesting presentation of their sound- 
production] ; III. Roaches and Other Ancient Insects; IV. 
Ways and Means of Living [wherein structure and function 
are correlated]; V. Termites; VI. Plant Lice; VII. The 
Periodical Cicada [a hero who "has delivered the great thrill" 
so that "all his acts of everyday life acquire head-line values," 
but who evidently has not signed his "contracts with the box- 
office management in advance," his anatomy and his behavior 
at and immediately after hatching] ; VIII. Insect Metamor- 
phosis ; IX. The Caterpillar and the Moth [with a detailed 
account of the anatomy and metamorphosis of the tent cater- 
pillar- -"a caterpillar is a young moth that has carried the idea 
of the independence of youth to an extreme degree, but which, 
instead of rising superior to its parents, has degenerated into 
the form of a worm"] ; X. Mosquitoes and Flies. 

We must give another sample of Mr. Snodgrass's advances 
to the reading public ; it is from Chapter VI : "Moreover, the 
story is not yet complete, for it must be added that all the 
generations of the aphids, except one in each series, are com- 
posed entirely of females capable in themselves of reproduc- 
tion. . . . How insects do upset our generalizations and 
our peace of mind ! We have heard of feminist reformers who 
would abolish men. With patient scorn we have listened to 
their predictions of a millennium where males will be unknown 
and unneeded and here the insects show us not only that the 
thing is possible but that it is practicable, at least for a certain 
length of time, and that the time can be indefinitely extended 
under favorable conditions." But ten pages later comes the 
denouement : "A prosperous, self-supporting feminist domin- 
ion appears to be established. When summer's warmth, how- 
ever, gives way to the chills of autumn, when the food supply 
begins to fail, the birth rate' slackens and falls off steadily, 
until extermination seems to threaten. By the end of September 
conditions have reached a desperate state. October arrives, 
and the surviving virgins give birth in forlorn hope to a brood 


that must be destined for the end. But now, it appears, another 
of those miraculous events that occur so frequently in the lives 
of insects has happened here, for the members of this new 
brood are seen at once to be quite different creatures from their 
parents. \Yhen they grow up. it develops that they constitute 
a sexual generation, composed of females and males! Femin- 
ism is dethroned. The race is saved. The marriage instinct 
now is dominant, and if marital relations in this new genera- 
tion are pretty loose, the time is October, and there is much to 
be accomplished before winter comes." (pp. 156, 166). 

Hut the reviewer hastens to correct any impression that the 
book is frivolous or "llapperesque," which might arise from 
the reading of these quotations alone. The serious-minded 
reader will find no temptation to risibility in perusing the con- 
sideration of metamorphosis. "The real metamorphosis in the 
life of the butterfly . . is not the change of the cater- 
pillar into the adult, but the change of the butterfly egg in 
the embryo into a caterpillar. Yet the term is usually applied 
to the reverse process by which the caterpillar is turned back 
into the normal form of its species." (p. -228). Our author 
adopts the view of E. Poyarkoff that the pupa of insects with 
complete metamorphosis corresponds to the immature stage of 
the adult* not the last nymphal stage of insects with incom- 
plete metamorphosis ; that the reason for the pupa is probably 
to be found in the delayed growth of the adult muscles, the 
quicker hardening of the cuticular covering of the body wall 
and the consequent need of a new cuticula for the attachment 
of those muscles (pp. 254-261). 

It is hardly necessary to tell those acquainted with Mr. Snod- 
grass's previous publications that the illustrations in the present 
volume, almost without exception, are from his own skillful 
pencil. May we also add that the unidentified damselfly, figure 
2 of Plate I, is Neiirohusis chincusis L., presumably race 
austral is Selys. 

APPENDAGES. By R. E. SNODGKASS. Smithsonian Miscel- 
laneous Collections, vol. 81, no. 3. Washington, Xov. 20, 1928, 
155 pp., 57 tigs. This is the second of the morphological studies 
which the author initiated by his .\l or/^lioltxjy and Mefhtinisin 
of the Insect Thont.r (1^27) noticed in the NEWS for October, 
1927. It is strictly for the serious-minded, even though the 
first sentence expresses regret "that we must arrive at an uncler- 

*A somewhat similar view was expressed by I >ee.ueiier in liis 1/V.svn 
it ml Bcdciititii;/ tier Mctauicr^lii'sc /'<; den Inscklcii, Leipzig, 1910, p. 69. 


standing of things by way of the human mind." It consists of 
seven sections: I. Evolution of the arthropod head, II. General 
structure of the insect head, III. The head appendages, IV. 
Summary of important points, V. The head of a grasshopper, 
VI. Special modifications in the structure of the head [in vari- 
ous insects], VII. The head of a caterpillar. The most promi- 
nent feature is the constant recourse to the muscles to deter- 
mine homologies and these organs are figured in detail. ; 'The 
scientific study of the comparative anatomy of insects must 
look for its advance in the future to a wider knowledge of 
muscles and mechanism" (p. 90). r 'The importance of the 
study of musculature for the understanding of the insect skele- 
ton . . . can not much longer he ignored" (p. 95). Out of the 
great mass of results presented we make arbitrary choice of a 
very few to be mentioned in this notice. The most generalized 
mandible in arthropods is best developed in Diplopods, where 
it is similar to a maxilla, lacking only a galea and a palpus 
(pp. 62-63). The mouth parts of arthropods have been derived 
from organs having the structure of ittiirainous, ambulatory 
legs ; all the primitive arthropod appendages were probably of 
this character. Biramous and natatory appendages are char- 
acteristic of the Crustacea only and are probably secondary 
adaptations to an aquatic life (pp. 82-83). Crampton's view 
that the gula is a differentiation of the base of the labium is 
supported (pp. 128-131). 

ANTECEDENTS. By R. E. SNODGRASS. Smiths. Misc. Colls., 
vol. 82, no. 2. Washington, Dec. 31, 1929. Ill pp., 54 figs.- 
Here also chief use is made of the muscles in interpreting the 
skeleton. "Though the study of the insect skeleton will remain 
the most important branch of insect anatomy for purposes of 
taxononic description, it is becoming evident that the morphol- 
ogy of the skeleton is not to be understood without a knowledge 
of the relations that exist between the cuticular modifications 
and the muscles" (p. 51). The thoracic muscles of the Carolina 
locust (Dissostcira Carolina) are here described and figured in 
detail. In his paper of 1927, Mr. Snodgrass recognized two 
lines of differentiation in the Pterygota through the adoption 
of different mechanisms for moving the wings ; one of these 
was that found in the Odonata, the other in the rest of the 
winged orders. To-day his interpretation has changed : "The 
wing mechanism of the dragonllies is ... merely an extreme 
modification of that common to all insects" (p. 94). 



(* indicates new genera, species, names, etc.) 

ANONYMOUS. A new Textbook of Entomology 205 

Changes in the Department of Entomology, Massachu- 
setts Agricultural College 264 

Cleveland Museum Entomological Expedition 86 

International Society of Ipidologists 136 

Obituary : Frank Haimbach 178 

Possible light on Geographic distribution of Insects .... 52 

Prof. G. F. Ferris at Cambridge, England 289 

Review : A General Textbook of Entomology 274 

The National Museum of Costa Rica 240 

BEAMER, R. H. Maternal instinct in a Membracid (Platy- 
cotis vittata) (111.) 330 

BEQUAERT, J. Tsetse flies past and present . . .158, 202, 227 

BLATCHLEY, W. S. On a family of Coleoptera new to the 
fauna of North America with description of one new 

species (111.) 108 

The fixation of types 17 

BLAUVELT, W. E. See Crosby, C. R., and Blauvelt, W. E. 

BROWER, A. E. A list of Butterflies of the Ozark region of 

Missouri 286 

An experiment in marking Moths and finding them again 
(111.) 10, 44 

BRUTON, F. A. Philip Henry Gosse's Entomology of 
Newfoundland 34 

CALALE, A. See \Yickwire, H. A., and Calale, A. 

CALVERT, P. P. Corrections 280. 312 

Dynast cs tityus in Pennsylvania and the Rathvon and 

Auxer collections of Coleoptera 195, 234 

Entomology at the Convocation Week Meetings, Dec. 27, 

1929, to Jan. 2, 1930 56 

Obituaries : Rev. Alfred Edwin Eaton 63 


346 INDEX 

Frank Hurlbut Chittenden, James Walker McColloch, 
Dr. George F. Gaumer 64 

Dr. William Barnes 214 

Dr. George Dimmock, James Waterston, Earnest Bay- 

lis 280 

Reviews : A Manual for the study of Insects 273 

Die Weberknechte Ungarns 146 

General Catalogue of the Hemiptera 144 

Insects, their structure and life 24 

Insects, their ways and means of living 341 

Insects, Ticks, Mites and venomous Animals of medical 

and veterinary importance, Part I 25 

Morphology and evolution of the Insect head and its 

appendages 343 

The thoracic mechanism of a Grasshopper, and its 

antecedents 344 

GARY, M. M. Mr. Haimbach and his connection with the 

Germantown Entomological Club, 1926-1930 283 

CHOPARD, L. (See Jaennel, R., and Chopard, L.) 
CLAASSEN, P. W. Reviews : Fall and Winter Stoneflies or 

Plecoptera of Illinois 172 

Studies on Stoneflies of Japan 173 

The Ecology of Trout Streams in Yellowstone National 

Park 174 

The food of Trout Stream insects in Yellowstone Nation- 
al Park 174 

COCKERELL, T. D. A A fossil Dragonfly from California 

(111.) ." 49 

Preliminary report on Nomenclature proposals (with 

Knight, H. H., and Swaine, J. M.) 207 

COLE, A. C., JR. Musciila stabitlans Fall, parasitic on ArcJi- 

anara subcarnca Kell 112 

The preservation of Lepidopterous larvae by injection. . 106 
CRESSON, E. T.. JR. Descriptions of new genera and 
species of the Dipterous family Ephydridae, Paper VIII. 76 
Entomological Literature (with Haimbach, F., and 
Mackey, L. S.) 21, 58, 86, 132, 165, 210, 242, 265, 307, 336 

INDEX 347 

CROSBY, C. R., and BLAUYKLT, W. E. A European beetle 

found in New York 164 

DITMAN, L. P. Notes on Cor\thnca pallipcs Parshley, and 

Leptodictya siiniilans Heidemann 135 

ENRIQUES, P. XI International Congress of Zoology .... 241 
FALL, H. C. On Tropistcrnus siiblacris Lee. and T. qnad- 

ristriatus Horn 23S 

FENDER, K. M. A new Butterfly aberration 182 

FERRIS, G. F. The Puparium of Basilia corynorhini Fer- 
ris (111.) " 295 

FINCH, K. Obituary : Mrs. Anna Botsf ord Comstock . . 277 
FISHER, C. K. (See Larson, A. O., and Fisher, C. K.) 
FROST, S. \V. A suggestion for relaxing small Insects 

(111.) 152 

FULTON, B. B. A new species of Ncmobitts from North 

Carolina (111.) 38 

GERTSCH, W. ]., and WOODBURY, L. A. Spiders found in 

the stomachs of Sccloporus graciosus graciosus (B. & G.) 318 
GRUBB, MRS. E. Collecting male Polyphemus moths .... 69 
GUNDER, ]. D. North American Institutions featuring 

X. The Brooklyn Museum, Brooklyn, New York 

(111.) 1 
XI. Rutgers University, New Brunswick, Ne\v Jer- 
sey (Ills.) ....'. 31 

XII. American Museum of Natural History, New 

York, N. Y. (Ills.) 65 

XIII. Cornell University, Ithaca, New York (Ills.) 97 

XIV. Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, 

Mass. (Ills.) " 147 

XV. Entomological Branch, Department of Agri- 
culture, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada (Ills.) ... 179 
XVI. Peter Redpath Museum, Montreal, Canada 

(111.) 215 

XVII. Bishop Museum, Honolulu, T. H. (Ills.) .... 249 

XVIII. The Museums of Cuba ( Ills. ) 290 

XIX. Entomological Institutions in Mexico (Ills.).. 313 

348 INDEX 

GUNN, N. R. A new Butterfly 17 

HAIMBACH, F. Doings of Societies, The American Ento- 
mological Society 94 

On the seventieth birthday of Dr. Adelbert Seitz 206 

The Crambinae in the Brackenridge Clemens Memorial 
Collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 

Philadelphia 113 

(See also Cresson, E. T., Jr., Haimbach, F., and Mack- 
ey. L. S.) 

HAYWARD, C. L. Notes on Utah Vespidae 204, 222 

HAYWARD, K. J. The night flight of diurnal Butterflies . . 258 
HEBARD, M. Additional data on Nemobius sparsalsus Ful- 
ton 42 

Type fixation (with Rehn, J. A. G.) 183 

HILTON, W. A. Another genus of Protura in California. . 51 
HOWARD, L. O. A list of Entomological Societies in the 

United States and Canada 218 

Some coincidences in the lives of three prominent New 

Zealand Entomologists of the last century 136 

HULL, F. M. Notes on several species of North American 

Pachygasterinae with the description of a new species. . . 103 
HUNGERFORD, H. B. An unusual nest of Vcspulci (Doli- 

chovcspula) arcnaria Fabr 329 

IMSCHWEILER, J. An appreciative subscriber 46 

JEANNEL, R., and CHOPARD, L. Centenary of the Ento- 
mological Society of France 134 

JONES, F. M. Dynastcs tityus in Pennsylvania and Dela- 
ware 305 

KLOTS, A. B. On the naming of individual variants in 

Lepidoptera 298, 324 

KNIGHT, H. H. An European Plant-bug (Adelphocoris 

lincolatus Goeze) found in Iowa 4 

An European Plant-bug (Amblytylus iiasntns Kirch- 

baum) recognized from Massachusetts 256 

Descriptions of four new species of mimetic Miridae . . . 319 
Recognition of Lygns Iiicorinn Meyer from Xorth 
America 47 

INDEX 349 

(See also Cockerell, T. I). A.. Knight, H. H., and Swaine, 
^ J- M.) 
KNULL, J. N. A new species of .-Icmacodcra and one new 

subspecies 15 

Agrilus fishcriana new name 3 

Notes on Coleoptera, Xo. 2 82, 101 

LARSON, A. O., and FISHER, C. K. Insects screened from 

bean samples 74 

LEUSSLER R. A. Observations on J\Ic(jatli\nins strcckcri. . 7 
LIST, G. M. The Rocky Mountain Conference of Ento- 
mologists 241, 311 

LUTZ, J. C. Obituary: Ernest Baylis (Portrait) 285 

MACKEY, L. S. (See Cresson, E. T., Jr., Haimbach, F., 
and Mackey, L. S. 

METCALF, C. L. Obituary: Stephen Alfred Forbes 175 

MILLER, R. C. Obituary: Thomas Nesmith Brown (Por- 
trait) 29 

NEEDHAM, J. G. Emendatory notes on the "Handbook of 

North American Dragonflies" 252 

NELSON, E. C. The sexes of Andrcna liitci Cockerell (111.) 322 

O'BvRNE, H. The night flight of Diurnal Butterflies 20 

PACK, H. J. Notes on Utah Coleoptera 219 

PARSHLEY, H. M. Gall wasps and the species problem . . . 191 
PATE, V. S. L. A preoccupied name in the Oxybeline 

Wasps 20 

RAU, P. Behavior notes on the Yellow Jacket, I'cspa <jcr- 

manica (111.) 185 

REHN, J. A. G. (See Hebard, M., and Rehn, J. A. G.) 
REINHARD, H. J. A synopsis of the genus Macromcigcnia 

including the description of one new species 261 

ROBERTSON, C. Proterandry and flight of Bees, 11 154, 

III ' 331 

ROOT, F. M. Review: A Handbook of the Mosquitoes of 

North America 93 

ROWE, J. A. Distributional list of Tachinid flk-s from 

Utah 303 

SCHMIEDER, R. G. Review: Ants, Bees and \Yasps .... 24 

350 INDEX 

SNODGRASS, R. E. Review: Biologic der Hemipteren .... 275 

SWAINE, J. M. (See Cockerell, T. D. A., Knight, H. H., 
and Swaine, J. M.) 

TAYLOR, R. L. Notice on Parasitic Hymenoptera 157 

TILLYARD, R. J. The new Biological Laboratories at Can- 
berra, Australia 33 

VAN DUZEE, M. C. New species of Dolichopodidae from 
North America (111.) 53, 70 

WICKWIRE, H. A., and CALALE, A. Some mating habits of 
Callosamia promethca and Tclca polyplicmus 323 

WILLIAMS, R. C., JR. Obituary: Frank Haimbach (Por- 
trait) 281 

WOODBURY, L. A. A note on the longevity of a paralyzed 

Orthopteron 135 

(See also Gertsch, W. J., and Woodbury, L. A.) 




American Entomological So- 
ciety 94 

Biological Institute of Mexico 317 
Biological Laboratories at 

Canberra, Australia 33 

Collecting Notes 4, 44, 47, 51, 
69, 82, 95, 101, 103, 108, 135, 
219, 318. 

Congress of Zoology, Inter- 
national 241 

"Convocation Week" meetings 56 

Doings of Societies 94, 311 

Entomological Expedition ... 86 
Entomological Societies, list of 218 
Entomological Society of 

France, Centenary 134 

Entomology, General Text- 
book 274 

Entomology, Medical 316 

Entomology, New Textbook . 205 
Entomology of Newfoundland 35 
Habits, Insect 8, 10, 20, 41, 
101, 158, 174, 185, 202, 227, 
258, 329, 331. 

Hosts, Insect 82, 109 

Hosts, Plant 4, 41, 82, 101, 

135, 164. 

Insects and venomous animals 
of medical and veterinary 

importance 25 

Insects from Bean Samples... 74 
Insects, Geographic distribu- 
tion 52 

Insects, structure and life .... 24 
Insects, ways and means of liv- 
ing 341 

International Congress of En- 
tomology, fourth (111.) 112 

Life histories 82, 109, 295 

Literature, Entomological 21, 
58, 86, 137, 165, 210, 242, 265, 
307, 336. 

Massachusetts Agricultural Col- 
lege, Entomology Changes . . 264 

Morphology and evolution . . . 343 
Museums (see also Lepidop- 

tera) 234, 240 

Naming of Variants 298, 324 

New Zealand Entomologists of 

the last century 136 

Nomenclature proposals, pre- 
liminary report 207 

Parasites, Animal 231 

Parasites, Insect ....112, 135, 230 
Plant Protection Service .... 314 

Relaxing Small Insects 152 

Rocky Mountain Conference 
241, 311. 

Species problem 191 

Study of Insects, a Manual . . . 273 
Subscriber, an appreciative... 46 
Trout Streams in Yellowstone 

National Park, ecology .... 174 
Trout Stream Insects in Yel- 
lowstone National Park, food 174 
Type fixation 17, 183, 210 


Barnes, W 214 

Baylis, E 280, 285 

Brown, T. N 29 

Chittenden, F. H 64 

Comstock, A. B 277 

Dimmock, G 280 

Eaton, A. E 63 

Forbes, S. A 175 

Gaumer, G. F 64 

Haimbach, F 178, 281, 283 

McColloch, J. \V 64 

Waterston, J 280 


Ancona, L 317 

Andrews, Dr 66 

Baker, G. F 65 

Banks, N 14S 

Barber, H. S 20 

Barbour, T 147 

Barnes, W 181 



Bell, E. L 

Benjamin, F. H 181 

Bequaert, J 151 

Beyer, Dean 58 

Bofill, J 291 

Bradley, J. C. 99 

Bramley, M. F 86 

Brues, C. T 57, 150 

Bryan, E. H., Jr 

Bryant, E. B 151 

Carpenter, F. M 150 

Cassino, S. E 151 

Chapman, F. M 68 

Claassen, P. W 99 

Clark, B. P. ...: 152, 251 

Collins, C. W 57 

Comstock, A. B 98, 277 

Comstock, J. H 98 

Conradt, L 315 

Crawford, H. G 180 

Crosby, C. R 99 

Dampf, A 314, 315 

Davis, J. J 57 

Davis, W. T 3 

Draudt, M 314 

Engelhardt, G. P. . . . 1 

Espinosa, S 291 

Fall, H. C 150 

Ferris, G. F 289 

Forbes, S. A 58, 175 

Forbes, W. T. M 99 

Gibson, A 180 

Gillette, C. P 58 

Griswold, G. L 99 

Headlee, T. J 33, 57 

Herrick, G. W 99 

Hoffmann, C. C 316 

Holland, W. J 316 

Ilg, C 33 

Johannsen, O. A 99 

Johnson, C. W 151 

Johnson, F 292 

Klots, A. B 100 

Knight, H. H 58 

Kusche, A 251 

Learned, E. T 150 

Leng, C. W. . . 69 

Loveridge, A 150 

Lutz, F. E 66 

Mann, W. M 

Matheson, R 99 

McDunnough, J. H 180 

McLaine, L. S 180 

Meske, A 32 

Morse, A. P 150 

Miiller, R 314 

Mutchler, A. J 69 

Needham, J. G 99 

Ochoterena, 1 316 

Olmedo, I. H 315 

Osborn, H 58 

Osborn, H. F 65 

Pallister, J. C 86 

Petersen, P 314 

Querci, C 292 

Querci, 217, 292 

Richards, A. G., Jr 100 

Roig, M. S 290 

Romei, E 292 

Romei, L 292 

Sabas, F 292 

Schaeffer, C 

Schaus, W 2 

Schwarz, H. F 69 

Seitz, A 206 

Sherman, J. D., Jr 69 

Swaine, J. M 180 

Swett, L. W 150 

Swezey, 251 

Torre Bueno, J. R 3 

Watson, F 68 

Wehrle, L. P 99 

Weeks, A. G 151, 292 

Wheeler, W. M 69, 150 

Williams, F. X 251 

Williams, R. C., Jr 292 

Winn, A. F 216 




Carpenter : Insects, their struc- DISTRIBUTION 

ture and life 24 Ari. : Col. 16. Dip. 72. Hem. 319. 

Comstock (J. H. and A. B.) Hym. 222 

and Herrick : A Manual for Ala.: Hem. 321. 

the study of Insects 273 Alaska : Dip. 80. 

Prison: Fall and Winter Cal. Col. 74, 239. Dip. 74, 295. 

Stoneflies or Plecoptera of Hem. 74, 330. Hym. 74, 222. 

Illinois 172 Lep. 17. Odon. 49. Orth. 74. 

Horvath, Hussey and Sher- Protura 51. 

man: General" Catalogue of Col.: Col. 239. Hym. 224, 322. 

the Hemiptera Fasc. II and Odon. 49. 

Ill 144 Del. : Col. 305. 

Imms : A General Textbook of Fla. : Col. 108. Hym. 95. Orth. 

Entomology 274 43. 

Kolosvary: Die Weberknechte Geo. : Dip. 79, 262. Orth. 43. 

Ungarus 146 Idaho : Dip. 81. Hym. 205, 222. 

Lubbock: Ants, Bees and 111.: Dip. 79. Hym. 154. Plec. 172. 

Wa?ps 24 Iowa : Dip. 104. Hem. 4. 

Matheson : A Handbook of the Ky. : Col. 200. 

Mosquitoes of North America 93 Mass. : Col. 238. Hem. 256. Lep. 

Muttkowski: The Ecology of 20, 259. 

Trout Streams in Yellow- Ale. : Hem. 47. 

stone National Park 174 Md. : Dip. 80, 262. Hem. 135. 

Muttkowski and Smith : The Mich. : Hym. 329. 

food of Trout Stream In- Miss. : Dip. 103. 

sects in Yellowstone Nation- Mo. : Dip. 106. Hym. 185. Lep. 

al Park 174 10, 20, 44, 286. Odon. 255. 

Patton and Evans : Insects, N. C. : Col. 83. Orth. 38. 

Ticks, Mites and venomous Neb. : Col. 238. Lep. 7. 

Animals of medical and vet- Nev. : Hym. 223. 

erinary importance 25 N. H. : Lep. 96, 284. 

Snodgrass : Insects, their ways N. J. : Dip. 78. 

and means of living 341 N. M. : Col. 239. 

Morphology and evolution of N. Y. : Col. 82, 164. Orth. 18. 

the Insect head and its ap- Ohio: Dip. 103, 112. Lep. 69, 106, 

pendages 343 

The thoracic mechanism of ^ep. . 

Pa.: Col. 29, 83, 101, 195, 234, 305. 

a Grasshopper, and its an- ^ %> ^ Q ^ % 

tecedents S. C. : Dip. 262. 

Ueno: Studies on Stoneflies of Tenn. : Col. 83, 96. Dip. 262. 

Japan 173 T CX . . Col. 239. Dip. 262, 2<>4. 

Weber: Biologic der Hemip- Hem. 321. Lep. 8. Odon. 253. 

teren . 275 Orth. 43. 



Utah: Arach. 318. Col. 219. Dip. COLEOPTERA 

295. Hem. 320. Hym. 135, 204, , , . ,. , 

abdominahs, Leptura 8:> 

222. Orth. 135. , - -, . , 

,, ~ . o, oc , AA rv ~ f - Acmaeodcra (gila, pinalorum) 
Va. : Col. 83, 85, 200. Dip. 262. . , , r , , , n? 

1QC Q , acuminatns, Neoclytus 102 

Hem. 135. Hym. 86. Lep. 95. , , /7 . 

J ^<?0/wj (hvens) 

Wash. : Dip. 81. ,. ,, , 

Agonum (niaciilicollc) 
Wis. : Dip. 106. ., , , , , , 

Agruus (arcuatus, bctulac, ac- 
W. Va. : Col. 29. ,. , 

Wy.: Hym. 205, 224. Plec. 174. icctus ' ^ ' g ^^ 

Africa.: Dip. 28, 158, 202, 227. '"' ( ^ S " s) 

Allecuhdae 84 

Hym. 230. Lep. 260. Orth. 95. ,. ... , . 7C 

. . -,,,- .-, ,, ambigua, Hippodamia 75 

Asia.: Lep. 260. Odon. 253, 255. ^, - , oc 

a-.ncncana, L liansalia 85 

Plec. 173, 174. . ,, ., , r , ,. 

Ampmaora (littorahs) 
Canada (mcl. Newfoundland) : Col. Amsandrns (say{) 

o D pT ^ P ' ^' 53 ' v ^~^P*" (mutabilis, pro.- 
Ephem. 35. Hem. 36. 

OH ym ''i 7 ' nT,^ T^' v' 

Odon. 36. Orth. 35. Thys. 36. Anthribidae 102 

Trich. 36. , , 

. arcuatus, Agnhis 84 

Central America : Dip. 77. Lep. < , , . , > 

Astylopsis (macula} 

bctulac, Agrilits . 84 

Europe: Col. 285. Hem. 5, 256. fo ; OTOC J o , Molorchus . 101 

Hym. 32, Lep. 260, 285, 294. ^^ M ycgtochar 84 

Hawaii: Lep. 251. Blapstimis (pnlvcnilentiis) 

South America: Col. 109. Dip. w ^ f/1/fvt - Tropisternus . . 240 

79. Hym. 230. Lep. 260. , , ,' v , -, C7 

brcnaeli, Xenormpus 83 

West Indies Dip. 73, 78. Lep. B uprestidae 3,15, 83 

Calathus (quadricollis) 

ARACHNIDA calif oniica. Coccm.Ua 

Larabidae 29 

Aranea sp. . 318 Cardioplwrus (tinnidicollis) 

avida, Lycosa 318 Catoycmts (nifits) 

Die Weberknechte 146 cclti* Molorchiis bimaculatus. . 101 

Gnaphosidae 318 Cerambycidae 85, 101, 219 

liirsittus, Pcllcncs 318 Charisalia (aincricana) 

Lycosa (avida) Chrysobothris (chrysocla, jc- 
Opilia (parictinus) uiorata, orono, sc.vsiynata) 

oregonensis, Pcllcncs 318 chrysocla, Chrysobothris 83 

parictinus, Opilia 146 Clcnnus ( pi(/cr) 

Pcllencs (hirsutus, oregonensis) Coccinclla (califoniica) 

Phidippus sp 318 ct>f/itaiis, Enprisloccnis 83 

simplicior, Xysticns 318 C. from Bean samples 74 

Spiders in stomach of Scclo- C. of Newfoundland 37 

porns 318 C. of Utah, list of 219 

Xysticns (simplicior) confusum, Tribal in in . . 75 



Coniontis (clongata) 

convcrgcns, Hippoddinid 75 

Cucujidae 84 

Curculionidae 102 

Cnrtonotns (jacobinus) 

damicontis, Orthopleura 83 

dcfcctus, Agrilus 83 

Diabrotica (soror) 
Dicerca (lurida) 
Dinoclcus ( pilosus) 
Disonycha (maritimus) 
Dynastcs (tityiis) 
Elaphidion (-mucronatum) 

Elateridae 83, 221 

clongata, Conioutis 75 

Endcrccs ( picipcs) 
Eupogonius (vcstitus) 
Eupristoccrus (cogitans) 
Euspliyrus (zvalshi) 

cxigua, Grammoptera 85 

fcinorata, Chrysobothris 96 

fcrrngineum, Tribolium 75 

fishcriana, Agrilus (fishcri) . . 3 

floridanus*, Gnostns Ill 

formicicola, Gnostns 109 

jnllcri, Pantonwnts 74 

gcininatiis, Agrilus 84 

f/cnnori, Scaphinotus 29 

gila*, Acmacodcra gihlmla ... 16 

glabcr, Tropistcrnus 240 

glolnilinn, Trigouogcnius 75 

Gnostns (floridana, formicicola, 


Grammoptera ( e.rigua) 
Hippodamia (ambigna, conver- 


f fippopsis (lemniscata) 
ffydnoccra (rcrticalis) 

Hydrophilidae 238 

Hypermallus (I'illosits) 
Ipidologists, International So- 

jacobinus, Cnrtoiiotus 75 

faponica, l'<if>illia 95 

Laemosaccus (plagiatus) 
Lciopus (variegatus) 

f. ana (nigrovittata) 

lemniscata, ffif>pnf>sis 102 

Left lira (abdominalis) 
Lcptnnjcs (qncrci, si//n<ifiis) 

iittornlis. A in phi-Jura 75 

livens, Aeolus 75 

Ludiiis (sulcicollis) 

Inrida, Dicerca 83 

macula, Astylopsis 102 

inacnlicollc. Agonum 75 

iiiaritima, Disonycha 75 

mauritanicus, Tenebrioides ... 75 

mcincrti, Gnostns 109 

.\K-landryidae 84 

Molorchns (bimacnlatns, celti) 
monongahelae, Scaphinotus 

ridings! 29 

mucronatum, f:laphiilitui 85 

nintabilis, Anoplodera 101 

M ycetocharcs (binotatus) 
Ncoclytns (acuminatns) 

nigrovittata, Lrma 75 

O ch rosidia (villosa) 

Oedemeridae 220 

orono, Chrysobothris 83 

Orthoplcnni ( daniicoruis) 

oryzac, Sitopliilus 75 

Oryzacphihts (surinamensis) 

otiosus, Agrilus 84 

Pantomorns (fnllcri) 
Pliysocncmnm (violaceipenne) 

picipes, Euderccs 102 

pit/cr, Clconus 164 

pilosns, Dinoclcus 74 

piiHilorum*. Acinacodera Kb 

plagiatus, Laemosaccus 102 

P opi 1 1 id (japonica) 
Prt'thalpia ( undatti ) 

pro.riina. Anoplodera 101 

pnk'cnilcntns, Hlapstinns .... 75 

piinctdta, Synchroa 84 

(liiadriciillis, Calatlius 75 

(inerei, Lepturges 102 

rainosa, Silplia 75 

h'liopaliipiis (sdiiguinicollis) 

rufiis, Catogenus 84 



ntricola, Anthoboscus 102 

sangiiinicollis, Rhopalopns . . . 102 

sayi, Anisandrus 102 

Scaphinotus (nwnongahclac) 

Scarabaeidae 85, 195, 234 

Scolytidae 102 

sexsignata, Chrysobothris .... 83 

signatus, Lcpturges 102 

Silpha (ramosa) 
Sitophihts (oryzae) 

soror, Diabrptica 75 

snblaevis, Tropistcrnus 238 

sitlcicollis, Lndiiis 83 

surinamensis, Orysacphilus ... 75 
Synchroa (pnnctata) 
Tenebrioides (inauritanicns) 
Tillus (transvcrsalis) 

tityus, Dynastcs 195, 234, 305 

Thanasimus (trifasciatits) 

transvcrsalis, Tillus 82 

Tribolium (confiisuin, fcrru- 


trifasciatus,' Thanasimus 82 

Trigonogenius (globiiluin) 
Tropisternus (blatchlcyi, yla- 

bcr, qnadristriatns, sublaci'is, 

tinnidicollis, Cardiophorus .... 75 

niidata. Prothalpia 85 

varicyatus, Lciopits 102 

vcrticalis, Hydnoccra 82 

vcstitus, Eupogonins 102 

villosa, Ochrosidia 85 

villosiis, Hypcnnalhis 85 

violaceipenne , Physocnemum. . 101 

ivalshi, Eiisphyrus 102 

xanthopus, Tropisternus 239 

Xenorhipus (brendeli) 


aldrichi, Johnsonomyia 106 

Allotrichoma (salnbris) 

Anopheles (costalis) 

Axysta (bradleyi) 

balsamae*, Ditrichophora .... 77 

Basilia (coryiwrhini) 

boriqueni*, Polytrichophora . . 77 

bradleyi*, Axysta 79 

brei'iciliatus*, Doliclwpits .... 71 

brez'ipalpus, Glossina 231 

buccata*, Hecamcdoidcs 78 

costalis, Anopheles 28 

chrysoprocta, Macromeigcnia. 262 

corynorhini, Basilia 295 

Cyclopedia (greefi) 
Ditrichophora (balsamae, pain- 

Dolichopodidae 53, 70 

Dolichopiis (brcviciliatits) 

elonyatits*, Paraclius 72 

Ephydridae 76 

Eremoctcnia (progressa) 
Eupachygaster (hcnshaiw, 

fasciatus, Stegomyia 28 

flavitibialis*, (111.) Polymcdon 71 
friocnsis, Macromeigcnia .... 262 

fitsca, Glossina 160 

Glossina (brevipalpis, fitsca, 
longipcnnis, nwrsitans, nev.'- 
steadi, nigrofnsca, palliccra, 
pallidipes, palpalis, sitbinor- 
sitans, swynnertoni, tachi- 

greefi, Cyclopodia 295 

Jialtcralis*', Napaca 81 

Hecamedoides (buccata) 
hcnshanri, Eupachygaster .... 104 
Hennetia (ilhtccns) 
Hyadina (macquarti) 
Hydrina (nigresccns) 

illiiccns, Hcrmctia 75 

incommoda*, Parydra 81 

Johnsonomyia (aldrichi) 

latifacics*, Rhaphiiim 53 

lonyibara*, Rhaphiuin 53 

longipcnnis, Glossina 163 

macquarti*, Hyadina 80 

Macromcigenia ( chrysoprocta, 
friocnsis, oivcnii) 



tiiacitlicornis, Neopachygaster. 103 

morsitans, Glossina 161 

Mosquitoes of North America 93 

Muscidae 112 

Mitscina (stabitlans) 

Muscoidea 158 

Napaca (halteralis) 
Neopachygaster ( inaculicornis. 

Xcuriyona (nigrimanus, or- 


ncti'stcadi, Glossina 161 

nli/rcsccns*, Hydrina 80 

nigrimanus* , Ncuriyona 70 

nigrofusca, Glossina 160 

niveivenosa*, Nostiina 80 

Nostima (niveivenosa, quin- 

Nyctcribia (pedicularia) 

Nycteribiidae 295 

ornatus*, Ncuriyona 55 

oivcnii, Macromeigenia 263 

Pachyfjaster (pulchcr) 

paintcri*, Ditrichophora 76 

pallicera, Glossina 163 

pal/idipes, Glossina 163 

palpalis, Glossina 158 

Paraclins (elongatus) 
Parydra (incommoda) 

pedicularia, Nyctcribia 297 

pliitadclp/iicns. Proctacantluts. 189 

polita, Zabrachia 103 

Polymedon (flavitibialis) 
Polytrichophora (boriqncni) 
Proctacanthns (philadelphicus) 

proyressa, Erenwctcnia 295 

f>ulchcr, Pachygaster 106 

punctifcr, Eupachyyastcr .... 104 

quinqucnotata*. Nostiina 79 

Rhaphiuui (latifacics, loin/ibara) 

stilnbris*, Allotrichoina 78 

stabulans, Miiscina 1 !_' 

Sfci/oniyia (fasciata) 

Stratiomyidae 103 

subniorsitans, Glossina 162 

swynnertoni, Glossina 231 

Tachinidae 261 

(list of species, 303) 

tachinoidcs, Glossina 161 

vitreus*, Neopachygaster .... 103 

Viviparous flies 227 

Zabrachia (polita) 


Adclphocoris (lincolatits. nip- 


afflnis. .-Inildytylus 256 

albomaculatus*, Sericophanes. 320 
. liublytylits (affinis. nasiilns. 


ater, Capsus 4 

binotatus, Stcnotits 4 

Brochyinena (4-pitstulata) 
Capsus (atcr, sinuilans) 

cai'ifrons, Ncottiylossa 75 

chciwpodii, Lyi/acus 5 

Chlorochroa (sayi) 
Ciinc.v (lectularia) 

cinctus, Euryophthahnus 75 

conspersus, Euschistus 75 

Coquillcttia (granulata, niyri- 


Corisus (idcntatus) 
Corythuca (pallipcs) 

custator, Tliyanfa 75 

Cyrtopeltocoris (gracilentis) 

dolobratus, Miris 4 

Euryophthalmus (cinctus) 
Euschistus (conspersus) 
f/racUcntis*, Cyrtopeltocoris . . 321 

f/ntnitlata*, Coquillcttia 319 

Hemiptera 36 

Hemiptera, Biologic der 275 

Hemiptera Catalogue 144 

idcntatus, Corisus 75 

histrionica, Mitri/antia 75 

Icctiiltiria, Ciinc.r 96 

Lcpli>:lictya < siiintlans) 

lincolatits, Adelphocoris 4 

, Lynns 47 



Lygacus, (rcclivatns) 

Lygns (htcoruin, pabulums, 

Maternal instinct in a Mem- 

bracid 330 

Megaloccroca (rccticorn is) 

Membracidae 330 

Miridae 4, 47, 256, 319 

Miris (dolobratns) 
Murgantia ( histrio nica) 

nasntus, Amblytyhis 256 

Neottiglossa (cavifrons) 
nigrithorax*, Coquillcttia .... 319 

pabulinus, Lyyits 49 

pallipcs, Corythuca 135 

Platycotis (vittata) 

4-pnstnlata, Brochymena 75 

rapidus, Adelphocoris 6 

reclivatus, Lygaens 75 

recticornis, Megaloccroca .... 4 

ruficornis, Trigonotyhis 4 

sayi, Chlorochroa 75 

Sericophancs (albonmcnlatns) 

sinmlans, Capsns 4 

simnlans, Leptodictya 135 

spinolae, Lygus 47 

Stcnotus (binotatns) 
Thyanta (custator) 

Tingididae 135 

Trigonotyhis (ruficornis) 

vandnscci, Amblytylus 256 

vittata, Platycotis 330 


Andrena (fulva, Ititci, ribi- 

Andrenidae 322 

Ants, Bees and Wasps 24 

apachus, Polistcs fuscatiis .... 223 

Apoidea 154 

arctica, Vcspnla 224 

arenaria, V cspnla 224, 329 

atkinsoni, Cremastogaster .... 95 

atropilosa, Vespnla 226 

aurifcr, Polistcs fuscatiis 223 

Bees, proterandry and flight 
(with list of species) ..154, 331 

canadcnsis var., Polistcs 224 

ccylonicns, O.vybclus 20 

Chlorion (ichncninoniiiin) 

consobrina, Vcspula 225 

Cremastogaster (atkinsoni, 


Cryptns (tcjoncnsis) 
fernaldi, Vcspula arenaria . . . 224 
flavitarsis, iMischocyttarus . . . 222 

flavus, Polistcs fuscatits 223 

fitlva, Andrena 322 

Gall Wasps 191 

acnnanica, }'cspa 185 

It itci, Andrena 322 

Hymenoptera, parasitic ...157, 230 

ichncumoninm, Chlorion 135 

linmta, Cremastogaster 109 

inacrogastcr, Sclcrodcrinus ... 86 

inacnlata. ] 7 cspa, 185, 225 

Mischocyttants (flavitarsis) 

Mynnica (victima) 

Nest of Vcspnla arenaria .... 329 

occidentalis, Vcspula 225 

Oxybeline Wasps 20 

O.rybchis (ccylonicns, tapro- 

Parasites 230 

Polistcs (apachns, aurifcr. can- 
adcnsis, flams, rariatus) 

ribifloris, Andrena 322 

Sclerodermus (macrogastcr) 

Sphecidae 20, 135 

taprobanensis, O.vybchtf 20 

tcjoncnsis, Cryptns 75 

variatus, Polistcs fnscatns .... 223 
Vespa (gennanica, maculata) 

Vespidae 185, 222, 329, 331 

Vespula (arctica, arenaria, 
atropilosa, consobrina, fern- 
aldi, occidentalis, mlgaris) 

victima, Mynnica 109 

I'tilgaris, Vespula 226 




abbotti, Oikcticus 95 

Aegeriidae 2 

.l</lais (i-allnnn) 
Alabama ( art/illacea) 
Ainblvscirtes < cclia) 

aun'ca, Catocala 14, 44 

niii/nsi, Catoi-iilii 45 

. Inosia (plexippus) 
Anthanassa ( 
Anthncharis ( t/cnutia) 

antiopa, Eitvancssa 20 

Apantesis (rittata) 

apollo, Parnassins 294 

Archanara (snhcanica) 

iiri/illacea, Alabama 10 

Argyria (auratcUa) 

atalanta, Vanessa 20 

anratclla, Argyria 128 

hilunaria, Sclcnia 302 

histortata, Tephrosia 302 

bhii-kbnrni, Lycacna 251 

bnrealis, Calephelis 288 

Brackenridge Clemens Memo- 
rial Collection, list of species 113 
brasilieusis, Pyrameis huntera. 260 
Brcnthls (montimts) 
browcri, Papilio iiiarccllus . . . 286 
Butterflies of Missouri, list of 

species 286 

Calcphclis (borealis) 
i '(tllnsiuiiici (promethea) 
canadellus*, Craiubus ntricolcl- 

lus 122 

cardui, /'yramcis 20, 260 

Catocala (arnica, aiu/nsi, cpionc, 
habilis, ilia, iunuhois, junc- 
tiiru. liichrynwsns. lnctiKisn. 
ncni/aiiia, ncrissa, palacoga- 
iiui, piatri.r, residua, robin- 
xoni. ridita) 
Cati>l\filn t philca) 

cel( rio, I lippotii'ii 261 

cclid. .hnblyscirtcs 289 

self is, Chlorippc 20 

Chloride < cell is) 

clainlia, Euptoicta ......... 9, 261 

Colias ( cr/n'ciis, lesbia) 

C ' rii minis i canadellus) 
crepuscularia, Tcphrosia ..... 302 

cr< >ceus, Colitis .............. 260 

Cya niris ( />sc;;:- "s) 

(Itu'daniis, Paj^Uio ............ 25 

lUscniihtUs, Mitonra datnon . . . 288 
dn/silla, Glutophrissa ........ 260 

J>ryas (pandora) 

Epart/yrcus < tityrus) 

cpionc, Cati'culii .......... 14, 44 

Eni/onia (j-albinn) 

En n lea (tatila) 

EupJincadcs (troihts) 

Euphyiiryas ( phaeton) 

Euptoieta (claitdia) 

Entacliyf>tera ( psidii) 

Euvanessa (antiopa) 

J-ciiiseca ( tarquinins) 

Cei/enes ( nostradamus) 

gcnutia, Anthocharis ........ 287 

Geometridae ................ 302 

Glutophrissa (drusilla) 

gniidlachi, Papilio ........... 291 

lial'ilis, Catocala ............. 45 

Habits of Megathymus 

streckcri .................. 7 

hayhurstii, I'liolisora ........ 20 

1 1 cllCinilltS ( Illi'lpOlllCHc) 

Iicniifiisa'- . Mclitaea palla .... 17 

liciirici, 1 ncistilia ............ 288 

Hesperiidae ................. 7 

Hippotion < ce/crio) 

huntera, Vanessa ............ 20 

ii/nilera, Zyi/aena ............ 2"4 

ilia, (. dti'cala ............. 13, 44 

iinmaculsccunda, Zcrcnc cae- 

sonia ..................... _'87 

innubens, Catocala ........ 14, 44 

wlc. \athalis .............. 9, 287 

i-allnnn, Aglais ............. 288 

j-albinn, Eugonia ......... 20, 259 



junctura, Catocala 44 

lachrymosa, Catocala 14, 45 

Lepidopterous larvae, Preser- 
vation of 106 

Icsbia, Colias 260 

Life history of Megathymus 

streckeri 7 

hictitosa, Catocala 45 

Lycaena (blackburni) 

macyi*, Phyciodcs mylitta . . . 182 

Marking of Moths (chart and 

map) 10, 44 

Mating habits 323 

mathias, Parnara 260 

Mcgathymiis (streckeri, te.rana) 
Mclitaea (hemifitsa) 

mclpomene, Heliconins 302 

Mitoura (discoidalis) 

montinus, Brenthis 284 

Museums featuring Lepidop- 
tera 1, 31, 65, 97, 147, 179, 215, 
249, 290, 313. 

Naming of variants 298, 324 

Nathalis (iolc) 

neogama, Catocola 13, 44 

nerissa, Catocala arnica ... 14, 45 
Night flight, diurnal Butter- 
flies 20, 258 

Noctuidae 10, 44 

nostrodamus, Ge genes 260 

Nymphalidae 17, 182 

Oeneis (scmidca) 
Oiketicus (abbotti) 

palaeogama, Catocala 14 

pandora, Dryas 260 

Papilla (broweri, dardanus, 

Parnara { mathias) 
Parnassiits (apollo) 

phaeton, Euphydryas 287 

philca, Catopsila 287 

Pholisora (hayhurstii) 
Phyciodcs (tharns) 

piatri.r. Catocala 45 

Pieris < protodice) 

ple.rippus, Anosia 20, 259 

Polyphemus, Tclca 69, 323 

promethea, Callosamia 323 

protodice, Pieris 9 

pseudargiolus, Cyaniris 20 

psidii, Eutachyptera 315 

Pyralidae 113 

Pyrmneis (brasilicnsis, cardui) 

residua, Catocala 14, 44 

robinsoni, Catocala 45 

romei, Coscinca 294 

salicis, Stilpnotia 96 

Sclenia (bilimaria) 

semidea, Oeneis 284 

smaragditis, Tinostoma 251 

Stilpnotia (salicis) 

streckeri, Megathymus 7 

sitbcarnea, Archanara 112 

tammcmca, Vanessa 251 

tarqitinius, Fcniscca 288 

tatila, Eunica 260 

Telea (polyphemus) 
Tephrosia (bistortata, crepus- 
cular ia) 

te.rana, Anthanassa 288 

texana, Megathymus streckeri 7 

tharos, Phyciodcs 20 

Tinostoma (smaragditis) 

tityrus, Epargyreus 20 

troilus, Euphoeades 20 

urticae, Vanessa 260 

Vanessa (atalanta, huntera, 
tammcmea, urticae) 

vidua, Catocala 15, 45 

vittata, Apantcsis 96 

Zerene (immaculsccunda) 
Zygacna (ignijera) 


anotnaltrm. Sympetrum 255 

ardens, Sympetrum 255 

batesi, Cannacria 254 

Calopterygidae 49 

Caloptcry.r ( maculata) 
Cannacria (batesi. gravida) 



Coenagrion (resolutum) 

corruption, Sympetrum 255 

eroticum, Sympetrum 255 

c.rplicata*. Protothore (fossil) 50 

fitrcata, Erythemis 254 

furcifer, Gomphus 253 

Gomphus (furcifcr, villosipes) 

gravida, Cannacria 254 

hagciiii. Micrathyria 253 

ignotum, Sympetrum 255 

illotu-m. Sympetrum 255 

_ kunckcli. Sympetrum 255 

inacitlata, Caloptcry.r 96 

Micrathyria I haiicnii) 

North American Dragonflies, 

Handbook 252 

porrulum, Syinpetntin 255 

pedemontanum, Sympetrum... 255 
Protothore* (c.rplicata) 

resolutum, Coenagrion 253 

ritptinn. Sympetrum 255 

septentrionalis, Somatochlora . 253 
Somatochlora (septentrionalis, 

Sympetrum (anomalum, ar- 

dens, corruptum, eroticum. 

ignoturn, illotitm, kunckell, 

parvulum, pedemontanum. 

rnptum, uniforme, vicinum) 
Tramea (Virginia) 

uniforme, Sympetrum 255 

in<nnurn, Sympetrum 96 

rillosipes, Gomphus 253 

Virginia, Tramea 253 

whitehousei, Somatochlora . . . 253 


assimilis, Gryllus 75 

Carolina, Daucus 189 

Ceuthophilits fdarisi, rchcbi) 
Daucus (carolina) 

darisi, Ceuthophilus 18, 183 

fasciatus, Nemobius 42 

Grouse Locusts 95 

Gryllidae 38, 42 

Gryllus (assimilis) 

Microcentrum sp 135 

Nemobius (fasciatus, socius, 

rchcbi, Ceuthophilus 18, 183 

socius, Nemobius fasciatus ... 42 

sparsalsus*, Nemobius 38 

Thoracic mechanism 344 


Acerentomon (microrhinus) 
Acerentulus (barbcri. pcrpu- 

barberi, Acerentulus 51 

Eosentomon (yosemitensis) 
microrhinus, Acerentmnon ... 51 

pcrpusillus, Acerentulus 51 

yosemitensis, Eosentmnoti .... 51 


This column is intended only for wants and exchanges, not for 
advertisements of goods for sale. Notices not exceed- 
ing three lines free to subscribers. 

These notices are continued as long as our limited space will allow; the new 
ones are added at the end of the column, and only when necessary those at th 
top (being longest in) are discontinued. 

Oxybelinae (Sphecidae, Hymenoptera) Wanted from all parts of 
North and South America and West Indies. Will determine, ex- 
change or purchase. V. S. L. Pate, Entomology Dept., Cornell 
University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Wanted Names and addresses of collectors of insects, particu- 
larly Lepidoptera. Those from foreign countries especially invited. 
Will pay cash or exchange. Peter M. Casamento, P. O. Box 276, 
West New York, New Jersey. 

Exchange All groups of Lepidoptera in exchange for Noctuidae 
of the World. Foreign correspondence desired. A. Glenn Richards, 
Jr., Roberts Hall, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N. Y., U. S. A. 

Exchange Lepidoptera of the Northwest for beautiful and showy 
exotics. C. W. Herr, Priest River, Idaho. 

WANTED for cash or in exchange, hibernating pupae, especially 
Papilios, Saturniidae, Eacles imperialis, Autom. io and others 'from 
all parts of the States, Canada and Mexico. Send lists with best 
prices to Max Rothke, 1846 East Elm St., Scranton, Pa. 

Mordellidae from all parts of the world wanted for special study. 
Will determine, exchange or purchase. Emil Liljeblad, 1018 Roscoe 
St., Chicago, Illinois. 

Exchange Will exchange California Butterflies for any of your 
locality. What have you to offer? Correspondence solicited. John 
Imschweiler, 748 N. Eucalyptus Ave., Inglewood, California. 

Exchange Oregon Lepidoptera for those of your locality. Ken- 
neth M. Fender, 930 South Davis St., McMinnville, Oregon. 

Exchange Will exchange Montana Lepidoptera and Coleoptera 
for material of your locality. Correspondence solicited from all parts 
of the world. W. F. Lawrence, 2209 6th Ave. No., Great Falls, 

Exchange South American, also Java, Borneo, Celebes and Mada- 
gascar Butterflies in lots by 12.50 or 100 monthly arrivals. Wish for 
revisional study all North American PARNASSIUS and ARCTII- 
DAE also APANTESTS. Communicate with Mrs. Emma Kessler. 
499 Manhattan Ave., New York City, N. Y. 

Wanted. Elateridae and their larvae (wireworms) from all parts 
of North America; would prefer the larvae alive, if possible, for 
biological studies. Will exchange Pennsylvania Elateridae and 
Scarabaeidae. C. A. Thomas, Penna. State College Lab., Kennett 
Square, Pa. 

Insects of all Orders from Laurentian Mountains, Province of 
Quebec, in exchange for named species lacking in our collection. 
Albert F. Winn, Redpath Museum, McGill University, Montreal 

WANTED TO BUY or in exchange for Chinese insects. Proc. 
Ent. Soc. Philadelphia Vols. I-VI, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. Vols. I-IV, 
Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. Vols. I-V, Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 1st 
ser. Vols. T-V and Psyche Vols. I, XI, and XIII. G. P. Tung., 
Bureau of Entomology, Nanking, China. 





600 Different species 4 cents each 800 Different species 6 cents each 

1000 Different species 8 cents each 1200 (many rare) 10 cents each 


500 Species . . 3 cents each 1000 Species- ... 5 cents each 

1500 Species 7 cents each 2000 Species ( many rare ) 10 cents each 

Fine Morphos Urauias, etc., in papers at moderate prices 

Particulars from 


100 Urania Ripheus $25.00. 100 Morpho aega $25.00. Ortho. hecuba, pair 
$150. Orth. lydius, pair $2.85. 100 Lycena argos $5.00. 

Morpho menelaus, rhetenor, amathonte, deidema, anaxibia and hector 
by agreement. 

Further, more Papilios from French Guiana, Colombia, Madagascar and 
Africa (Cameroon). Communicate with 


499 Manhattan Avenue, New York City, New York. 

r' 1 ^ o 1 Collection consisting of 30 Schmidt Boxes of Coleoptera 

L \J 1 O dl C in Cabinet, approximately 3500 specimens; also 500 
specimens of Lepidoptera mostly exotic in cabinet. Cabinets and contents 
$75.00 each. For further information write to 

5O1 1 Saul Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 


WANTED perfect copies of Vol. 40 (1929), No. 3 (March). 
Will give 30 cents apiece. 


1900 Face Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 


Half-tone Reproduction of the Photograph of the Fourth International 
Congress of Entomology at Ithaca, August, 1928. 

Mail 50 cents (25 two-cent stamps or a postal money order) and receive, 
postpaid, an uncreased copy of Plate XII, Entomological News, April, 1930, 

ready for framing. 


19OO Race Street, Philadelphia, Pemia. 






3 9088 00844 5413